434149 634141422631385000


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434149 634141422631385000

  1. 1. Human Resource Training and Development
  2. 2. Orientation  Orientation is a systematic and planned introduction of employees to their jobs, their co-workers and the organization.
  3. 3. formal informal individual collective serial disjunctive investiture divestiture Strategic choices of orientation
  4. 4. Objective  To help the new comer to overcome his shyness  To build new employee’s confidence  To develop the new entrants a sense of belonging and loyalty  To foster a close relationship…  To prevent false impression and negative attitude of the new employees  To give the new comers necessary information like canteen, locker room. Rest periods and leave rules etc…
  5. 5. Steps  Welcoming to the organization  Explain about company  Show the location/department where the new recruit will work  Give the company manual to the new recruit  Provide details about various work groups and the extent of unionism within the company
  6. 6.  Give details about pay,benefits,holidays,leave etc.  Explain future training opportunities and career prospectus  Clarify doubts, by encouraging the employees to come with the questions  Take employee on a guided tour of building, facilities, etc.  Hand him over to his supervisor.
  7. 7. Advantages  It helps to build two way communication  It facilitates informal relations and team work  Induction is helpful in supplying information about the organization, job, and welfare of employees  Proper Induction will reduce employees grievances, absenteeism and labor turnover  Induction helps to develop good public relations and improve the overall morale of employees  An Induction program proves that the company is taking a sincere interest in getting him off to a good start
  8. 8. PROBELMS  Employee is overwhelmed with too much information in a short time.  Employee is overloaded with form to complete.  Employees mistakes can damage the company.
  9. 9. .  Employee is asked to perform tasks where there are high chances of failure that could needlessly discourage the employee.  Employee is thrown into action too soon.  Employee ‘s wrong perceptions because of short periods spent on each job.
  10. 10. Training & Development  Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job.  Training is a art of increasing knowledge, skills, & capacity of a person.
  11. 11. Training vs. development Learning dimensions Meant for Focus Scope Goal Initiated by Training Operatives Current job Individual Fix current skills management Development Executives Current and future jobs Work group+ organization future work demands individual
  12. 12. Training vs. development Learning dimensions Content Time frame Training Specific job related information immediate Development General knowledge Long term
  13. 13. Training Need assessment Training Need assessment Organizational analysis Task & role analysis Person analysis
  14. 14. Organizational analysis: 1. Analysis of objective: short term & long term 2. Resource utilization analysis: human, physical & financial 3. Environmental scanning: social, economical, political, technological 4. Organizational climate analysis: turnover & absenteeism ratio
  15. 15. Task & Role analysis  Job  Components  Operations & conditions of job  Skills, knowledge, attitude  methods
  16. 16. Person analysis  Poor performers  Person potential
  17. 17. Organizational analysis Organizational goals & objectives Personnel inventories Skills inventories Climate analysis Efficiency index Exit interview MBO Customer satisfaction survey Task analysis Job description Job specification Performance standard Work sampling Reviewing literature Asking que about job Person analysis Performance appraisals Work sampling Interviews Questionnaire Tests Training progress Rating scales Diaries Role play Data sources used in training Need assessment
  18. 18. Need assessment 1) Organi. support 2) Organi. analysis 3) task & role analysis 4 ) person analysis Instructional objective Development of criteria Training validity Transfer validity Intra Organizational validity Inter Organizational validity Selection & design of instructional program training Use of evaluation models Training process
  19. 19. Designing training and development program  Who are the trainees  Who are the trainers  What techniques & methods  What should be the level of training  What principles of learning  Where to conduct the program
  20. 20. Designing training and development program  What principles of learning: 1. Motivation 2. Recognition of Individual differences 3. Practice opportunities 4. Reinforcement 5. Feedback 6. Goals 7. Schedule of learning 8. Meaning of material 9. Transfer of learning
  21. 21. Designing training and development program  Where to conduct the program: 1. At the job itself 2. On site but not the job 3. Off the site
  22. 22. Benefits to organization  Better quality of work  Higher productivity  Cost reduction  High morale  Reduced supervision  Less learning period  Personal growth  Fewer accidents  Brings loyalty
  23. 23. Benefits to employees  Self confidence  Safety  Higher earning  Promotion  adaptability  New skills  Personal growth
  25. 25. On-the-Job TrainingOn-the-Job Training  On-the-job training (OJT)On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new orrefers to new or inexperienced employees learning throughinexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managers performing theobserving peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior.job and trying to imitate their behavior.
  26. 26. Coaching  Coaching refers to the activity of a coach in developing the abilities of coaches or clients.  Coaching methods includes both theoretical and practical sections. Where motivational speeches are done theoretically, workshop, seminars come under practical methods.
  27. 27. Job instruction training  Step by step structured training method in which a trainer  (1) prepares a trainee with an overview of the job its purpose, and the results desired,  (2) demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee,  (3) allows the trainee to mimic the demonstration on his or her own  (4) employee does the job independently  (5)follows up to provide feedback and help.
  28. 28. Job rotation  Job rotation is an approach to management development where an individual is moved through a schedule of designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entire operation.  Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company, and to reduce boredom and increase job satisfaction & skill enhancement through job variation.
  29. 29. Off the job training  Off the job training involves employees taking training courses away from their place of work. This is often also referred to as "formal training".  Off the job training courses might be run by the business' training department or by external providers.  - Use of specialist trainers and accommodation  - Employee can focus on the training - and not be distracted by work 
  30. 30. Vestibule training  Vestibule training is a type of instruction using a vestibule, a small area away from the actual worksite, consisting of training equipment exactly duplicating the materials and equipment used on the job.  The purpose of vestibule training is to reproduce an actual work setting and place it under the trainer's control to allow for immediate and constructive feedback.  Training vestibules are useful because they allow trainees to practice while avoiding personal injury and damage to expensive equipment without affecting production.
  31. 31. lecture  Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method Main Features of Lecture Method: Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity
  32. 32. Role PlaysRole Plays  Trainees act out characters assigned to them.Trainees act out characters assigned to them.  Information regarding the situation is provided to theInformation regarding the situation is provided to the trainees.trainees.  Focus on interpersonal responses.Focus on interpersonal responses.  Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective)Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees.reactions of the other trainees.  The more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level ofThe more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus and intensity.participant focus and intensity.
  33. 33. Evaluation  Evaluation helps determining the results of training & development program. Training evaluationTraining evaluation provides the data needed to demonstrate that training does provide benefits to the company.
  34. 34. Need for evaluation  To determine the accomplishment of specific training objective  To determine the Cost effectiveness  To determine the Program failure  To determine the Correcting performance deficiencies  Any Change in trainee capabilities are due to training & not due to any other condition
  35. 35. Process Conduct a Needs AnalysisConduct a Needs Analysis Develop Measurable Learning Outcomes andDevelop Measurable Learning Outcomes and Analyze Transfer of TrainingAnalyze Transfer of Training Develop Outcome MeasuresDevelop Outcome Measures Choose an EvaluationChoose an Evaluation StrategyStrategy Plan and Execute the EvaluationPlan and Execute the Evaluation
  36. 36. Importance of Training Evaluation  Improved quality of training activities  Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to outputs  Better discrimination of training activities between those that are worthy of support and those that should be dropped  Better integration of training offered and on-the job development  Better co-operation between trainers and line- managers in the development of staff  Evidence of the contribution that training and development are adding value to the organization
  37. 37. Outcome MeasuresOutcome Measures Reactions Trainee satisfaction Learning Acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, Behavior Improvement of behavior on the job Results Business results achieved by trainees
  38. 38. Time series Experimental & Control groups Cost benefits analysis interviews tests Question naries Evaluation methods
  39. 39. How to make training more effective  Management should commit itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training.  Training should contribute to competitive strategies of the firm.  Training should be done eat all levels on a continue and ongoing basis.  Their should be proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual training needs.  Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training.
  40. 40. HRD mechanisms  Counseling  Coaching  Training & development  Performance appraisal  Potential appraisal  Career planning and development  Organizational development
  41. 41. Counseling  It is a two way process in which a counselor provides help to the workers by way of advice and guidance.  It is a two way process of helping subordinates to achieve better adjustments with their work environment to behave as psychologically mature individuals and help in achieving a better understanding with others so his dealing with them can be effective and purposeful.
  42. 42. Coaching  “coaching” is the practice of giving sufficient direction, instruction and training to a person or a group people, so as to achieve some goals or even in developing specific skills.  Though coaching is a system of providing training, the method of coaching differs from person to person, aim or goals to be attained, and the areas needed.
  43. 43. Training & development  Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job.  Training is a art of increasing knowledge, skills, & capacity of a person.
  44. 44. Performance appraisal  A performance appraisal, is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost, and time typically by the corresponding manager or supervisor.  It is the process of obtaining, analyzing, and recording information about the relative worth of an employee to the organization.  Performance appraisal is an analysis of an employee's recent successes and failures, personal strengths and weaknesses, and suitability for promotion or further training.
  45. 45. Potential appraisal  The potential appraisal refers to the appraisal i.e. identification of the hidden talents and skills of a person. The person might or might not be aware of them.  Potential appraisal is a future – oriented appraisal whose main objective is to identify and evaluate the potential of the employees to assume higher positions and responsibilities in the organizational hierarchy.
  46. 46. Career planning & development . Career development helps you take stock of who you are and where you want to go in life. Career Development examines your present job situation and features of the job that will enable you to use your aptitudes, values, skills, competencies. A career plan is meant to set goals to develop the required skills that you need and will need in the future.
  47. 47. Organizational development  O.D is a set of behavioral science based theories, values, strategies & techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work settings for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance.  Four types of interventions are used :  Team intervention  Inter-group intervention  Structural Intervention  Comprehensive intervention
  48. 48. HRD for Organizational Growth and Effectiveness