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Introduction to Academic Writing and Publishing in English (2018)

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An overview of global trends that concern international academic publishing and writing as a whole, in addition to a discussion regarding how these trends affect Brazilian academics more specifically.

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Introduction to Academic Writing and Publishing in English (2018)

  1. 1. Introduction to Academic Writing Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez Academic Writing in English - PRPPG7000
  2. 2. In Science Citation Index (SCI) Source: Hyland, K. (2015). Academic Publishing and Challenges in the Construction of Knowledge. Oxford University Press.
  3. 3. Focus on "production"
  4. 4. Sarewitz, Daniel. "The pressure to publish pushes down quality." Nature, vol. 533, no. 7602, 2016. Academic OneFile, Accessed 18 Jun. 2017.
  5. 5. Fonte: Guardian, 6/12/13
  6. 6. Is English the key? • Man et al. (2004)* 2 factors: Country’s English proficiency and research investment * Man, J. P., Weinkauf, J. G., Tsang, M., & Sin, J. H. D. D. (2004). Why do some countries publish more than others? An international comparison of research funding, English proficiency and publication output in highly ranked general medical journals. European journal of epidemiology, 19(8), 811-817.
  7. 7. http://www.worldmapper.org/images/largepng/205.p ng
  8. 8. Investment in Science, Technology and Innovation (by region) Fonte: https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2016/nsb20161/
  9. 9. Clarissa Ribeiro Reily Rocha, pesquisadora da USP e MIT, vencedora do 8º Prêmio Octavio Frias de Oliveira (Pesquisa em Oncologia), 2017 "Não há como ter pesquisa de qualidade sem financiamento, mesmo que haja formação, mesmo que haja interesse".
  10. 10. Exemplo típico Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  11. 11. Hyland (2016) “Attitude surveys reveal that English as an Additional Language (EAL) authors often believe editors and referees are prejudiced against them for any non-standard language uses…” (p. 59) Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  12. 12. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  13. 13. Flowerdew (2008) Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  14. 14. Flowerdew (2008) ● “While it is difficult to find concrete evidence that writers who use English as an additional language are discriminated against in academic publishing there is a lot of anecdotal evidence to suggest that they may be.” (p. 78) Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  15. 15. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  16. 16. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  17. 17. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  18. 18. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  19. 19. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  20. 20. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  21. 21. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  22. 22. Hewings, M. (2006). English language standards in academic articles: Attitudes of peer reviews. Revista canária de estudios ingleses. ● 228 evaluations of manuscripts submitted to English for Specific Purposes (1998-2004); ● Evaluation by 56 different reviewers; ● Manuscripts organized by type of author (native, non-native); ● Further separated into 3 categories (Accept, Revise/Resubmit and Reject). Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  23. 23. Preconceito? (NON-NATIVE) Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR (‘REJECT’) (NATIVE)
  24. 24. Evidências de preconceito?● “It was not always possible … to decide whether a comment was referring to language or content.” (p. 53) ● “While number of (comments on language) for NNES- authored papers is higher … NES authors appear to attract more criticism. […] (T)here is no clear evidence that NNES authors are disadvantaged relative to NES authors because they do not have English as a first language.” (p. 60) Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  25. 25. Mas… e aquela tabela então? ● (Of the 25 reviews with explanation for rejection), “6 (24%) explicitly stated that the papers offered nothing new or of interest to the readership and a further 3 (12%) said the papers reported work that was outside the field of ESP.” Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  26. 26. Mas… e aquela tabela então?● (Dos 25 pareceres que deram motivos explícitos para rejeitar), “6 (24%) explicitly stated that the papers offered nothing new or of interest to the readership and a further 3 (12%) said the papers reported work that was outside the field of ESP. In the corresponding 15 reviews of NES- authored papers, 2 (13%) said they offered nothing new or of interest and none claimed that they were not ESP- related.” (p. 60) Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  27. 27. “Whatever the reasons, they appear to lie outside any difficulties authors may have had in producing written English.” (p. 61) Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  28. 28. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  29. 29. Why article are rejected ● Belcher, D. D. (2007). Seeking acceptance in an English-only research world. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16(1), 1–22. ● Bordage, G. (2001). Reasons reviewers reject and accept manuscripts: the strengths and weaknesses in medical education reports. Academic Medicine. ● Pierson, D. J. (2012). The Top 10 Reasons Why Manuscripts Are Not Accepted for Publication. Respiratory Care, 49(10). Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  30. 30. Motivos mais comuns para rejeição: Belcher (2007) Bordage (2001) Pierson (2012) Wrong journal X ✓ X Faulty method ✓ ✓ ✓ Lack of transparency X ✓ ✓ Problems with statistics X ✓ ✓ Poor Discussion (or overstating importance of findings) ✓ ✓ ✓ Improper formatting X ✓ X Writing difficult to follow ✓ ✓ ✓ Inadequate review of the literature ✓ ✓ ✓ Nothing new ✓ ✓ ✓ Contribution not clear ✓ ✓ X Poor English X X X Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  31. 31. Motivos mais comuns para rejeição: Belcher (2007) Bordage (2001) Pierson (2012) Wrong journal X ✓ X Faulty method ✓ ✓ ✓ Lack of transparency X ✓ ✓ Problems with statistics X ✓ ✓ Poor Discussion (or overstating importance of findings) ✓ ✓ ✓ Improper formatting X ✓ X Writing difficult to follow ✓ ✓ ✓ Inadequate review of the literature ✓ ✓ ✓ Nothing new ✓ ✓ ✓ Contribution not clear ✓ ✓ X Poor English X X X Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  32. 32. Reasons articles get accepted (Bordage, 2001) Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  33. 33. Example (from TESOL Quarterly) Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  34. 34. Aquele exemplo de novo… Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  35. 35. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  36. 36. Exemplo: Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  37. 37. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  38. 38. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  39. 39. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  40. 40. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  41. 41. Hyland (2016) ● “I am not, of course, claiming peer review to be perfect. […] There is, however, little evidence to support the idea that there is a widespread and systematic bias against writers whose first language is not English.” (p. 66) Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  42. 42. 2011 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  43. 43. There are no native academic writers.
  44. 44. Our objectives here
  45. 45. Beyond English, beyond "produção"
  46. 46. Learn to tell a research story
  47. 47. Motivos mais comuns para rejeição: Belcher (2007) Bordage (2001) Pierson (2012) Wrong journal X ✓ X Faulty method ✓ ✓ ✓ Lack of transparency X ✓ ✓ Problems with statistics X ✓ ✓ Poor Discussion (or overstating importance of findings) ✓ ✓ ✓ Improper formatting X ✓ X Writing difficult to follow ✓ ✓ ✓ Inadequate review of the literature ✓ ✓ ✓ Nothing new ✓ ✓ ✓ Contribution not clear ✓ ✓ X Poor English X X X Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  48. 48. Motivos mais comuns para rejeição: Belcher (2007) Bordage (2001) Pierson (2012) Wrong journal X ✓ X Faulty method ✓ ✓ ✓ Lack of transparency X ✓ ✓ Problems with statistics X ✓ ✓ Poor Discussion (or overstating importance of findings) ✓ ✓ ✓ Improper formatting X ✓ X Writing difficult to follow ✓ ✓ ✓ Inadequate review of the literature ✓ ✓ ✓ Nothing new ✓ ✓ ✓ Contribution not clear ✓ ✓ X Poor English X X X Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  49. 49. I live in Curitiba., where it rains a lot. I have many umbrellas.
  50. 50. Contributors to publication success (or failure) LANGUAGE WRITING THE RESEARCH
  51. 51. LANGUAGE WRITING THE RESEARCH
  52. 52. I live on Curitiba. I has many umbrellas.
  53. 53. What do you need?
  54. 54. Level of English?
  55. 55. • This is site is important for many activities throughout the semester. • Necessary for full evaluation of student. ALUN@S
  56. 56. Assessment • There will be ongoing assessment throughout the semester (e.g. GoFormative, Introduction); • Your final grade will be based partly on the final article, which will be graded by both Dr. Ron Martinez and your advisor (“orientador”). This grade will also reflect your engagement throughout the semester.
  57. 57. Other sources of help YOUR ADVISOR
  58. 58. Help from • Durante class: Team members will be present to answer questions; • After class: Personalized help (see our class website).
  59. 59. www.drronmartinez.com
  60. 60. Advisor (“orientador”) involvement • Throughout the course, there will be a number of activities that should involve your advisor; • This involvement does not require knowledge of English; • You must register your advisor on the class website (go to www.drronmartinez.com)
  61. 61. On our old site, and new one ... Todos os PowerPoints de cada aula (disponíveis no dia) Resumos das aulas (disponíveis somente depois) Links para leitura, diversos recursos úteis,etc.
  62. 62. Cronograma da Disciplina • 15/08 - Introdução • 22/08 - IMRaD, Os erros mais comuns, uso de alguns recursos eletrônicos • 29/08 - Planejamento estratégico do artigo: CARS e outras estratégias • 05/09 - Título, Resumo e Introdução • 12/09 - Escrita da Introdução • 19/09 - Conceitos coerência, coesão e clareza, e uso de voz autoral • 26/09 - (Introduction due) Escrita dos Resultados • 03/10- Escrita da Discussão • 10/10 - Discutindo e Concluindo • 17/10 - Writing (no class) • 24/10 - Students exchange articles (no class) • 31/10 - (peer feedback due) Plagiarism, the submission process • 07/11 - Special guest speaker on journal trends
  63. 63. Thank you, and don’t forget to... • Register in Formative • Complete the Student and Advisor questionnaire (on our class page) • Do the activity ("Module 1 - Introduction") in Formative

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