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Capnography tutorial

a short primer on capnography
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Capnography tutorial

  1. 1. Capnography By Ronald Ombaka Esq.
  2. 2. Preface • Why monitor?
  3. 3. • The administration and monitoring of anesthesia for surgical procedures is a complex and multifaceted skill that requires both knowledge and practice.
  4. 4. • The safety of your patient is dependent on your awareness and response to potential problems. • A thorough understanding of the principles of anesthetic monitoring and awareness of normal and abnormal patient parameters is crucial to providing safe anesthesia.
  5. 5. Objectives • Define capnograghy • Principle behind the “-graphy/-metry” • Describe the capnograph (components of the trace) • What is normal and abnormal • What makes a capnograph abnormal • Is a prerequisite in anaesthesia monitoring? • Addendum
  6. 6. • Capnography is the graphic display of CO2 concentration versus time (Time Capnogram) or expired volume (Volume Capnogram) during a respiratory cycle. • Capnograph is the machine that generates a waveform and the capnogram is the actual waveform.
  7. 7. • Capnometry is the measurement and numerical display of maximum inspiratory and expiratory CO2 concentrations during a respiratory cycle. • Capnometer is the device that performs the measurement and displays the reading.
  8. 8. Physics • The infrared method is most widely used and most cost- effective. • This technique involves beaming of infrared light through a column of a gas mixture, the carbon dioxide within the column subsequently absorbs part of the infrared energy yielding a beam of less intensity at the opposite end of the column.
  9. 9. • The resultant beam has a specific wavelength(ie that of carbondioxide) and proportional to the amount of CO2 in the mixture.
  10. 10. Types of Capnographs • Side stream – • the CO2 sensor is located in the main unit itself (away from the airway) and a tiny pump aspirates gas samples from the patient’s airway through a 6 foot long capillary tube into the main unit. The sampling tube is connected to a T-piece inserted at the endotracheal tube or anaesthesia mask connector.
  11. 11. Thesidestreamcapnographshaveauniqueadvantage: -theyallowmonitoringofspontaneouslybreathingnonintubatedsubjects. -noproblemswithsterilisation,easeofconnection. -easeofusewhenpatientisinunusualpositionsliketheproneposition.
  12. 12. • Main stream capnograph - a cuvette containing the CO2 sensor is inserted between the breathing circuit and the endotracheal tube.
  13. 13. Physiologyof the capnogram(The big picture) • The respiratory process consists of three main events:
  14. 14. Capnography depicts respiration:
  15. 15. • The passage of CO2 from the alveoli to the upper airway during exhalation and inhalation of CO2 free gases during inspiration gives the characteristic shape to the CO2 curve, which is identical in all humans with healthy lungs. • Any deviation from this shape should be investigated to determine a physiological or a pathological cause producing the abnormality.
  16. 16. Normal capnogram
  17. 17. Abnormal capnograms
  18. 18. Clinical applications of capnography • Changes in respired CO2 may reflect alterations in metabolism, circulation, respiration, the airway, or breathing system. • Normal end expiratory CO2 partial pressure ranges between 35 and 45 mmHg
  19. 19. • Metabolism • An increase in end-tidal CO2 is a reliable indicatorof increased metabolism only in mechanically ventilated patients. • In spontaneously breathing patients, PET CO2 may not increase as a result of hyperventilation. • Causes: increased temperature, shivering, convulsions,malignant hyperthermia.
  20. 20. • Circulation • A decrease in end tidal CO2 is seen with a decrease in cardiac output if ventilation remains constant. • Causes: surgical manipulations of the heart or thoracic vessels, wedging of a pulmonary artery catheter, and pulmonary embolism. • A rapid decrease of PET CO2 in the absence of changes in blood pressure, central venous pressure and heart rate indicates an air embolism without systemic hemodynamic consequences. • During resuscitation, exhaled CO2 is a better guide to the presence of circulation than the ECG, pulse, or blood pressure.
  21. 21. • Respiration • The main use of the capnographic signal in anaesthesia is the immediate verification of tracheal intubation beyond doubt by the immediate and continuous presence of metabolic CO2 in the expired gas.
  22. 22. • So is capnography a prerequisite monitoring modality?
  23. 23. Crucial additional info; 1. Capnography and atmospheric pressure 2. Capnography and water vapour 3. Capnography and PEEP 4. Main stream vs side stream capnography 5. Side stream and gas sampling effect on final capnogram 6. Arterial to End tidal CO2 gradient
  24. 24. • Questions

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