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Oral iv course introduction (week 1) 2016

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Oral iv course introduction (week 1) 2016

  1. 1. Course Introduction (Week 1) ORAL I V (HE281) Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez drronmartinez@gmail.com
  2. 2. Today’s agenda • Discussion of issues around “fluency” • Your homework
  3. 3. Are you fluent? 1. Take poll on website. DISCUSS IN THREES: 1. How did you decide on your answer? 2. Did you feel your answer was more complex than provided for by the voting format? In what way?
  4. 4. What do they mean? Are you fluent in Portuguese?
  5. 5. “Friends” clip • Would you say that Chandler is "fluent" in the scene? Why (not)? • What insights into spoken fluency does this clip provide?
  6. 6. 3 types of fluency (Segalowitz, 2010) Cognitive Fluency Perceived Fluency Utterance Fluency
  7. 7. • “Cognitive fluency refers to the efficiency of the speaker’s underlying processes responsible for fluency-relevant features of utterances…” (Segalowitz, 2010, p. 50) • “Utterance fluency refers to the oral features of utterances that reflect the operation of underlying cognitive processes…” (ibid.) • “Perceived fluency is the fluency that is ascribed by a listener to a speaker, based on impressions drawn from hearing speech samples produced by the speaker” (Segalowitz, 2010, p. 49)
  8. 8. COGNITIVE FLUENCY UTTERANCE FLUENCY PERCEIVED FLUENCY
  9. 9. Levelt’s model of speech production • Conceptualization • Formulation • Articulation • Self-monitoring • - Levelt, W.J.M. (1989) Speaking: From Intention to Articulation Part of cognitive fluency
  10. 10. Tarzan (by Gary Larson)
  11. 11. Where did the fluency breakdown occur? • Conceptualization • Formulation • Articulation • Self-monitoring • - Levelt, W.J.M. (1989) Speaking: From Intention to Articulation
  12. 12. FORMULATION ARTICULATION Cognitive Fluency Utterance Fluency Perceived Fluency
  13. 13. What causes fluency breakdowns? • Reflect on both the ‘Friends’ clip and the ‘Tarzan’ comic strip: What inferences about causes of ‘dysfluencies’ in speech can be drawn? • (Hint: Think about the opposite – situations/occasions in which you are usually quite fluent.)
  14. 14. Do you agree? Chambers, F. (1997). What do we mean by fluency? System, 25(4), pp. 535-544.
  15. 15. • Main Entry: flu·ent Pronunciation: 'flü-ent Function: adjective Etymology: Latin fluent-, fluens, present participle of fluere 1 a : capable of flowing : FLUID b : capable of moving with ease and grace <the fluent body of a dancer> 2 a : ready or facile in speech <fluent in Spanish> b : effortlessly smooth and rapid : POLISHED <a fluent performance> - flu·ent·ly adverb
  16. 16. • Main Entry: flu·ent Pronunciation: 'flü-&nt Function: adjective Etymology: Latin fluent-, fluens, present participle of fluere 1 a : capable of flowing : FLUID b : capable of moving with ease and grace <the fluent body of a dancer> 2 a : ready or facile in speech <fluent in Spanish> b : effortlessly smooth and rapid : POLISHED <a fluent performance> - flu·ent·ly adverb
  17. 17. • Main Entry: ready Pronunciation: 're-dE Function: adjective Inflected Form(s): read·i·er; -est 1 a : prepared mentally or physically for some experience or action b : prepared for immediate use <dinner is ready> 2 : immediately available <had ready cash>
  18. 18. Fluency = ‘Readiness’ • Main Entry: ready Pronunciation: 're-dE Function: adjective Inflected Form(s): read·i·er; -est 1 a : prepared mentally or physically for some experience or action b : prepared for immediate use <dinner is ready> 2 : immediately available <had ready cash> Any deficiency in any of these elements may cause dysfluencies.
  19. 19. Your turn! • Remember that this can also be a vocabulary- building exercise. Don’t be afraid to ‘stretch’!
  20. 20. Summary for Week 1 • It is important to define what ‘fluency’ in spoken language means. • Fluency is not related to ‘native’-ness. • Fluency is (minimally) broken down into cognitive fluency, utterance fluency, and perceived fluency. Each of these, in turn, may be influenced by a great number of variables. • Fluency can be thought of as ‘readiness’, on different levels: mentally/emotionally prepared, knowing what to say and how to say it (‘prepared’ utterances), and having what to say ‘at the ready’ (i.e. automaticity).
  21. 21. HOMEWORK FOR MONDAY (AUG. 15)
  22. 22. Homework 1. TODAY: Complete personal survey on www.drronmartinez.com (“Oral IV: About YOU”) – takes about 10 minutes. 2. Read Radajurai (2007) article on ‘intelligibility’ (online), answer questions about the article (online), and bring your answers to class on Monday. 3. Watch Jackie Chan clip (online), answer questions (online), and bring notes to class.

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