From Moby Dick To Mashups (Revised)

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This presentation introduces a Cultural Heritage resource description theory – a set of concepts, rules, and principles regarding the creation of resource descriptions in Cultural Heritage institutions. Acquisition of and familiarity with these concepts, etc. is intended to precede and inform information system design and implementation activities. We assert that persons conversant at this level of thinking about Cultural Heritage resources and their description will find it possible to:

• Assign high-level, culturally relevant meanings to data structures and metadata currently created and managed by and other information systems.

• Propose levels and types of resource descriptions that can serve Cultural Heritage missions more comprehensively.

• Identify the relationships between this approach to resource description and those advanced by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

What constitutes a modern approach to bibliographic resource description (AKA cataloging)?

• Slides# 12-27

Challenging assumptions – Why is the FRBR conceptual model is assumed to be hierarchical when the model itself is not? An exploration of hierarchical/tree and network structures before and after Darwin. (A treatment of the FRBR conceptual model’s network structure will be found in a following presentation.)

• Slides# 28-62

How do FRBR entities distinguish and separate the different types of information found in a typical catalog record?

• Slides# 63-80

How to begin to imagine and discuss the potentially complex resource network structures that are created by FRBR-style resource description?

• Slides# 81-113

How to depict and reason about simple and complex resource/description networks?

• Slides# 114-168

What can resource description diagrams reveal about extremely complex publication histories?

• Slides# 169-216

(For a fuller appreciation of this exemplar, return to it after reviewing more of the other Ron Murray presentations.)

The depiction of a portion of the publishing history of Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick yields a resource description network whose multilevel aggregate structure can be shown to evolve over time. Diagrams can be drawn that emphasize or deemphasize temporal and/or structural aspects of FRBR-style resource description.

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  • This message is duplicated at the earlier version of the show.

    ++++++

    If you want to go a bit further down the rabbit hole (there are a few more levels), look at slides #276-289 of our previous slideshow:

    http://www.slideshare.net/RonMurray/frbr-physics-and-the-world-wide-web-revised

    The 'Pippi Longstocking' resource description diagram (RDD) shows how contemporary catalog views and functions can be depicted as operations that select, navigate, and extract for processing and display chunks from a – hopefully – global, articulated, resource description network. The role of the IFLA 'Navigate' function is seen in its proper light in a RDD.

    When Cutter & Panizzi spoke of cross-references in the mid-ish 19th C., the mathematical idea underlying those practices was that of a graph. Too bad that graph theory was not defined by mathematicians until later on in the 19th. Century.

    RDD elements are intended to reduce to elemental, implementable, descriptive statements – *resource description quanta* – and a number of necessary/desirable operations on those statements. A *big* question is whether the folks building IT systems at the quantum-level (W3C) are thinking about what it will take to create large-scale structures like the RDDs you see. BTW: We are not making up these examplars. These are based on actual bibrecs (Pippi) and end-user supplied data (Moby-Dick).

    Hint: Set Theory defines subsets; Graph Theory defines subgraphs. The FRBR diagram elements depict resource description subgraphs, each corresponding to a different POV on the resource.
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  • This presentation introduces a Cultural Heritage resource description theory – a set of concepts, rules, and principles regarding the creation of resource descriptions in Cultural Heritage institutions. Acquisition of and familiarity with these concepts, etc. is intended to precede and inform information system design and implementation activities. We assert that persons conversant at this level of thinking about Cultural Heritage resources and their description will find it possible to:

    • Assign high-level, culturally relevant meanings to data structures and metadata currently created and managed by and other information systems.

    • Propose levels and types of resource descriptions that can serve Cultural Heritage missions more comprehensively.

    • Identify the relationships between this approach to resource description and those advanced by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

    What constitutes a modern approach to bibliographic resource description (AKA cataloging)?

    • Slides# 12-27

    Challenging assumptions – Why is the FRBR conceptual model is assumed to be hierarchical when the model itself is not? An exploration of hierarchical/tree and network structures before and after Darwin. (A treatment of the FRBR conceptual model’s network structure will be found in a following presentation.)

    • Slides# 28-62

    How do FRBR entities distinguish and separate the different types of information found in a typical catalog record?

    • Slides# 63-80

    How to begin to imagine and discuss the potentially complex resource network structures that are created by FRBR-style resource description?

    • Slides# 81-113

    How to depict and reason about simple and complex resource/description networks?

    • Slides# 114-168

    What can resource description diagrams reveal about extremely complex publication histories?

    • Slides# 169-216

    (For a fuller appreciation of this exemplar, return to it after reviewing more of the other presentations.)

    The depiction of a portion of the publishing history of Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick yields a resource description network whose multilevel aggregate structure can be shown to evolve over time. Diagrams can be drawn that emphasize or deemphasize temporal and/or structural aspects of FRBR-style resource description.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
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From Moby Dick To Mashups (Revised)

  1. 1. From Moby-Dick To Mash-Ups: Thinking About Bibliographic Networks Ronald J. Murray In Collaboration With Barbara B. Tillett Library of Congress American Library Association 2010 Annual Conference Washington DC
  2. 2. This YouTube video is excerpted from the 1973 documentary film “F for Fake.” A portion of its audio track is mashed up into “Orson Whales.” This YouTube video is excerpted from a movie trailer for the 1956 motion picture directed by John Huston. The screenplay by Ray Bradbury & John Huston was adapted from the Melville novel Orson Whales A 2007 video creation by Alex Itin. This mashup is available on YouTube and Vimeo This YouTube video is excerpted from an Italian broadcast of an Orson Wells reading. Its audio track is mashed up into “Orson Whales” Listen also for the audio from a YouTube video of a live performance of Led Zeppelin’s Moby Dick.” The audio track is mashed up into “Orson Whales”
  3. 3. “It is more a less a birthday gift to myself. I've been drawing it on every page of Moby Dick (using two books to get both sides of each page) for months. The soundtrack is built from searching "moby dick" on You Tube (I was looking for Orson's Preacher from the the John Huston film)... you find tons of Led Zep and drummers doing Bonzo and a little Orson... makes for a nice Melville in the end.” YouTube.com – Alex Itin 2007
  4. 4. From Moby-Dick To Mashups: Thinking About Bibliographic Networks Ronald J. Murray In Collaboration With Barbara B. Tillett Library of Congress American Library Association 2010 Annual Conference Washington DC Sunday, June 27, 2010
  5. 5. • Expect This: FRBR requires remodeling and generalization to improve its comprehensibility, and to better inform information system design and implementation – Remodeling requires distinguishing theory-making from information system design – Remodeling requires correcting misperceptions about FRBR resource description structures • Remodeling FRBR requires the addition of a Resource entity, followed by the redefinition of existing “FRBR things of interest” as descriptions of Resources • Remodeling requires creating more informative model imagery – Paper Tool creation and use Where This is Going: “Moby-Dick, or The Whale” Sunday, June 27, 2010
  6. 6. • Imagine This For Today: Command a view of the whole connection between: – 56+ Separate printings of the Melville novel – A chapter-length excerpt of the novel published the same month as the first US edition – A multimedia creation based on the novel that brings together – Animated, painted, pages from 1851 and 1993 printings – Audio tracks from a planned TV reading of the novel by Orson Welles – An image sequence from Citizen Kane – An audio track of a monologue about Chartres cathedral – An audio track of a live performance of the Led Zeppelin song “Moby Dick” Where This is Going: “Moby-Dick, or The Whale” Sunday, June 27, 2010
  7. 7. Resources & Resource Descriptions Sunday, June 27, 2010
  8. 8. Resources & Resource Descriptions Why Know About This? Libraries and other Cultural Heritage institutions have been collecting and describing resources for a long time Other parties are playing increasingly significant resource collection and description roles. We need to be able to discuss resource description processes and products in a less “culture-bound” fashion We begin by developing a theory regarding the description of Cultural Heritage resources Sunday, June 27, 2010
  9. 9. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory Sunday, June 27, 2010
  10. 10. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory What’s Your Cultural Heritage Resource Description Theory? Def. A systematic set of rules or principles regarding the creation and use of resource descriptions by Cultural Heritage Institutions Sunday, June 27, 2010
  11. 11. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory What Good Is A Cultural Heritage Resource Description Theory? A Cultural Heritage resource description theory can be employed to assign high-level, culturally relevant meanings to data structures created and managed by information systems When they focus strongly on print materials, still and moving pictures and audio, etc. they are designated as bibliographic resource description theories. Cultural Heritage Resource description theories are complementary to bottom-up information system design initiatives like the W3C World Wide Web/Semantic Web. Sunday, June 27, 2010
  12. 12. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBR Origins of IFLA FRBR “The entity-relationship analysis technique and the conventions for graphic presentation that are used in this study are based in large part on the methodology developed by James Martin and outlined in his book Strategic Data-Planning Methodologies (Prentice-Hall, 1982). Graeme Simsion’s Data Modeling Essentials (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994), Richard Perkinson’s Data Analysis: the Key to Data Base Design (QED Information Sciences, 1984), and Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant Navanthe’s Fundamentals of Database Systems (Benjamin/ Cummings, 1989) were also used in shaping the methodology for the study. All four books are recommended to those who are interested in additional background and more detail on entity-relationship analysis.” FRBR Report, 1998 Sunday, June 27, 2010
  13. 13. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBR Data Modeling Origins Updated “The entity-relationship analysis technique and the conventions for graphic presentation that are used in this study are based in large part on the methodology developed by James Martin and outlined in his book Strategic Data-Planning Methodologies (Prentice-Hall, 1982). Graeme Simsion’s Data Modeling Essentials (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994), Richard Perkinson’s Data Analysis: the Key to Data Base Design (QED Information Sciences, 1984), and Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant Navanthe’s Fundamentals of Database Systems (Benjamin/ Cummings, 1989) were also used in shaping the methodology for the study. All four books are recommended to those who are interested in additional background and more detail on entity-relationship analysis.” FRBR Report, 1998 Sunday, June 27, 2010
  14. 14. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBRMartin –1987/91982 – Martin Sunday, June 27, 2010
  15. 15. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBRMartin –1987/91982 – Martin 1988 Elmasri & Navathe Sunday, June 27, 2010
  16. 16. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBRMartin –1987/91982 – Martin Sunday, June 27, 2010
  17. 17. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBR is exemplified by is an exemplification of is embodied in is an embodiment of is realized through Work Expression Manifestation Item is a realization of Sunday, June 27, 2010
  18. 18. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBR is exemplified by is an exemplification of is embodied in is an embodiment of is realized through Work Expression Manifestation Item is a realization of Both sides of all relationships are clearly specified Sunday, June 27, 2010
  19. 19. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBR Martin, James. Strategic Data-Planning Methodologies. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982. Simsion, Graeme. Data Modeling Essentials. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1994. Perkinson, Richard. Data Analysis: the Key to Data Base Design. Wellesley, MA: QED Information Sciences, 1984, and Elmasri, Ramez & Navanthe, Shamkant. Fundamentals of Database Systems Redwod City CA: Benjamin/Cummings, 1989. Simsion, Graeme. Data Modeling: Theory and Practice. Bradley Beach NJ: Technics Publications, 2007. is exemplified by is an exemplification of is embodied in is an embodiment of is realized through Work Expression Manifestation Item is a realization of Many-to-Many Relationship Sunday, June 27, 2010
  20. 20. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBR Martin, James. Strategic Data-Planning Methodologies. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982. Simsion, Graeme. Data Modeling Essentials. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1994. Perkinson, Richard. Data Analysis: the Key to Data Base Design. Wellesley, MA: QED Information Sciences, 1984, and Elmasri, Ramez & Navanthe, Shamkant. Fundamentals of Database Systems Redwod City CA: Benjamin/Cummings, 1989. Simsion, Graeme. Data Modeling: Theory and Practice. Bradley Beach NJ: Technics Publications, 2007. is exemplified by is an exemplification of is embodied in is an embodiment of is realized through Work Expression Manifestation Item is a realization of Many-to-Many Relationship Know That: The existence of Many-to-Many relationships within this set of modeled entities is inconsistent with the claim that the FRBR conceptual model specifies hierarchical bibliographic resource descriptions. Sunday, June 27, 2010
  21. 21. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBR Data Modeling: Theory and Practice (Simsion’s Dissertation Book, Published in 2007) “Is data modeling better characterized as: (a) a descriptive activity, the objective of which is to document some aspect of the real world or (b) a design activity, the objective of which is to create data structures to meet a set of requirements? To address what might appear at first to be a quite narrow (and obscure question, it transpires that we need to explore a substantial part of the data modeling and database design landscape including questions likely to be of interest to any researcher or practitioner in these fields.” (p.3) Sunday, June 27, 2010
  22. 22. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBR Data Modeling: Theory and Practice (Simsion’s Dissertation Book, Published in 2007) “Is data modeling better characterized as: (a) a descriptive activity, the objective of which is to document some aspect of the real world or (b) a design activity, the objective of which is to create data structures to meet a set of requirements? To address what might appear at first to be a quite narrow (and obscure question, it transpires that we need to explore a substantial part of the data modeling and database design landscape including questions likely to be of interest to any researcher or practitioner in these fields.” (p.3) Sunday, June 27, 2010
  23. 23. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBR FRBR Final Report, 1998 “The study has two primary objectives. The first is to provide a clearly defined, structured framework for relating the data that are recorded in bibliographic records to the needs of the users of those records. The second objective is to recommend a basic level of functionality for records created by national bibliographic agencies. ... For the purposes of this study a bibliographic record is defined as the aggregate of data that are associated with entities described in library catalogues and national bibliographies.” Sunday, June 27, 2010
  24. 24. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBR FRBR Final Report, 1998 “The study has two primary objectives. The first is to provide a clearly defined, structured framework for relating the data that are recorded in bibliographic records to the needs of the users of those records. The second objective is to recommend a basic level of functionality for records created by national bibliographic agencies. ... For the purposes of this study a bibliographic record is defined as the aggregate of data that are associated with entities described in library catalogues and national bibliographies.” FRBR Final Report, 1998 “The study has two primary objectives. The first is to provide a clearly defined, structured framework for relating the data that are recorded in bibliographic records to the needs of the users of those records. The second objective is to recommend a basic level of functionality for records created by national bibliographic agencies. ... For the purposes of this study a bibliographic record is defined as the aggregate of data that are associated with entities described in library catalogues and national bibliographies.” Theories of Information and of Library Institutions and Users
  25. 25. A Modern Bibliographic Resource Description Theory: FRBR FRBR Final Report, 1998 “The study has two primary objectives. The first is to provide a clearly defined, structured framework for relating the data that are recorded in bibliographic records to the needs of the users of those records. The second objective is to recommend a basic level of functionality for records created by national bibliographic agencies. ... For the purposes of this study a bibliographic record is defined as the aggregate of data that are associated with entities described in library catalogues and national bibliographies.” FRBR Final Report, 1998 “The study has two primary objectives. The first is to provide a clearly defined, structured framework for relating the data that are recorded in bibliographic records to the needs of the users of those records. The second objective is to recommend a basic level of functionality for records created by national bibliographic agencies. ... For the purposes of this study a bibliographic record is defined as the aggregate of data that are associated with entities described in library catalogues and national bibliographies.” FRBR Final Report, 1998 “The study has two primary objectives. The first is to provide a clearly defined, structured framework for relating the data that are recorded in bibliographic records to the needs of the users of those records. The second objective is to recommend a basic level of functionality for records created by national bibliographic agencies. ... For the purposes of this study a bibliographic record is defined as the aggregate of data that are associated with entities described in library catalogues and national bibliographies.” Implementation: Systems Analysis and Design
  26. 26. is exemplified by is an exemplification of is embodied in is an embodiment of is realized through Work Expression Manifestation Item is a realization of The Discreet Charm of the Hierarchy What Do You Expect? A key step in developing a modern resource description theory involves investigating why there are expectations of or prior assertions of a hierarchical structure in the IFLA FRBR conceptual data model Sunday, June 27, 2010
  27. 27. • The Discreet Charm – A 1999 paper on an interoperable metadata model drew upon the FRBR conceptual model is exemplified by is an exemplification of is embodied in is an embodiment of is realized through Work Expression Manifestation Item is a realization of The Discreet Charm of the Hierarchy D-Lib Magazine January 1999 Volume 5 Number 1 ISSN 1082-9873 A Common Model to Support Interoperable Metadata Progress report on reconciling metadata requirements from the Dublin Core and INDECS/DOI Communities David Bearman Archives & Museum Informatics dbear@archimuse.com Eric Miller OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. emiller@oclc.org Godfrey Rust Data Definitions godfreyrust@dds.netkonect.co.uk Jennifer Trant Art Museum Image Consortium jtrant@amico.net Stuart Weibel OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. weibel@oclc.org Abstract The Dublin Core metadata community and the INDECS/DOI community of authors, rights holders, and publishers are seeking common ground in the expression of metadata for information resources. Recent meetings at the 6th Dublin Core Workshop in Washington DC sketched out common models for semantics (informed by the requirements articulated in the IFLA Functional Requirements for the Bibliographic Record) and conventions for knowledge representation (based on the Resource Description Sunday, June 27, 2010
  28. 28. is exemplified by is an exemplification of is embodied in is an embodiment of is realized through Work Expression Manifestation Item is a realization of The Discreet Charm of the Hierarchy D-Lib Magazine January 1999 Volume 5 Number 1 ISSN 1082-9873 A Common Model to Support Interoperable Metadata Progress report on reconciling metadata requirements from the Dublin Core and INDECS/DOI Communities David Bearman Archives & Museum Informatics dbear@archimuse.com Eric Miller OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. emiller@oclc.org Godfrey Rust Data Definitions godfreyrust@dds.netkonect.co.uk Jennifer Trant Art Museum Image Consortium jtrant@amico.net Stuart Weibel OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. weibel@oclc.org Abstract The Dublin Core metadata community and the INDECS/DOI community of authors, rights holders, and publishers are seeking common ground in the expression of metadata for information resources. Recent meetings at the 6th Dublin Core Workshop in Washington DC sketched out common models for semantics (informed by the requirements articulated in the IFLA Functional Requirements for the Bibliographic Record) and conventions for knowledge representation (based on the Resource Description FIGURE 2: Works, Expressions, Manifestations and Items [based on IFLA FRBR Figure 3.1] [Cardinality is expressed here with arrows.] • Swap Network for Hierarchy – The researchers replaced the many-to- many relationship in the FRBR diagram with a one-to-many relationship Sunday, June 27, 2010
  29. 29. 1/20/10 1:05 PMGoogle Image Result for http://old.stk.cz/elag2001/Papers/PatrickLe_Boeuf/patrick_le_boeuf_soubory/image006.gif Page 1 of 6http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://old.stk.cz/elag2001/…q%3Dfrbr%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 Patrick Le Boeuf, ELAG Conference, Prague, June 6th, 2001 FRBR: TOWARD SOME PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTATION IN ELAG? I. Context Since the very beginning, ELAG has been interested in the IFLA four-level model FRBR. There has been an FRBR workshop in ELAG since 1996 and Susanna Peruginelli reported, on the occasion of a two-day conference entirely devoted to FRBR, in January 2000 in Florence, that ELAG regarded FRBR as “not only of a high theoretical value, but also a practical one, […] making it possible to integrate [digital resources] with “traditional” material; […] searching and retrieval functionality will be improved.”[1] Hence our wish to develop an experimental database, within ELAG, that would allow us to value more precisely the benefits the whole library community might expect from this new, revolutionary model. We also want to know if this model would not raise implementation problems; we must think of cataloguers’ comfort and, of course, or our patrons’ comfort when navigating, in the future, a new catalogue entirely developed according to the model. Paula Goossens has therefore elaborated Guidelines to help workshop attendants to create new “records”. The aim is not just to transcode pre-existing records, but to create new ones. We’ve tried to get totally rid of the MARC structure: our future experimental database is intended to be entirely designed in XML from the beginning. Only four bibliographic families have been elaborated so far: it is obviously not enough for a database to be implemented, but it is a beginning, and it already presents us with some interesting cases. It would be too long to report in detail on all of these four families, I’ll therefore introduce only three of them to you. is exemplified by is an exemplification of is embodied in is an embodiment of is realized through Work Expression Manifestation Item is a realization of The Discreet Charm of the Hierarchy • Bibliographic Families – A 2001 paper discussed bibliographic relationships from a “family” (i.e. hierarchical) perspective Sunday, June 27, 2010
  30. 30. 1/20/10 1:05 PMGoogle Image Result for http://old.stk.cz/elag2001/Papers/PatrickLe_Boeuf/patrick_le_boeuf_soubory/image006.gif Page 1 of 6http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://old.stk.cz/elag2001/…q%3Dfrbr%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 Patrick Le Boeuf, ELAG Conference, Prague, June 6th, 2001 FRBR: TOWARD SOME PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTATION IN ELAG? I. Context Since the very beginning, ELAG has been interested in the IFLA four-level model FRBR. There has been an FRBR workshop in ELAG since 1996 and Susanna Peruginelli reported, on the occasion of a two-day conference entirely devoted to FRBR, in January 2000 in Florence, that ELAG regarded FRBR as “not only of a high theoretical value, but also a practical one, […] making it possible to integrate [digital resources] with “traditional” material; […] searching and retrieval functionality will be improved.”[1] Hence our wish to develop an experimental database, within ELAG, that would allow us to value more precisely the benefits the whole library community might expect from this new, revolutionary model. We also want to know if this model would not raise implementation problems; we must think of cataloguers’ comfort and, of course, or our patrons’ comfort when navigating, in the future, a new catalogue entirely developed according to the model. Paula Goossens has therefore elaborated Guidelines to help workshop attendants to create new “records”. The aim is not just to transcode pre-existing records, but to create new ones. We’ve tried to get totally rid of the MARC structure: our future experimental database is intended to be entirely designed in XML from the beginning. Only four bibliographic families have been elaborated so far: it is obviously not enough for a database to be implemented, but it is a beginning, and it already presents us with some interesting cases. It would be too long to report in detail on all of these four families, I’ll therefore introduce only three of them to you. is exemplified by is an exemplification of is embodied in is an embodiment of is realized through Work Expression Manifestation Item is a realization of The Discreet Charm of the Hierarchy • Bibliographic Families – A 2001 paper discussed bibliographic relationships from a “family” (i.e. hierarchical) perspective Sunday, June 27, 2010
  31. 31. 1/20/10 1:05 PMGoogle Image Result for http://old.stk.cz/elag2001/Papers/PatrickLe_Boeuf/patrick_le_boeuf_soubory/image006.gif Page 1 of 6http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://old.stk.cz/elag2001/…q%3Dfrbr%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 Patrick Le Boeuf, ELAG Conference, Prague, June 6th, 2001 FRBR: TOWARD SOME PRACTICAL EXPERIMENTATION IN ELAG? I. Context Since the very beginning, ELAG has been interested in the IFLA four-level model FRBR. There has been an FRBR workshop in ELAG since 1996 and Susanna Peruginelli reported, on the occasion of a two-day conference entirely devoted to FRBR, in January 2000 in Florence, that ELAG regarded FRBR as “not only of a high theoretical value, but also a practical one, […] making it possible to integrate [digital resources] with “traditional” material; […] searching and retrieval functionality will be improved.”[1] Hence our wish to develop an experimental database, within ELAG, that would allow us to value more precisely the benefits the whole library community might expect from this new, revolutionary model. We also want to know if this model would not raise implementation problems; we must think of cataloguers’ comfort and, of course, or our patrons’ comfort when navigating, in the future, a new catalogue entirely developed according to the model. Paula Goossens has therefore elaborated Guidelines to help workshop attendants to create new “records”. The aim is not just to transcode pre-existing records, but to create new ones. We’ve tried to get totally rid of the MARC structure: our future experimental database is intended to be entirely designed in XML from the beginning. Only four bibliographic families have been elaborated so far: it is obviously not enough for a database to be implemented, but it is a beginning, and it already presents us with some interesting cases. It would be too long to report in detail on all of these four families, I’ll therefore introduce only three of them to you. is exemplified by is an exemplification of is embodied in is an embodiment of is realized through Work Expression Manifestation Item is a realization of The Discreet Charm of the Hierarchy • Bibliographic Families? – Though one diagram displayed more link complexity than a genealogical diagram usually does Sunday, June 27, 2010
  32. 32. is exemplified by is an exemplification of is embodied in is an embodiment of is realized through Work Expression Manifestation Item is a realization of The Discreet Charm of the Hierarchy • The Siren/Demon Call of Hierarchy – Why is there an expectation of – or insistence upon – hierarchies in the FRBR conceptual model? Sunday, June 27, 2010
  33. 33. About Hierarchies (AKA Trees) Hierarchies & Trees “There is a certain scale of duties, there is a certain Hierarchy of upper and lower commands.” Hierarchies – ecclesiastical, biological, political, information, etc. – can be modeled using mathematical structures called trees. Although defined mathematically by Kirchoff in 1847 (but waited to be named by Cayley in 1857), tree metaphors were present long before that time Milton quote from the Oxford English Dictionary Online entry for “Hierarchy.” Accessed 9/14/2009.
  34. 34. About Hierarchies (AKA Trees) Bouquet, Mary. Family Trees and Their Affinities: The Visual Imperative of the Genealogical Diagram. J. Roy. Anthrop. Inst, v. 2, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 43- 66. • Trees - Tree imagery was especially prominent in religious, secular, and scientific thought during and after the 18th Century.
  35. 35. About Hierarchies (AKA Trees) Bouquet, Mary. Family Trees and Their Affinities: The Visual Imperative of the Genealogical Diagram. J. Roy. Anthrop. Inst, v. 2, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 43- 66. • Tree Imagery In Religion - The tree of Jesse represented the genealogy of Jesus Christ
  36. 36. About Hierarchies (AKA Trees) Bouquet, Mary. Family Trees and Their Affinities: The Visual Imperative of the Genealogical Diagram. J. Roy. Anthrop. Inst, v. 2, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 43- 66. • Trees in Western Philosophy - The Great Chain of Being
  37. 37. About Hierarchies (AKA Trees) Bouquet, Mary. Family Trees and Their Affinities: The Visual Imperative of the Genealogical Diagram. J. Roy. Anthrop. Inst, v. 2, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 43- 66. • Family Trees - Genealogical trees depict hierarchical familial relationships in a wide variety of graphic and textual styles
  38. 38. About Hierarchies (AKA Trees) Bouquet, Mary. Family Trees and Their Affinities: The Visual Imperative of the Genealogical Diagram. J. Roy. Anthrop. Inst, v. 2, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 43- 66. • Family Trees - Genealogical trees depict hierarchical familial relationships in a wide variety of graphic and textual styles
  39. 39. About Hierarchies (AKA Trees) Bouquet, Mary. Family Trees and Their Affinities: The Visual Imperative of the Genealogical Diagram. J. Roy. Anthrop. Inst, v. 2, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 43- 66. • Family Trees - Genealogical trees depict hierarchical familial relationships in a wide variety of graphic and textual styles
  40. 40. About Hierarchies (AKA Trees) Bouquet, Mary. Family Trees and Their Affinities: The Visual Imperative of the Genealogical Diagram. J. Roy. Anthrop. Inst, v. 2, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 43- 66. • Family Trees - Genealogical trees depict hierarchical familial relationships in a wide variety of graphic and textual styles
  41. 41. "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ • Evolutionary Trees - Even Darwin and his colleagues found tree structures to be useful in advancing their evolutionary theories About Hierarchies (AKA Trees) Huson, Daniel. Introduction to Phylogenetic Networks. ISMB, Vienna, July 21, 2007.
  42. 42. "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ • Trees & Cataloging Theory - Tree imagery was omnipresent in library content: religion, genealogy, 19th C. science, & philosophy About Hierarchies (AKA Trees)
  43. 43. "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ About Hierarchies (AKA Trees) • Trees & Cataloging Theory - Aristotelian philosophical principles – especially hierarchical classification – took root in cataloging theory
  44. 44. Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ • The Tree Model - Tree structures were perceived by many as the new, powerful, pattern for describing biological and other relationships
  45. 45. • A New, Powerful Pattern? – However, depictions like von Eichwald ‘s tree of animal life forms (1829) were not the only ones around Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../
  46. 46. • Networks Are Old (1774) – Affinities among the natural order of plants by Johann Rühling Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../
  47. 47. Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ • Networks Are Old (1753) – Genealogical relationships among dog breeds, proposed by Leclerc & Daubenton. Note the map symbols
  48. 48. • Networks Are Old (1802) – Affinites within the vegetable kingdom by August Batsch Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../
  49. 49. • Networks Are Old (1893) – Klebs’ network of relationships among groups of protozoa and algae Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../
  50. 50. Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ BioMed CentralBiology Direct Open AccessReview Trees and networks before and after Darwin Mark A Ragan Address: The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Bioinformatics, 306 Carmody Rd, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia Email: Mark A Ragan - m.ragan@imb.uq.edu.au Abstract It is well-known that Charles Darwin sketched abstract trees of relationship in his 1837 notebook, and depicted a tree in the Origin of Species (1859). Here I attempt to place Darwin's trees in historical context. By the mid-Eighteenth century the Great Chain of Being was increasingly seen to be an inadequate description of order in nature, and by about 1780 it had been largely abandoned without a satisfactory alternative having been agreed upon. In 1750 Donati described aquatic and terrestrial organisms as forming a network, and a few years later Buffon depicted a network of genealogical relationships among breeds of dogs. In 1764 Bonnet asked whether the Chain might actually branch at certain points, and in 1766 Pallas proposed that the gradations among organisms resemble a tree with a compound trunk, perhaps not unlike the tree of animal life later depicted by Eichwald. Other trees were presented by Augier in 1801 and by Lamarck in 1809 and 1815, the latter two assuming a transmutation of species over time. Elaborate networks of affinities among plants and among animals were depicted in the late Eighteenth and very early Nineteenth centuries. In the two decades immediately prior to 1837, so-called affinities and/or analogies among organisms were represented by diverse geometric figures. Series of plant and animal fossils in successive Published: 16 November 2009 Biology Direct 2009, 4:43 doi:10.1186/1745-6150-4-43 Received: 24 October 2009 Accepted: 16 November 2009 This article is available from: http://www.biology-direct.com/content/4/1/43 © 2009 Ragan; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Ragan, Mark A. Trees and Networks Before and After Darwin. Biology Direct 2009, 4:43 do:10.1186/1745-6150-4-43. http://www.biology-direct.com/content/4/1/43
  51. 51. Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ BioMed CentralBiology Direct Open AccessReview Trees and networks before and after Darwin Mark A Ragan Address: The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Bioinformatics, 306 Carmody Rd, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia Email: Mark A Ragan - m.ragan@imb.uq.edu.au Abstract It is well-known that Charles Darwin sketched abstract trees of relationship in his 1837 notebook, and depicted a tree in the Origin of Species (1859). Here I attempt to place Darwin's trees in historical context. By the mid-Eighteenth century the Great Chain of Being was increasingly seen to be an inadequate description of order in nature, and by about 1780 it had been largely abandoned without a satisfactory alternative having been agreed upon. In 1750 Donati described aquatic and terrestrial organisms as forming a network, and a few years later Buffon depicted a network of genealogical relationships among breeds of dogs. In 1764 Bonnet asked whether the Chain might actually branch at certain points, and in 1766 Pallas proposed that the gradations among organisms resemble a tree with a compound trunk, perhaps not unlike the tree of animal life later depicted by Eichwald. Other trees were presented by Augier in 1801 and by Lamarck in 1809 and 1815, the latter two assuming a transmutation of species over time. Elaborate networks of affinities among plants and among animals were depicted in the late Eighteenth and very early Nineteenth centuries. In the two decades immediately prior to 1837, so-called affinities and/or analogies among organisms were represented by diverse geometric figures. Series of plant and animal fossils in successive Published: 16 November 2009 Biology Direct 2009, 4:43 doi:10.1186/1745-6150-4-43 Received: 24 October 2009 Accepted: 16 November 2009 This article is available from: http://www.biology-direct.com/content/4/1/43 © 2009 Ragan; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Ragan, Mark A. Trees and Networks Before and After Darwin. Biology Direct 2009, 4:43 do:10.1186/1745-6150-4-43. http://www.biology-direct.com/content/4/1/43 Conclusion: In the decades following 1859, genealogical trees won acceptance in some but certainly not all areas of biology; nor indeed have trees won full acceptance even today, although they remain default hypotheses for most biologists, as indeed more broadly in science and in society. But nature-as-network preceded the branching tree, was never completely supplanted by trees, and seems set to reemerge as the most-inclusive metaphor for the living world - the "Network of Life."
  52. 52. Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ BioMed CentralBiology Direct Open AccessReview Trees and networks before and after Darwin Mark A Ragan Address: The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Bioinformatics, 306 Carmody Rd, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia Email: Mark A Ragan - m.ragan@imb.uq.edu.au Abstract It is well-known that Charles Darwin sketched abstract trees of relationship in his 1837 notebook, and depicted a tree in the Origin of Species (1859). Here I attempt to place Darwin's trees in historical context. By the mid-Eighteenth century the Great Chain of Being was increasingly seen to be an inadequate description of order in nature, and by about 1780 it had been largely abandoned without a satisfactory alternative having been agreed upon. In 1750 Donati described aquatic and terrestrial organisms as forming a network, and a few years later Buffon depicted a network of genealogical relationships among breeds of dogs. In 1764 Bonnet asked whether the Chain might actually branch at certain points, and in 1766 Pallas proposed that the gradations among organisms resemble a tree with a compound trunk, perhaps not unlike the tree of animal life later depicted by Eichwald. Other trees were presented by Augier in 1801 and by Lamarck in 1809 and 1815, the latter two assuming a transmutation of species over time. Elaborate networks of affinities among plants and among animals were depicted in the late Eighteenth and very early Nineteenth centuries. In the two decades immediately prior to 1837, so-called affinities and/or analogies among organisms were represented by diverse geometric figures. Series of plant and animal fossils in successive Published: 16 November 2009 Biology Direct 2009, 4:43 doi:10.1186/1745-6150-4-43 Received: 24 October 2009 Accepted: 16 November 2009 This article is available from: http://www.biology-direct.com/content/4/1/43 © 2009 Ragan; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Ragan, Mark A. Trees and Networks Before and After Darwin. Biology Direct 2009, 4:43 do:10.1186/1745-6150-4-43. http://www.biology-direct.com/content/4/1/43 Reviewer Comments : ... The evolutionary process is therefore a combination of tree- like processes ... and of network-like processes ... it seems that this dual nature of the evolutionary process has never been taken into account in the history of biology and that the tree and network metaphors were always considered to be in opposition. This may derive from the difficulty for most scientists of adopting a dialectic view of nature (evolution is both trees and networks) and their propensity to adopt a mechanistic approach (either/or) that favours opposition ... Both historical and philosophical approaches may be required now to get rid of these false oppositions...
  53. 53. Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB +,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004+,-.%/0"0#)(*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"*%F* 4<0()04*)4*'4'6..-* &04($)>0&*>-*6* <,-.%/0"0#)(*#$00 B H$"4#*760(30.LP$00*%F*V)F0L*:WXX9,6$.04*56$2)" !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ • Depicting Trees - Tree structures are still used by biologists to model simple evolutionary scenarios
  54. 54. • Beyond The Tree Line - But scientists now also study more complex aspects of evolutionary change, like species hybridization Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB 7->$)&)?6#)%"7->$)&)?6#)%" ! D(('$4*2,0"*#2%*%$/6")4B4*F$%B* &)FF0$0"#*4<0()04*)"#0$>$00&*6"&* (%B>)"0*#,0)$*(,$%B%4%B04 B! b6#0$*,0B< +)/4*200&7->$)& 9%<-$)/,#*v*;cc=*_")G0$4)#-*%F*!..)"%)4* 9%<-$)/,#*v*;cc=*_")G0$4)#-*%F*!..)"%)4* 9%<-$)/,#*v*;cc=*_")G0$4)#-*%F*!..)"%)4* !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../
  55. 55. Tree And Network Exemplars • Beyond The Tree Model - Hybrids are created when genes are able to cross species boundaries. The evolutionary tree becomes a network "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB O*E)B<.0*R%&0.*DF*A0#)('.6#0*HG%.'#)%"O*E)B<.0*R%&0.*DF*A0#)('.6#0*HG%.'#)%" ,6 > ( & BB + y O"(04#$6.*/0"%B0 P$00*F%$*/0"0*/: !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../
  56. 56. Tree And Network Exemplars • Beyond The Tree Model - Hybrids are created when genes are able to cross species boundaries. The evolutionary tree becomes a network "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB O*E)B<.0*R%&0.*DF*A0#)('.6#0*HG%.'#)%"O*E)B<.0*R%&0.*DF*A0#)('.6#0*HG%.'#)%" ,6 > ( & BB + y O"(04#$6.*/0"%B0 P$00*F%$*/0"0*/: !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ A New Species Is Created By Gene Mutation In An Existing Species A New Species Is Created By Combining Genes of Existing Species The Phylogenetic Network Depicts This Combination As A New Species
  57. 57. Tree And Network Exemplars • Beyond The Tree Model - Hybrids are created when genes are able to cross species boundaries. The evolutionary tree becomes a network "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB O*E)B<.0*R%&0.*DF*A0#)('.6#0*HG%.'#)%"O*E)B<.0*R%&0.*DF*A0#)('.6#0*HG%.'#)%" ,6 > ( & BB + y O"(04#$6.*/0"%B0 P$00*F%$*/0"0*/: !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ A New Species Is Created By Gene Mutation In An Existing Species A New Species Is Created By Combining Genes of Existing Species The Phylogenetic Network Depicts This Combination As A New Species Why Know About This? Network Awareness #1 An example of how to depict “new” entities that are composed of elements of preexisting ones. This happens to be a common phenomenon in serials publication and with publications that are long-lived and/or popular The relationships defined between preexisting entities and new ones based on them can convert a traditional tree of familial entities to a network of familial entities
  58. 58. Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB A0#)('.6#0*10#2%$34*6"&*P$004A0#)('.6#0*10#2%$34*6"&*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"6$-*,)4#%$-*644%()6#0&*2)#,* 6"-*/)G0"*/0"0*)4*6*#$00 ! O*"0#2%$3*1 2)#,*3 $0#)('.6#)%"4*/)G04* $)40*#%*;3 &)FF0$0"#*/0"0*#$004 GC >6 ( &, +M#$00 >6 ( &, yM#$00 >6 ( &, + y 1 !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ • Before, During, and Beyond The Tree Model - Phylogenetic trees can now be modeled as extracts from a network
  59. 59. Tree And Network Exemplars "#$%&'()*+,-.&/"0)+*1(2),*0&)*&345.*6707),2&87)9*+:;<&=-0,7.&>(;*0?&@AAB A0#)('.6#0*10#2%$34*6"&*P$004A0#)('.6#0*10#2%$34*6"&*P$004 ! P,0*0G%.'#)%"6$-*,)4#%$-*644%()6#0&*2)#,* 6"-*/)G0"*/0"0*)4*6*#$00 ! O*"0#2%$3*1 2)#,*3 $0#)('.6#)%"4*/)G04* $)40*#%*;3 &)FF0$0"#*/0"0*#$004 GC >6 ( &, +M#$00 >6 ( &, yM#$00 >6 ( &, + y 1 !"#$%&'()*+#,'-../ • Before, During, and Beyond The Tree Model - Phylogenetic trees can now be modeled as extracts from a network Why Know About This? Network Awareness #2 When a single type of relationship is assigned between a number of entities, a view of the overall result may appear to be treelike in shape When several sets of treelike relationships between entities are considered as a whole, the resulting structure will very likely be a network. It is accurate – and useful – to think of a tree as a special type of network structure
  60. 60. Know This: The genealogical (largely tree-like) imagery that historically shaped thinking about Cultural Heritage resource description can be generalized to that of a social network. Just as biologists now understand trees to be special subsets of networks, hierarchical resource description structures can be understood as special cases of resource/description networks. Tree And Network Exemplars
  61. 61. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Speaking Broadly About The Big Metadata Pool In some Semantic Web resource description visions and implementations, the textual and numeric attributes that describe resources are intended to be assembled on an as- needed basis
  62. 62. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels There will be no metadata records, only one metadata record covering everything, or a near-infinite number of different metadata records, depending on the point-of-view of the metadata user. The Semantic Web will allow machines to create a metadata record for a particular resource just-in-time and on- the-fly, rather than have static records stored just-in-case. The benefits of metadata creation and maintenance by information professionals will be available to all. (Dunsire)
  63. 63. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels The user will have control over the presentation and detail of metadata. Recombination from the basic building blocks of the RDF triples will allow information retrieval interfaces to display a record in formats familiar to users of archives, libraries or museums (and users of Amazon, Google and Flickr), as well as innovative layouts (Dunsire)
  64. 64. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels FRBR Identifies Levels FRBR resource description theory makes different assertions about the some of the inhabitants of the envisioned W3C metadata pool. Metadata descriptive of bibliographic resources can be differentiated by degree of abstraction. These differences are significant, and enable the creation of resource description building blocks that play very different roles with respect to resources.
  65. 65. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, Thomas Publisher: Viking Press Publication Date: 1973 Place of Publication: New York Language: English LC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4 # Pages: 760 Height: 23 cm. Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text These unordered attributes describe general and specific characteristics of three print copies of a novel. The copies reside at three separate locations within the Library of Congress system
  66. 66. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare BookBar Code# 1: 00001216788Author: Pynchon, ThomasPublisher: Viking PressPublication Date: 1973Place of Publication: New YorkLanguage: EnglishLC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4# Pages: 760Height: 23 cm.Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text AbstractConcrete Pool of Disaggregated, Undifferentiated, Resource Descriptions
  67. 67. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare BookBar Code# 1: 00001216788Author: Pynchon, ThomasPublisher: Viking PressPublication Date: 1973Place of Publication: New YorkLanguage: EnglishLC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4# Pages: 760Height: 23 cm.Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text ResourceDescriptionAbstraction Pool of Disaggregated, Undifferentiated, Resource Descriptions
  68. 68. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, ThomasPublisher: Viking PressPublication Date: 1973Place of Publication: New YorkLanguage: EnglishLC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4# Pages: 760Height: 23 cm.Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text I ResourceDescriptionAbstraction
  69. 69. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, ThomasPublisher: Viking PressPublication Date: 1973Place of Publication: New YorkLanguage: EnglishLC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4# Pages: 760Height: 23 cm.Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text I Item-Level Description ResourceDescriptionAbstraction
  70. 70. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, Thomas Publisher: Viking Press Publication Date: 1973 Place of Publication: New York Language: EnglishLC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4 # Pages: 760 Height: 23 cm. Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text I M ResourceDescriptionAbstraction
  71. 71. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, Thomas Publisher: Viking Press Publication Date: 1973 Place of Publication: New York Language: EnglishLC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4 # Pages: 760 Height: 23 cm. Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text I M Manifestation- Level Description ResourceDescriptionAbstraction
  72. 72. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, Thomas Publisher: Viking Press Publication Date: 1973 Place of Publication: New York Language: English LC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4 # Pages: 760 Height: 23 cm. Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text I M E ResourceDescriptionAbstraction
  73. 73. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, Thomas Publisher: Viking Press Publication Date: 1973 Place of Publication: New York Language: English LC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4 # Pages: 760 Height: 23 cm. Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text I M E Expression- Level Description ResourceDescriptionAbstraction
  74. 74. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, Thomas Publisher: Viking Press Publication Date: 1973 Place of Publication: New York Language: English LC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4 # Pages: 760 Height: 23 cm. Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text I M E Expression- Level Description ResourceDescriptionAbstraction † Galaburda, Kosslyn, Christen (Eds.) The Languages of the Brain. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. 2002. Text is a graphic version of a speech-based languaging mode
  75. 75. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, Thomas Publisher: Viking Press Publication Date: 1973 Place of Publication: New York Language: English LC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4 # Pages: 760 Height: 23 cm. Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text I M E Expression- Level Description ResourceDescriptionAbstraction † Galaburda, Kosslyn, Christen (Eds.) The Languages of the Brain. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. 2002. A restructuring & transformation of mental representations for communication.† A specific system of speech communication
  76. 76. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, Thomas Publisher: Viking Press Publication Date: 1973 Place of Publication: New York Language: English LC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4 # Pages: 760 Height: 23 cm. Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text I M E Expression- Level Description ResourceDescriptionAbstraction † Galaburda, Kosslyn, Christen (Eds.) The Languages of the Brain. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. 2002. Preferences Google Account settings | Preferences Help | About Google Save your preferences when finished and return to search. Save Preferences Global Preferences (changes apply to all Google services) Interface Language Display Google tips and messages in: English If you do not find your native language in the pulldown above, you can help Google create it through our Google in Your Language program. Search Language Prefer pages written in these language(s): Afrikaans Arabic Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Catalan Chinese (Simplified) Chinese (Traditional) Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Esperanto Estonian Filipino Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swahili Swedish Thai Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Of the 44 written languages that are employed by this search engine, users may select up to eight at at a time for their webpage queries Distinguishing resources by Expression-level descriptions is so widespread as to be taken for granted. FRBR makes this level explicit and also permits the specification of multiple “languaging modes” (e.g. a motion picture) Web Images Videos Maps News Shopping Gmail more ! Sign in Search Advanced Scholar Search Scholar Preferences Each searcher is also obliged to indicate the type of content to be retrieved. Google’s types mix communication mode and subject matter
  77. 77. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, Thomas Publisher: Viking Press Publication Date: 1973 Place of Publication: New York Language: English LC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4 # Pages: 760 Height: 23 cm. Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text I M E W ResourceDescriptionAbstraction
  78. 78. FRBR’s Resource Description Levels Call# 3: PS3566.Y55 G7 1973 Rare Book Bar Code# 1: 00001216788 Author: Pynchon, Thomas Publisher: Viking Press Publication Date: 1973 Place of Publication: New York Language: English LC Classification: PZ4.P997 Gr PS3566.Y55 Call# 1: PZ4.P997 Gr Copy 1 Call# 2: PZ4.P997 Gr Ft. Meade Copy 2 Title: Gravity’s Rainbow Dewey Class No: 813/.5/4 # Pages: 760 Height: 23 cm. Type of Material: Book Content Type: Text I M E W Work-Level Description ResourceDescriptionAbstraction
  79. 79. Imagery In Scientific, Artistic & Creative Thought Sunday, June 27, 2010
  80. 80. Imagery In Scientific, Artistic & Creative Thought Why Know About This? Understanding a Cultural Heritage resource description requires close attention not just to the structure and content of that description, but also to the larger resource/description structures within which any given description fits Scientific and artistic approaches to representing and understanding complex phenomena can be instructive in showing how to appreciate a larger, complex, view Sunday, June 27, 2010
  81. 81. • Finding the Right “Picture” - Historian of science Arthur I. Miller’s three key studies of creativity in art and science: • Imagery in Scientific Thought: Creating 20th Century Physics, 1986 • Insights of Genius: Imagery and Creativity in Science and Art, 2000 • Einstein, Picasso: Space, Time, and the Beauty That Causes Havoc, 2001 Imagery in Scientific Thought Sunday, June 27, 2010
  82. 82. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture • Working with what they could see, imagine, record, and calculate, astronomers tried to make sense of the cosmos Sunday, June 27, 2010
  83. 83. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture (Norman B. Leventhal Map Center, Boston Public Library; NASA) • Ptolemy (c. 150) - Hypotheseis ton planomenon (Planetary Hypotheses) Geocentric view of the cosmos. Eccentrics, epicycles, deferents. Sunday, June 27, 2010
  84. 84. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture • Copernicus (1543) - Heliocentric view of the cosmos (Norman B. Leventhal Map Center, Boston Public Library; NASA) Sunday, June 27, 2010
  85. 85. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture • Kepler (1609) - Astronomia Nova (New Astronomy) Heliocentric view of the solar system, elliptical Mars orbit (Norman B. Leventhal Map Center, Boston Public Library; NASA) Sunday, June 27, 2010
  86. 86. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture • Kepler - Heliocentric view of the solar system, elliptical orbit dynamism (Norman B. Leventhal Map Center, Boston Public Library; NASA) Sunday, June 27, 2010
  87. 87. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture • The Solar System Today - (Norman B. Leventhal Map Center, Boston Public Library; NASA) Sunday, June 27, 2010
  88. 88. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture (Norman B. Leventhal Map Center, Boston Public Library; NASA) • General Relativity (1917) - Space-time warped by gravity Sunday, June 27, 2010
  89. 89. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium Sunday, June 27, 2010
  90. 90. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium • Working with what they could see, imagine, experiment with, record, and calculate, atomic physicists tried to make sense of the microworld Sunday, June 27, 2010
  91. 91. Max Born cited in: Miller, Arthur I. Imagery in Scientific Thought . Cambridge MA:The MIT Press. 1987. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium • Bohr’s Atomic Model - “A remarkable and alluring result of Bohr’s atomic theory is the demonstration that the atom is a small planetary system ...” Sunday, June 27, 2010
  92. 92. Max Born cited in: Miller, Arthur I. Imagery in Scientific Thought . Cambridge MA:The MIT Press. 1987. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium • “... the thought that the laws of the macrocosmos in the small reflect the terrestrial world obviously exercises a great magic on mankind’s mind ...” Sunday, June 27, 2010
  93. 93. Max Born cited in: Miller, Arthur I. Imagery in Scientific Thought . Cambridge MA:The MIT Press. 1987. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium • “... indeed its form is rooted in the superstition (which is as old as the history of thought) that the destiny of men can be read from the stars.” Sunday, June 27, 2010
  94. 94. Max Born cited in: Miller, Arthur I. Imagery in Scientific Thought . Cambridge MA:The MIT Press. 1987. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium • “The astrological mysticism has disappeared from science, but remains is the endeavor toward the knowledge of the unity of the laws of the world.” Sunday, June 27, 2010
  95. 95. • Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom - An explanation for light emission from atoms that avoids Einstein’s quantum. Imagery from the world of perceptions Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series Sunday, June 27, 2010
  96. 96. • Solar System Imagery Departing or Transformed - Imagery from the world of perceptions conflicts with experiment and calculation Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series Sunday, June 27, 2010
  97. 97. • Kramers-Heisenberg (1925) state diagram - Imagery of the light emission process, but without mathematical underpinnings Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series Sunday, June 27, 2010
  98. 98. • Imagery Lost (1926-1943) No diagrams of electron- photon, neutron-proton particle interactions, though verbal descriptions existed. Much consternation Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series Sunday, June 27, 2010
  99. 99. Diagrams Based on Miller, Arthur I. Insights of Genius: Imagery and Creativity in Science and Art. Cambridge MA:The MIT Press. 2000. • Feynman Diagram (1948) Physical process imagery is now generated by the mathematics of Quantum Theory. (Energy of incident/scattered light) Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series LithiumHydrogen Helium Brackett series n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 Lyman series (ultraviolet) Lyman series Paschen series (infrared) Pfund series Sunday, June 27, 2010
  100. 100. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture Implementation - independent mathematical representation • Drawing Feynman diagrams in software (rapid, flexible, creative exploration) now generates (a.) the appropriate equations and (b.) the computed results Sunday, June 27, 2010
  101. 101. Imagery in Scientific Thought: Finding the Right Picture Thomas Hahn: Automatic Loop Calculations in the SM and MSSM with FeynArts, FormCalc, and LoopTools. Talk given at Wolfram Research, Inc., September 2000. Generating diagrams in just a few lines – aren’t there any strings attached? Yes, one has to set up, once and for all, a MODEL FILE containing the couplings. E.g. the SFF coupling is declared by in the Generic model file: kinematic vector coupling vector in the Classes model file (here for j2 j1 ): counter term tree-level coupling neutrinos have no right-handed coupling Implemented* as statements in a computer programming language • Drawing Feynman diagrams in software (rapid, flexible, creative exploration) now generates (a.) the appropriate equations and (b.) the computed results Sunday, June 27, 2010
  102. 102. • The human visual imagery system can generate and operate on image content that has never been perceived – Feynman diagrams demonstrated that for physicists, the imagery system can be successfully “programmed” to create and operate on imagery that is generated by the mathematics of unobservable physical phenomena Imagery in Scientific Thought Sunday, June 27, 2010
  103. 103. • The human visual imagery system can generate and operate on image content that has never been perceived – Picasso’s painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon demonstrated that for artists – and for receptive viewers – the imagery system can be made to creatively transform the geometry of customary visual appearances Imagery in Artistic Thought Sunday, June 27, 2010
  104. 104. • The human mental imagery system can generate and operate on image content that has never been perceived. – The creative imagery that led Picasso to cubism was influenced by: his work habits; aloneness and anxiety; Paul Cézanne; cinema, literature, music, and theater; Maurice Princet - “le mathématicien du cubisme;” and Henri Poincaré - non-Euclidean geometry and the fourth dimension Imagery in Artistic Thought Sunday, June 27, 2010
  105. 105. • The human mental imagery system can generate and operate on image content that has never been perceived. – The creative imagery that led Picasso to cubism was influenced by: his work habits; aloneness and anxiety; Paul Cézanne; cinema, literature, music, and theater; Maurice Princet - “le mathématicien du cubisme;” and Henri Poincaré - non-Euclidean geometry and the fourth dimension Imagery in Artistic Thought Sunday, June 27, 2010
  106. 106. • Final Miller Quotes - A hallmark of classicism in art and science is a visual imagery abstracted from phenomena and objects we have experienced in the daily world. There is no such visual imagery in quantum mechanics or in highly abstract art. Artists and scientists had to seek it anew rather than extrapolate it from the everyday world. Imagery in Creative Thought Sunday, June 27, 2010
  107. 107. In physics, the visual imagery imposed on atomic theories led to inconsistencies and confusions in interpretation. It turned out that the proper visual imagery is generated by the mathematics of quantum mechanics, and it consists entirely of schematic representations of events, not pictures of objects... This transformation in the role of imagery is one of the main distinguishing features of art and science in the twentieth century. Imagery in Creative Thought Sunday, June 27, 2010
  108. 108. Imagery in Creative Thought: Relevance for Cultural Heritage Resource Description Sunday, June 27, 2010
  109. 109. • Miller’s exploration of imagery- assisted creative expression (with examples from art and science) can inform advanced theories of the description of the resources that embody and make accessible a culture’s creative expressions Imagery in Creative Thought: Relevance for Cultural Heritage Resource Description Sunday, June 27, 2010
  110. 110. • In the face of increasing knowledge and experimentation, the critical, theory-relevant imagery that formerly elucidated a phenomenon can be lost and then regained in a new form Imagery in Creative Thought: Relevance for Cultural Heritage Resource Description Sunday, June 27, 2010
  111. 111. Imagery in Creative Thought: Relevance for Cultural Heritage Resource Description • Going beyond E-R modeling – by defining and systematically employing appropriate visual imagery in support of Cultural Heritage resource description – will enhance theory formation, education/ training, and information system design Sunday, June 27, 2010
  112. 112. Paper Tools and FRBR’s Future Sunday, June 27, 2010
  113. 113. Paper Tools and FRBR’s Future Why Know About This? The lawful construction of a conceptual data model does not mean that the result will be accurate or useful. Inoperative theoretical assumptions and carryovers from prior implementations can be identified and corrected by testing the resource description model against typical and atypical resource description scenarios Sunday, June 27, 2010
  114. 114. A Paper Tool: Resource Description Using a Diagrammatic Method • What is a Paper Tool and who uses diagrammatic methods like this? • Why use a Paper Tool to reason about bibliographic (etc.) relationships among resources? • How do we create and use it? Sunday, June 27, 2010
  115. 115. A Precedent From Physics Feynman Diagrams & Diagramming Rules http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/feynman.html. Kaiser, David. Drawing Theories Apart: The Dispersion of Feynman Diagrams in Postwar Physics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 2005. Sunday, June 27, 2010
  116. 116. A Precedent From Physics Feynman Diagrams & Diagramming Rules http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/feynman.html. Kaiser, David. Drawing Theories Apart: The Dispersion of Feynman Diagrams in Postwar Physics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 2005. Physicists Converging Upon A Solution Atomic physicists in postwar Japan, working in near- isolation on the same physics problems as those in the West, developed their own diagram-enabled technique. As the physicists themselves and Kaiser noted, their goal was to create: “‘... an effective tool for the discussion of higher order processes.’The new diagrams allowed one to ‘command a view of the whole connection between the initial and final states ... of a certain complicated process.’” Koba & Takeda, cited in Kaiser. p.135. Sunday, June 27, 2010
  117. 117. A Precedent From Physics Feynman Diagrams & Diagramming Rules http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/feynman.html. Kaiser, David. Drawing Theories Apart: The Dispersion of Feynman Diagrams in Postwar Physics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 2005. Sunday, June 27, 2010
  118. 118. •How do we get there from here? – Begin with imagery adapted from the FRBR conceptual data modeling process – Define FRBR diagram element combination/connection rules based on resource description business rules – Use the resulting FRBR Paper Tool to create and study typical and unusual resource description examples (exemplars) How: Creating and Using a FRBR Paper Tool
  119. 119. Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions A Resource Not observable or manageable because not identified and/or described
  120. 120. Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions A Resource Not observable or manageable because not identified and/or described A Named Resource A Resource with a minimum required description (id/name, “owner”), and a description frame is observable and manageable
  121. 121. Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions A Resource Not observable or manageable because not identified and/or described A Named Resource A Resource with a minimum required description (id/name, “owner”), and a description frame is observable and manageable The Frame Serves as a Attachment Point for Optional Descriptions
  122. 122. Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions A Resource Not observable or manageable because not identified and/or described Optional Resource Descriptions A Named Resource A Resource with a minimum required description (id/name, “owner”), and a description frame is observable and manageable The Frame Serves as a Attachment Point for Optional Descriptions
  123. 123. Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions A Resource Not observable or manageable because not identified and/or described Optional Resource Descriptions A Named Resource A Resource with a minimum required description (id/name, “owner”), and a description frame is observable and manageable For FRBR, four different kinds of Descriptions are associated with this Resource. The descriptions further from the Resource are more abstract The Frame Serves as a Attachment Point for Optional Descriptions
  124. 124. Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Versions of this FRBR Resource/Description Complex will be used to depict and reason about simple and complex arrangements of resources and their descriptions
  125. 125. Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions It’s Convenient to Distinguish Resource Description Types by Changing the Shape of the Resource Holder (e.g., library vs. archive vs. museum resource descriptions)
  126. 126. Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions It’s Convenient to Distinguish Resource Description Types by Changing the Shape of the Resource Holder (e.g., library vs. archive vs. museum resource descriptions) A FRBR Entity An Archival Entity Work Expression Manifestation Item Fonds Series File Item
  127. 127. Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Coexisting Resource Description Schemes This approach to resource description assumes that other description schemes may be applied to the same set of resources. Depending on business rules, the diagram elements may coexist, and may link to the same resources as well as to each other A FRBR Entity An Archival Entity Work Expression Manifestation Item Fonds Series File Item
  128. 128. Representing Bibliographic Information: MARC to FRBR W E M I LC Control No.: 72083804 LCCN Permalink: http://lccn.loc.gov/72083804 000 01049cam a2200337 450 001 1244042 005 20001113094601.0 008 730410s1973 nyu 000 1 eng 035 __ |9 (DLC) 72083804 906 __ |a 7 |b cbc |c orignew |d 2 |e opcn |f 19 |g y-gencatlg 010 __ |a 72083804 020 __ |a 0670348325 |c 0670003743 (pbk) 040 __ |a DLC |c DLC |d DLC 050 00 |a PZ4.P997 |b Gr |a PS3566.Y55 051 __ |a PS3566.Y55 |b G7 1973 |c Copy 3. 082 00 |a 813/.5/4 100 1_ |a Pynchon, Thomas. 245 10 |a Gravity’s rainbow. 260 __ |a New York, |b Viking Press |c [1973] 300 __ |a 760 p. |c 23 cm. 350 __ |a $15.00 650 _0 |a World War, 1939-1945 |v Fiction. 650 _0 |a Americans |z Europe |v Fiction. 650 _0 |a Rockets (Ordnance) |v Fiction. 650 _0 |a Rocketry |v Fiction. 650 _0 |a Soldiers |v Fiction. 651 _0 |a Europe |v Fiction. 655 _7 |a War stories. |2 gsafd 655 _7 |a Science fiction. |2 gsafd 991 __ |b c-GenColl |h PZ4.P997 |i Gr |p 00001216788 |t Copy 1 |w BOOKS 991 __ |b c-RareBook |h PS3566.Y55 |i G7 1973 |t Copy 1 |w BOOKS (650 $v)
  129. 129. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Expression Manifestation Item Work Why Know About This? A Resource Description Diagram (RDD) presents a specific configuration of resources, their descriptions, and their relationships • RDD construction provides exercise in theory- building (e.g. which resource descriptions should apply to analog and digital media – but not to performances) • RDD construction and analysis informs the requirements specification & implementation process (e.g. two-way linking for a RDBMS requires an intersection table with begin_date and end_date values for each link)
  130. 130. The basic FRBR diagram grouping represents a resource and the combined set of descriptions of that resource Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Expression Manifestation Item Work
  131. 131. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Expression Manifestation Item Work A black-filled circle means that a resource and a resource description are both present. A clear circle means that no resource is present.
  132. 132. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Expression Manifestation Item Work A black-filled circle means that a resource and a resource description are both present. A clear circle means that no resource is present.
  133. 133. The color squares designate different types of resource descriptions. In this case, the color codes reflect FRBR rules for resource description. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Expression Manifestation Item Work
  134. 134. Connections between descriptions are made according to the rules for the point of view being represented. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Expression Manifestation Item Work
  135. 135. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Expression Manifestation Item Work Squares placed next to one another are linked together by the appropriate relationship. No lines are visible. These placements and links are specific to FRBR theory.
  136. 136. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Cultural Heritage Resources exist in many languages and media types, and may be available in the form of multiple copies stored at multiple locations. The diagram must therefore be capable of accommodating many Work, Expression, Manifestation, & Item-level resource descriptions, and the links to/from them. We signal the presence of multiple resource descriptions in a FRBR diagram by using resource description containers Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1
  137. 137. Why Have Containers? They are diagrammatic representations of FRBR aggregate entities Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Cultural Heritage Resources exist in many languages and media types, and may be available in the form of multiple copies stored at multiple locations. The diagram must therefore be capable of accommodating many Work, Expression, Manifestation, & Item-level resource descriptions, and the links to/from them. We signal the presence of multiple resource descriptions in a FRBR diagram by using resource description containers Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1
  138. 138. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records. München: K . G. Saur München, 1998. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1 1-3.3 Aggregate and Component Entities “The structure of the model ... permits us to represent aggregate and component entities in the same way as we would represent entities that are viewed as integral units.”
  139. 139. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1 Aggregate and Component Entities This complex definition of aggregate & component entities is depicted in a FRBR diagram as open or closed FRBR resource description boxes. In IFLA terms, the open boxes represent aggregate entities, and the closed boxes represent IFLA component* or integral entities. The benefits of this distinction will now be demonstrated
  140. 140. Item 1 Contains Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions These diagrams show two ways to depict a single Item-level resource description. Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1
  141. 141. Item 1 Contains If a color square is solid, that means a single resource description is present. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions These diagrams show two ways to depict a single Item-level resource description. Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1
  142. 142. Item 1 Contains If a color square is hollow, that means the description acts as a container that points to one or more descriptions of the same type. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions These diagrams show two ways to depict a single Item-level resource description. Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1
  143. 143. Item 1 Contains If a color square is hollow, that means the description acts as a container that points to one or more descriptions of the same type. Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions For the rightmost diagram, note that the container Item hosts a single Item-level resource description. Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1
  144. 144. Item #2 Item #1 Contains Contains Item 1 Contains Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions For this third diagram, note that the container Item now hosts two Item-Level resource descriptions. Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1
  145. 145. Item #2 Item #1 Contains Contains Item 1 Contains Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Because many older print resources were produced in fewer languages, media, etc., the diagram drawing convention is to use a more compact diagram where possible For this third diagram, note that the container Item now hosts two Item-Level resource descriptions. Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1
  146. 146. Item #2 Item #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains Item #2 Item #1 Contains Contains Specifying Element Quantities ... Unknown quantity of Items ... 43 Exactly 43 Items ... 43+ More than 43 Items Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1
  147. 147. Item #2 Item #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains Item #2 Item #1 Contains Contains Some Resource Diagram Drawing Conventions Business Rule For Containers: A container description shall be linked to one or more descriptions of the same type by a Contains relationship. Unlinked containers shall not exist Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Item #1
  148. 148. Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Description & Relationship Growth An Aggregate Of Resources And Their Descriptions May Grow Over Time Descriptions of creative expressions may undergo notable changes over the course of resource creation, distribution, revision, adaptation, etc. These changes are documented by the creation of additional resource descriptions and relationships Score of the Musical Creation: Sole Copy
  149. 149. Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Description & Relationship Growth From A Unique Publication ... A unique, creative expression becomes visible and discoverable in the Bibliographic Universe via a description that assigns at least one unique value to the resource’s identifying (e.g. URI) attribute. Other descriptive information is added as required Score of the Musical Creation: Sole Copy
  150. 150. Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Description & Relationship Growth An Aggregate Of Resources And Their Descriptions May Grow Over Time Descriptions of creative expressions may undergo notable changes over the course of resource creation, distribution, revision, adaptation, etc. These changes are documented by the creation of additional resource descriptions and relationships FRBR Item_Identifier: A2432 Resource ID: A2432 From A Unique Publication ... A unique, creative expression becomes visible and discoverable in the Bibliographic Universe via a description that assigns at least one unique value to the resource’s identifying (e.g. URI) attribute. Other descriptive information is added as required Score of the Musical Creation: Sole Copy
  151. 151. Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Description & Relationship Growth Copy #2 Copy #1 ... 43+ Score of the Musical Creation: 45+ Copies Contains Contains Contains
  152. 152. Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Description & Relationship Growth Copy #2 Copy #1 ... 43+ Score of the Musical Creation: 45+ Copies Contains Contains Contains The Container Item signals that all non-Item-level information about this musical creation (e.g., title, composer, recording medium, musicians, publisher) applies to all 45+ copies FRBR Item_Identifier: A2432 FRBR Item_Identifier: A9629 ... To One With Many Copies Copies of a creative expression can now be mass-produced. Each copy of a resource is assigned its own identifying value, but shares all other information. This is done by separating Item information from the rest, then linking through a Container Item
  153. 153. Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Description & Relationship Growth Based On Based On The Musical Creation Contains Menuhin Performance Contains Ma Performance Copy #2 Copy #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains ... ContainsMusical Score
  154. 154. Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Description & Relationship Growth Based On Based On The Musical Creation Contains Menuhin Performance Contains Ma Performance Copy #2 Copy #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains ... ContainsMusical Score Concepts Can Find Multiple Expression The concepts that underly a creative work may be realized in different ways (e.g., a musical score or a performance Based_On the musical score). Each realization of these concepts is documented by its own Expression-Level description
  155. 155. Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Description & Relationship Growth Based On Based On The Musical Creation Contains Menuhin Performance Contains Ma Performance Copy #2 Copy #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains ... ContainsMusical Score Work-level info inferred for copy #1 Concepts Can Find Multiple Expression The concepts that underly a creative work may be realized in different ways (e.g., a musical score or a performance Based_On the musical score). Each realization of these concepts is documented by its own Expression-Level description
  156. 156. Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Description & Relationship Growth Based On Based On The Musical Creation Contains Menuhin Performance Contains Ma Performance Copy #2 Copy #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains ... ContainsMusical Score In this diagram, the Container Expression signals that all Work-level intellectual or artistic descriptions of this musical creation apply to the score and to future performances of that score. Concepts Can Find Multiple Expression The concepts that underly a creative work may be realized in different ways (e.g., a musical score or a performance Based_On the musical score). Each realization of these concepts is documented by its own Expression-Level description
  157. 157. Automatic Description of Resources All Work-level intellectual or artistic descriptions of this musical creation apply by inference to the musical score; to documented prior and future performances of the score; and to existing and future recordings of those performances. Based On The Musical Creation Contains Contains Copy #2 Copy #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains ... ContainsMusical Score Contains ContainsContains Contains ... Ma Recording Has A Reproduction Has A Reproduction Ma Performance Menuhin Performance Menuhin Recording ... Based On Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Description & Relationship Growth
  158. 158. Based On The Musical Creation Contains Contains Copy #2 Copy #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains ... ContainsMusical Score Contains ContainsContains Contains ... Ma Recording Has A Reproduction Has A Reproduction Ma Performance Menuhin Performance Menuhin Recording ... Based On Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Description & Relationship Growth Benefits of Systematic Resource Description Assembly Note This: A fixed set of FRBR diagram elements have been linked to other FRBR elements and to Resources. The resulting simple and complex resource/description structures can be “read,” navigated, and extracted for display or for other uses
  159. 159. Managing Structural Complexity The ability to generate complex resource/description structures beings with it the need to render those structures manageable during theory formation. This is accomplished by conceptually chunking (or folding) diagram elements. Implementations may benefit from attention to theoretically relevant folding points Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Part Item 1 Has Part Has Part Item #2 Item #1 Has Resource A Item #2 Item #1 Contains Contains Resource B Item #2 Item #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains Resource C Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Folding Descriptions And Resources
  160. 160. Managing Structural Complexity The ability to generate complex resource/description structures beings with it the need to render those structures manageable during theory formation. This is accomplished by conceptually chunking (or folding) diagram elements. Implementations may benefit from attention to theoretically relevant folding points Item #2 Item #1 Contains Contains Resource B Item #2 Item #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains Resource C Resource A Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Folding Descriptions And Resources
  161. 161. Managing Structural Complexity The ability to generate complex resource/description structures beings with it the need to render those structures manageable during theory formation. This is accomplished by conceptually chunking (or folding) diagram elements. Implementations may benefit from attention to theoretically relevant folding points Item #2 Item #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains Resource C Chunking/Folding: Reducing Diagram & Cognitive Load From Three Elements and Two Links to One Placeholder Resource BResource A Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Folding Descriptions And Resources
  162. 162. Managing Structural Complexity The ability to generate complex resource/description structures beings with it the need to render those structures manageable during theory formation. This is accomplished by conceptually chunking (or folding) diagram elements. Implementations may benefit from attention to theoretically relevant folding points Chunking/Folding: Reducing Diagram & Cognitive Load From Three Elements and Two Links to One Placeholder Chunking /Folding: Reducing Diagram & Cognitive Load From 47+ Elements and 46+ Links to One Placeholder Resource B Resource CResource A Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Folding Descriptions And Resources
  163. 163. From Cognitive Psychology: “... the span of absolute judgment and the span of immediate memory impose severe limitations on the amount of information that we are able to receive, process, and remember. By organizing the stimulus input simultaneously into several dimensions and successively into a sequence of chunks, we manage to break (or at least stretch) this informational bottleneck.” (Miller 1955) Chunking/Folding: Reducing Diagram & Cognitive Load From Three Elements and Two Links to One Placeholder Chunking /Folding: Reducing Diagram & Cognitive Load From 47+ Elements and 46+ Links to One Placeholder Miller, G. A. (1956). "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information". Psychological Review 63 (2): 81–97. Resource B Resource CResource A Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Folding Descriptions And Resources
  164. 164. Chunking/Folding: Reducing Diagram & Cognitive Load From Three Elements and Two Links to One Placeholder Chunking /Folding: Reducing Diagram & Cognitive Load From 47+ Elements and 46+ Links to One Placeholder Miller, G. A. (1956). "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information". Psychological Review 63 (2): 81–97. Resource B Resource CResource A Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Folding Descriptions And Resources Know This: FRBR’s concepts of integral and component entities appear to be a theoretical application of cognitive chunking strategies. This approach supports the creation, linking, navigation, and extraction of persistent systems of resource description building blocks – and their respective Resources – rather than rely upon the assembly of metadata structures on the fly
  165. 165. Based On The Musical Creation Contains Contains Copy #2 Copy #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains ... ContainsMusical Score Contains ContainsContains Contains ... Ma Recording Has A Reproduction Has A Reproduction Ma Performance Menuhin Performance Menuhin Recording ... Based On Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Folding Descriptions And Resources Chunking/Folding & Information System Design: Historically, bibliographic resource descriptions were not conceived as or implemented as “foldable” data structures. Paper tool explorations demonstrate their benefits. Designers and programmers can then identify information technologies to manage this task
  166. 166. Based On The Musical Creation Contains Contains Copy #2 Copy #1 ... 43+ Contains Contains Contains ... ContainsMusical Score Contains ContainsContains Contains ... Ma Recording Has A Reproduction Has A Reproduction Ma Performance Menuhin Performance Menuhin Recording ... Based On Managing Simplicity & Complexity: Folding Descriptions And Resources Chunking/Folding & Information System Design: Historically, bibliographic resource descriptions were not conceived as or implemented as “foldable” data structures. Paper tool explorations demonstrate their benefits. Designers and programmers can then identify information technologies to manage this task
  167. 167. “The bibliographer who wishes to bring order to this great stream of Moby-Dicks must, like Ishmael putting together the folios and octavos of his cetological system, be prepared to say, ‘I have swam through libraries,’and to recognize in the end that he will leave the structure “standing thus unfinished.” Tanselle 1976, p.5 Working With A FRBR Paper Tool: The Moby-Dick Exemplar Tanselle, G. Thomas. Checklist of Editions of Moby-Dick 1851-1976. Issued on the Occasion of an Exhibition at The Newberry Library Commemorating the 125th Anniversary of Its Original Publication. Evanston and Chicago: Northwestern University Press and The Newberry Library. 1976.
  168. 168. • Imagine This For Today: Command a view of the whole connection between resources and resource descriptions of a literary achievement: – Printings (56+) of the full-length novel – A chapter-length excerpt from the novel – A multimedia creation, combining: – Animated, painted, pages from the 1851* and 1993 printings – Audio tracks from an Orson Welles reading of the novel – A sequence from the Orson Welles directed film Citizen Kane – Audio tracks from an Orson Welles monologue on the topic of Chartres cathedral – Audio tracks of a live recording of the Led Zeppelin song “Moby Dick” Working With A FRBR Paper Tool: The Moby-Dick Exemplar

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