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Scientific and Technical Translation in English - Week 2 2019

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Introduction to IMRaD and CARS; common reasons for article rejection

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Scientific and Technical Translation in English - Week 2 2019

  1. 1. Scientific and Technical Translation in English: Week 2 Dr. Ron Martinez
  2. 2. What was the purpose?
  3. 3. Aims for today • Encourage critical thinking/discussion around the concept of “accuracy” in STT; • Raise awareness of the perceived role of “accurate English” and English in general in science; • Present research article (RA) structure, focusing especially on the Introduction section; • Discuss typical problems in RAs, especially those that contribute to rejection.
  4. 4. Homework • Read “Lost without translation: scientific research” – on the class website. Please also read the “Reader’s comments.” Be prepared to discuss next class. • Translate “Cocamar” text; bring translation to next class (hard copy preferred). • Read (on class website) "Research article introductions: A comparison between Brazilian Portuguese and English​" (Hirano, 2009)
  5. 5. Rudolf Jumpelt (1961) In STT there is an “absolute priority of information content over form, and of the accuracy of its transmission.” (p. vii)
  6. 6. Roman Jakobson (1959) (also online) • There is ordinarily no full equivalence between code-units. • Translation involves two equivalent messages in two different codes. • Translation activities must be kept under constant scrutiny.
  7. 7. Show your translation to a classmate • Are they similar? • Any disagreements? • Copy and paste your translations into the Google Docs (online).
  8. 8. • n Discuss: Why the changes?
  9. 9. Source: Lionbridge (LSP)
  10. 10. General course outline • Week 1: Introduction to the course; Important concepts in translation • Week 2: Research article structure, common discourse problems • Week 3: Hands-on introduction to electronic tools; glossaries • Week 4: Team translation of a research article • Week 5: Review of team translations • Week 6: Introduction to midterm • Week 7: Midterm assessment (in-class) • Week 8: Midterm review; New teams, new “live” assignments • Week 9: Assignments continued • Week 10: Assignments continued • Week 11: Completion of final translations • Week 12: Group presentations • Week 13: Group presentations • Week 14: Group presentations • Week 15: Certificates and meet-the-author
  11. 11. Discuss the article QUOTE FROM ARTICLE QUESTION FOR DISCUSSION “A misplaced preposition or poor choice of verb can ruin a convincing narrative, reducing the probability of publication in a top international journal and limiting the impact of the research.” Do you agree? Is it possible to avoid? How? “(M)any foreign scientists spend precious research funds on private translation services. But standard translators may not understand the science, the structure of scientific papers or the technical language.” Does such knowledge of “science” and the “structure of scientific papers” really make a difference? “(W)e suggest that university departments in non-anglophone countries could hire professional translators with a science background…” What do you think about this solution?
  12. 12. Some comments from readers: But there is a third skill that may well be overlooked in the rush to find someone who knows the languages and the subject area in sufficient depth. While mastery of two or more languages and an understanding of the science are two key elements, the act of translation itself is also a skill that must be learned and honed over many years of experience.
  13. 13. They often work closely with authors to ensure the accuracy of their work, and provide added value […].Moreover, ITI’s members must all adhere to a Code of Professional Conduct…
  14. 14. “fidelity of meaning and register...”
  15. 15. Any ambiguity here? “O Uso Racional de Medicamentos compreende a prescrição apropriada, o acesso, a dispensação em condições adequadas e o consumo de medicamentos eficazes e seguros, nas doses, intervalos e período de tempo indicados. Implica conhecimentos específicos e atualizados por parte dos profissionais e na compreensão do paciente sobre a importância da adesão ao tratamento. Esta linha de pesquisa contempla projetos que visam oferecer subsídios para o seu uso apropriado, focados na informação, na pesquisa básica e clínica e no uso adequado de medicamentos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde.”
  16. 16. Moreover, publishers we work with have been "looking into translation services" over the past year or so, recognizing that language editing just won't cut it for many non-native, English-speaking researchers.
  17. 17. I'm sure that teams of translators could be established within individual universities, at least for the most prominent source languages. I think this initiative would not only help many researchers but also increase the yield of published research papers for an institution.
  18. 18. …it is even worth to speak not about separated individuals but about the Centres for Academic Writing and Scientific Translation at universities that could unite professional translators specialized in different scientific fields and help academics and researchers with the papers preparation in compliance with scientific journals requirements, including accurate translation. Additionally, such Centres could accumulate the knowledge in translation systematically within the single quality control system and become the platforms for experience changing.
  19. 19. WHY ALL THIS TALK ABOUT TRANSLATION IN THE FIRST PLACE?
  20. 20. In Science Citation Index (SCI) Source: Hyland, K. (2015). Academic Publishing and Challenges in the Construction of Knowledge. Oxford University Press.
  21. 21. On our website: 1. Download the two articles. 2. What sections do they have in common? 3. In terms of academic discourse, why do most research articles follow this pattern? Why not, for example, simply present a Results section? 4. Which section do you think is often the most difficult to write? Why?
  22. 22. Research Articles: A Look Inside Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  23. 23. Research Articles: A Look Inside Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  24. 24. Research Articles: A Look Inside Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  25. 25. Research Articles: IMRaD Introduction Method Results and Discussion Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  26. 26. Research Articles: IMRaD Introduction Method Results and Discussion Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  27. 27. Research Article Structure
  28. 28. Research Articles: IMRaD Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  29. 29. Research Articles: IMRaD Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  30. 30. Research Articles: IMRaD Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  31. 31. WHY DO ARTICLES GET REJECTED? Go to www.menti.com CODE: 61 49 49
  32. 32. What does the research say? Is English the most typical problem? • Belcher, D. D. (2007). Seeking acceptance in an English- only research world. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16(1), 1-22. • Bordage, G. (2001). Reasons reviewers reject and accept manuscripts: the strengths and weaknesses in medical education reports. Academic Medicine, 76(9), 889-896. • Sullivan, E. J. (2002). Top 10 reasons a manuscript is rejected. Journal of Professional Nursing, 18(1), 1-2. • McKercher, B., Law, R., Weber, K., Song, H., & Hsu, C. (2007). Why referees reject manuscripts. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 31(4), 455-470.
  33. 33. Belcher (2007)
  34. 34. Belcher (2007)
  35. 35. Belcher (2007) “In only 2 reviews out of the 29 (thus, 7%) were there no language use/ style comments at all. It should be noted, though, that in no case was usage/style alone mentioned as a reason for rejecting a paper (see also Flowerdew, 2001; Hewings, 2002).” (p. 8)
  36. 36. Belcher (2007) “In only 2 reviews out of the 29 (thus, 7%) were there no language use/ style comments at all. It should be noted, though, that in no case was usage/style alone mentioned as a reason for rejecting a paper (see also Flowerdew, 2001; Hewings, 2002).” (p. 8)
  37. 37. Sullivan (2002)
  38. 38. Sullivan (2002) 1. Manuscript sent to wrong jornal 2. Content does not provide new information 3. Information is too old or out of date 4. Topic is too narrow 5. Important contributions to topic are missing 6. Author has relied too heavily on the literature 7. Manuscript was a class paper or speech 8. Too little information about method, or method includes serious flaws 9. Paper does not make a point 10. Poor writing
  39. 39. Sullivan (2002)
  40. 40. Pierson (2012)
  41. 41. Pierson (2012)
  42. 42. Bordage (2001)
  43. 43. Bordage (2001)
  44. 44. Bordage (2001)
  45. 45. Bordage (2001)
  46. 46. McKercher et al. (2007)
  47. 47. McKercher et al. (2007)
  48. 48. McKercher et al. (2007)
  49. 49. McKercher et al. (2007)
  50. 50. McKercher et al. (2007)
  51. 51. McKercher et al. (2007)
  52. 52. McKercher et al. (2007)
  53. 53. Main reasons articles get rejected Belcher (2007) Bordage (2001) Sullivan (2002) McKercher et al. (2007) Wrong journal X ✓ ✓ ✓ Faulty method ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Lack of transparency X ✓ ✓ ✓ Problems with statistics X ✓ ✓ ✓ Poor discussion, overstating importance of findings ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Improper formatting X ✓ X ✓ Writing difficult to follow ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Inadequate literature review ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Nothing new ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Contribution not clear ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Poor English X X X X
  54. 54. Main reasons articles get rejected Belcher (2007) Bordage (2001) Sullivan (2002) McKercher et al. (2007) Wrong journal X ✓ ✓ ✓ Faulty method ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Lack of transparency X ✓ ✓ ✓ Problems with statistics X ✓ ✓ ✓ Poor discussion, overstating importance of findings ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Improper formatting X ✓ X ✓ Writing difficult to follow ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Inadequate literature review ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Nothing new ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Contribution not clear ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Poor English X X X X
  55. 55. I live in Curitiba., where it rains a lot. I have many umbrellas.
  56. 56. Contributors to publication success (or failure) LANGUAGE WRITING THE RESEARCH
  57. 57. LANGUAGE WRITING THE RESEARCH
  58. 58. I live on Curitiba. I has many umbrellas.
  59. 59. Is the novelty/contribution clear? Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez ronmartinez@ufpr.br
  60. 60. From the Introduction: What’s the problem?
  61. 61. Work in pairs
  62. 62. Work in pairs
  63. 63. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULTS I.M.R.aD.
  64. 64. C.A.R.S. (Swales, 1990) • Create • A • Research • Space INTRODUCTION
  65. 65. "C.A.R.S." framework • Establish “territory”: Mention importance, what the “conversation” is. • Establish “niche”: Mention the “gap.” • Occupy niche: Say how that gap will be filled. 1 2 3
  66. 66. Can you identify the “CARS” moves? Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults generally require less sleep than younger adults.
  67. 67. Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderlyand possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults generally require less sleep than younger adults.
  68. 68. Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderly and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults generally require less sleep than younger adults.
  69. 69. Common problem: No “Space” created • Establish “territory”: Mention importance, what the “conversation” is. • Establish “niche”: Mention the “gap.” • Occupy niche: Say how that gap will be filled. 1 2 3
  70. 70. Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderly and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults generally require less sleep than younger adults.
  71. 71. Common problem: No “Territory” or “Space” • Establish “territory”: Mention importance, what the “conversation” is. • Establish “niche”: Mention the “gap.” • Occupy niche: Say how that gap will be filled. 1 2 3
  72. 72. Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderly and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults generally require less sleep than younger adults.
  73. 73. Can you locate Move 2 In the Hirano (2009) article Introduction?
  74. 74. Move 1 (“Territory”)
  75. 75. Move 1 (“Territory”)
  76. 76. Move 1  Move 2 (“Niche”)
  77. 77. Move 1  Move 2 (“Niche”)
  78. 78. Move 1  Move 2 (“Niche”)
  79. 79. Move 2  Move 3 (“Occupy the niche”)
  80. 80. Move 2  Move 3 (“Occupy the niche”)
  81. 81. Notice the grammar 1. Look at the Hirano (2009) Introduction again. 2. In the first sentence of each new paragraph, which has Hirano chosen to use: present simple, past simple, or present perfect? 3. Discuss: Why are such grammar choices important? What relevance might they have in translation?
  82. 82. Discuss the Hirano (2009) article 1. What were her main findings? 2. What are the possible implications for Brazilian authors? 3. What are the possible reasons for the phenomena that Hirano reports?
  83. 83. Moves from the international journal
  84. 84. Moves from the Brazilian journal
  85. 85. Where should the translator start?
  86. 86. Cohesion! TITLE ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez ronmartinez@ufpr.br
  87. 87. 113Ron Martinez
  88. 88. MAIN ISSUE NOT ‘ENGLISH’ 114Ron Martinez
  89. 89. Summary – 1 accuracy audience / register
  90. 90. Summary -2 rejection Unclear writing Unclear contribution “English”
  91. 91. Summary – 3
  92. 92. Homework 1 1. Download “Article Requiring Revision”. 2. Try to identify CARS in the introduction (Section 1). 3. Look at the comments from the Journal Editor (also online). Specifically, focus on the comments from “Reviewer 2”. Do you agree? 4. Look at lines 56-72: Can you identify any of the problems discussed in Belcher (2007), McKercher et al. (2007), etc.? 5. Look at lines 134 and 139: Which words were translated “wrong” (i.e. potentially lead to misunderstanding)? 6. Discuss with a partner.
  93. 93. Homework 2 • Are you confident enough to suggest changes to an article? Read the introduction to the unpublished “Corpus Linguistics” article (online). Any problems? Make notes on what you would tell the author; bring the suggestions to class. • Read the Doherty article on translation technologies (online). According to the author, what opportunities and advantages do new technologies present? Any potential disadvantages?
  94. 94. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez ronmartinez@ufpr.br
  95. 95. The science of results sections and other reporting of Method

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