Induction of anaesthesia


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a primer on basic of induction in Anaesthesia

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Induction of anaesthesia

  1. 1. INDUCTION OF ANAESTHESIA By Ronald Ombaka Esq.
  2. 2. Some definitions: • an·es·the·sia [an-uhs-thee-zhuh] noun.Medicine/Medical . general or local insensibility, as to pain and other sensation, induced by certain interventions or drugs to permit the performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
  3. 3. • induction of anesthesia, 1. the administration of a drug or combination of drugs at the beginning of an anesthetic that results in a state of general anesthesia.
  4. 4. Aim • To achieve rapid onset depth of anaesthesia to permit surgical intervention.
  5. 5. Stages of anaesthesia: • Stage 1 anaesthesia, also known as the "induction", is the period between the initial administration of the induction agents and loss of consciousness. During this stage, the patient progresses from analgesia without amnesia to analgesia with amnesia. Patients can carry on a conversation at this time.
  6. 6. • Stage 2 anaesthesia, also known as the "excitement stage", is the period following loss of consciousness and marked by excited and delirious activity. During this stage, respirations and heart rate may become irregular. In addition, there may be uncontrolled movements, vomiting, breath holding, and pupillary dilation. Since the combination of spastic movements, vomiting, and irregular respirations may lead to airway compromise, rapidly acting drugs are used to minimize time in this stage and reach stage 3 as fast as possible.
  7. 7. • Stage 3, "surgical anaesthesia". During this stage, the skeletal muscles relax, vomiting stops, and respiratory depression occurs . Eye movements slow, then stop, the patient is unconscious and ready for surgery. It has been divided into 4 planes: • eyes initially rolling, then becoming fixed • loss of corneal and laryngeal reflexes • pupils dilate and loss of light reflex • intercostal paralysis, shallow abdominal respiration
  8. 8. • Stage 4 anaesthesia, also known as "overdose", is the stage where too much medication has been given relative to the amount of surgical stimulation and the patient has severe brain stem or medullary depression. This results in a cessation of respiration and potential cardiovascular collapse. This stage is lethal without cardiovascular and respiratory support.
  9. 9. Anaesthesia plan: • Machine check • Premedication +/- • Induction plan • Maintainance plan • Patient positioning considerations • Required equipment • Patients fluid requirements (+/- Blood produts) • A trained assistant
  10. 10. Induction: • Inhalational induction • Intravenous induction
  11. 11. Inhalational induction : • Indications • Young children • Upper airway obstructon e.g. epiglottitis • Lower airway obstruction e.g. Foreign body • Bronchopulmonary fistula • Inaccesible veins
  12. 12. • Patient should be informed of the process • Talk to the patient during the process (encourage deep regular breathing) • Gradually adjust admixture of FGF to volatile agent (mostly sevoflurane or nitrous oxide) while observing patient response.
  13. 13. • Single breath technique: (for the cooperative patient) • One vital capacity from a primed circuit with a 4 litre resevoir bag filled with high concentration volatile agent (e.g. 8% Sevoflurane or 50% nitrous oxide with oxygen)
  14. 14. • Monitoring is crucial throughout the process of induction (SPO2 ,NIBP ,ECG )
  15. 15. • Airway patency post induction is the maintained using an oropharyngeal airway, LMA or endotracheal tube.
  16. 16. Complications and difficulties: • Slow induction of anaesthesia • Problems with second stage of anaesthesia • Airway obstruction e.g. Bronchospasm • Laryngospasm and hiccups • Enviromental pollution
  17. 17. Intravenous induction: • It is the most appropriate mode for rapid attainment of depth of anaesthesia (More so if there is imminent risk of aspiration of gastric content) • Requires prior preparation of drugs • Venous access at a suitable site ( if a cannula is in situ patency should be verified)
  18. 18. • Monitoring is crucial throughout the process of induction (SPO2 ,NIBP ,ECG )
  19. 19. • Preoxygenation is essential (well fitting facemask with 100% oxygen for 5 minutes) • Alternatively 3-4 vital capacity breathes (This ameliorates hypoxia prior to the establishment of effective lung ventilation)
  20. 20. Theinductiondoseformidazolamis0.1to0.3mg/kgIVpush
  21. 21. • Doses should be titrated • Slow infusion in a patient with hypovolemia, shock, Cardiovascular disease.
  22. 22. • With regular IV indution the stages of anaesthesia are a rapid continuum and maintainance an then be instituted with boluses, infusion and inhalational agents.
  23. 23. Complications: • Regurgitation and vomiting • Inadvertent intra-arterial injetion (esp with thiopental), perivenous injection. • CVS and respiratory depression • Histamine release • Porphyrias • Pain at injection site (propofol and etomidate)