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Guiding the Reader: Title, Abstract and Introduction

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Starting to conceptualize the structure of an article Introduction, and the connections between Title, Abstract and Introduction

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Guiding the Reader: Title, Abstract and Introduction

  1. 1. Guiding the reader: Title, Abstract and Introduction Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez PRPPG7000 - Academic Writing in English
  2. 2. Syllabus outline • 15/08 - Introduction • 22/08 - IMRaD, Most common errors, electronic tools • 29/08 - Strategic planning for your article: CARS and other approaches • 05/09 - Title, Abstract e Introduction • 12/09 - Writing your Introduction • 19/09 - Coherence, cohesion and clarity, and use of authorial voice • 26/09 - (Introduction due) The Results section • 03/10- The Discussion section • 10/10 - Discussing and Concluding • 17/10 - Writing (no class) • 24/10 - Students exchange articles (no class) • 31/10 - (peer feedback due) Plagiarism, the submission process • 07/11 - Special guest speaker on journal trends
  3. 3. 1998
  4. 4. ZEUM
  5. 5. 2011
  6. 6. “Zeum” press release: "Although the name Zeum sounded fun, it didn't provide parents with any clues about what they and their children would experience.”
  7. 7. Today: 1. Review key concepts from last week 2. Explore the importance of titles and the structure of abstracts 3. Introduce concept of “Problem-Solution” 4. Look ahead to starting your Introduction section
  8. 8. “Seus dados já têm história para contar?” “Até o momento, a história que meus dados contam é de que 30 espécies da biodiversidade brasileira já estão inseridas no mercado de óleos essenciais. Entretanto, ainda estou em fase de coleta de dados.”
  9. 9. Another example: “Meus resultados ainda estão sendo gerados, então ainda não possuem uma história para contar. A história somente irá surgir com todos os resultados em mãos.”
  10. 10. “Qual seria seu ‘número 2’ em CARS?” “Pouco se sabe do real impacto econômico das helmintoses em bovinos. Existem poucos autores que realmente se importaram com esse aspecto e realizaram cálculos interessantes.”
  11. 11. Another example: “Seria que pouco se sabe sobre os impactos ambientais e sobre o desempenho térmico do CLT (cross laminated timber) aplicado à edificações no Brasil.”
  12. 12. "They Say, I Say" • "(A) writer needs to indicate not only what his or her thesis is, but also what larger conversation that thesis is responding to." (p. 20) • "(W)hen is comes to constructing an argument […], remember that you are entering a conversation and therefore need to start with 'what others are saying'…" (p. 20)
  13. 13. “Qual é o ‘they say’ da sua pesquisa?” “Tem-se falado muito sobre recusa alimentar, seletividade alimentar, e existem fatores que já estão descritos na literatura que podem interferir. Meu trabalho pretende mostrar/verificar por meio de um acompanhamento (estudo de coorte), de forma mais abrangente tais fatores.”
  14. 14. Another example: “Eles dizem que as helmintoses em bovinos não geram perdas econômicas significativas, visto que a maior parte dessas enfermidades são subclínicas. No entanto, eu digo que elas têm, e irei calcular o tamanho deste prejuízo em escalas regionais e estaduais (após início de minha pesquisa).”
  15. 15. The Naysayer
  16. 16. “Um dos pontos da minha pesquisa que um ‘naysayer’ iria questionar seria a escolha aleatória dos pacientes participantes. Os pacientes eram selecionados aleatoriamente no Ambulatório da hematologia pediatrica, porém um naysayer poderia questionar se o médico que encaminhou o paciente nao observou alguma alteração oftalmológico e depois disso encaminhou-o para o Ambulatório de Oftalmologia.”
  17. 17. "Após conversar com minha orientadora, chegamos a conclusão que pontos como a aleatoriedade na seleção da amostra e força do cálculo amostral podem ser questões em que os críticos se concentram, podendo duvidar quanto ao número suficiente de sujeitos para afirmar possivel resultado. Dessa forma, teremos que estar atentos a estes detalhes."
  18. 18. Can you hear the Naysayer? 1. “There has been no research on this topic so far in the literature.” 2. “The importance of this subject has already been well established.” 3. “The results of this research conclusively prove that the participants improved.”
  19. 19. Not aware of Naysayer 1. “There has been no research on this topic so far in the literature.” Aware of Naysayer To the best of our knowledge, there is little or no research on this topic...
  20. 20. Not aware of Naysayer 1. “There has been no research on this topic so far in the literature.” 2. “The importance has already been well established.” Aware of Naysayer To the best of our knowledge, there is little or no research on this topic… The importance has already been well established (2-11).
  21. 21. Not aware of Naysayer 1. “There has been no research on this topic so far in the literature.” 2. “The importance has already been well established.” 3. “The results of this research conclusively prove that the participants improved.” Aware of Naysayer To the best of our knowledge, there is little or no research on this topic… The importance has already been well established (2-11). The results of this research provide compelling evidence that participants improved.
  22. 22. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD.
  23. 23. C.A.R.S. (Swales, 1990) • Create • A • Research • Space INTRODUÇÃO
  24. 24. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  25. 25. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  26. 26. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  27. 27. C.A.R.S. and IMRaD in Abstracts Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  28. 28. I M R D Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  29. 29. "C.A.R.S." framework • Establish “territory”: Mention importance, what the “conversation” is. • Establish “niche”: Mention the “gap.” • Occupy niche: Say how that gap will be filled. 1 2 3
  30. 30. Example: Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults generally require less sleep than younger adults.
  31. 31. Example: Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderlyand possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults generally require less sleep than younger adults.
  32. 32. Example: Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderly and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults generally require less sleep than younger adults.
  33. 33. Common problem: No “Space” created • Establish “territory”: Mention importance, what the “conversation” is. • Establish “niche”: Mention the “gap.” • Occupy niche: Say how that gap will be filled. 1 2 3
  34. 34. Example: Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderly and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults generally require less sleep than younger adults.
  35. 35. Common problem: No “Space” created • Establish “territory”: Mention importance, what the “conversation” is. • Establish “niche”: Mention the “gap.” • Occupy niche: Say how that gap will be filled. 1 2 3
  36. 36. Example: Abstract There is a growing concern that people are not getting enough sleep. Moreover, there is increasing evidence of an association between sleep and adult health. However, there is still little research on how much sleep older adults (>65) need. This retrospective cohort study examined reported sleep duration among the elderly and possible associations with health concerns. Results show that older adults generally require less sleep than younger adults.
  37. 37. C.A.R.S. (Swales, 1990) • Create • A • Research • Space INTRODUÇÃO
  38. 38. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD.
  39. 39. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE
  40. 40. Abstract There is a popular belief that alcohol consumption can help someone speak a foreign language more fluently. However, there is no evidence in the current literature to support this idea. This study aimed to investigate the effect of drinking alcoholic beverages on how adult learners of English perceive themselves (self-ratings), and how they are perceived by others (peer-ratings). Results of show that consuming alcohol drinks positively affected perception of fluency.
  41. 41. Which title do you like most? A. Can drinking alcohol make you speak a foreign language more fluently? Evidence from a quasi-experimental study B. Ethyl alcohol (ethanol C2H5OH) consumption by human adults in distilled form: effects on neuromuscular verbal articulation in a foreign language C. Drinking alcohol positively affects fluency in a foreign language D. The effects of consuming alcoholic beverages on foreign language fluency
  42. 42. kahoot.it
  43. 43. Different types of titles 1. Transparent 2. Finding 3. Implication/Application 4. Method-focused 5. Question 6. Effect 7. Elaboration 8. Quote
  44. 44. 1. Transparent
  45. 45. Transparent A importância de andar com guardachuva em Curitiba
  46. 46. Transparent
  47. 47. Transparent
  48. 48. 2. Finding
  49. 49. Finding Sair de casa sem guardachuva aumenta probabilidade de chuvas Resumo Das últimas décadas, fala-se muito sobre a necessidade de se sentir protegido da chuva.
  50. 50. Finding
  51. 51. Finding
  52. 52. 3. Implication/Application
  53. 53. Implication/Application Reduzindo as chances de esquecer o guardachuva
  54. 54. Implication/Application
  55. 55. 4. Method-focused
  56. 56. Method-focused
  57. 57. Method-focused
  58. 58. Method-focused
  59. 59. 5. Question
  60. 60. Question Sair de casa sem guardachuva provoca a chuva?
  61. 61. Question
  62. 62. Question
  63. 63. 6. Effect
  64. 64. Effect Efeito de porte de guardachuva na precipitação de Curitiba
  65. 65. Effect
  66. 66. Effect
  67. 67. 7. Elaboration
  68. 68. Elaboration Animais que precisam ser tirados da chuva: o caso do cavalinho
  69. 69. Elaboration
  70. 70. Elaboration
  71. 71. 8. Quote
  72. 72. 8. Quote "De novo perdi o guardachuva": causas de esquecimento de dispositivos anti-pluviais na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba
  73. 73. Quote
  74. 74. Quote
  75. 75. Quote
  76. 76. Mixed/Hybrid
  77. 77. Abstract There is a popular belief that alcohol consumption can help someone speak a foreign language more fluently. However, there is no evidence in the current literature to support this idea. This study aimed to investigate the effect of drinking alcoholic beverages on how adult learners of English perceive themselves (self-ratings), and how they are perceived by others (peer-ratings). Results of show that consuming alcohol drinks positively affected perception of fluency.
  78. 78. Don't make your title too long!
  79. 79. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD.
  80. 80. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE
  81. 81. C.A.R.S. (Swales, 1990) • Create • A • Research • Space INTRODUÇÃO
  82. 82. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  83. 83. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  84. 84. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  85. 85. HOEY’S PROBLEM-SOLUTION PATTERN
  86. 86. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  87. 87. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  88. 88. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR "SITUATION"
  89. 89. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR "SITUATION"
  90. 90. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR "SITUATION" "PROBLEM"
  91. 91. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  92. 92. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  93. 93. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  94. 94. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR "SITUATION"
  95. 95. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR "SITUATION"
  96. 96. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR "SITUATION" "PROBLEM"
  97. 97. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR "SITUATION" "PROBLEM"
  98. 98. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR "SITUATION" "PROBLEM" "RESPONSE"
  99. 99. HOEY’S PROBLEM-SOLUTION PATTERN
  100. 100. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  101. 101. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  102. 102. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  103. 103. Comparison CARS • MOVE 1: English is the language of science, but many scientists are not native speakers of English. • MOVE 2: We know that non-native speakers have difficulty, but we do not know if that difficulty is greater than in their first language. • MOVE 3: We will quantify their "burden" in each language. PROBLEM-SOLUTION
  104. 104. Comparison CARS • MOVE 1: English is the language of science, but many scientists are not native speakers of English. • MOVE 2: We know that non-native speakers have difficulty, but we do not know if that difficulty is greater than in their first language. • MOVE 3: We will quantify their "burden" in each language. PROBLEM-SOLUTION • SITUATION: English is the language of science. • PROBLEM: But many scientists are not native speakers of English. • SITUATION: We know that non- native speakers have difficulty. • PROBLEM: But we do not know if that difficulty is greater than in their first language. • RESPONSE: We quantified their "burden" in each language.
  105. 105. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  106. 106. A linguistic inside look • Analyze the grammar used in each “move” • Analyze vocabulary and phrases used • Note and copy!
  107. 107. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  108. 108. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  109. 109. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  110. 110. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3 THEY SAY I SAY
  111. 111. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  112. 112. BUILDING AN ARGUMENT
  113. 113. Careful with what you “claim” An umbrella is a necessary item in Curitiba. I recommend you buy an umbrella.
  114. 114. Careful with what you “claim” An umbrella is a necessary item in Curitiba. According to government weather data, there was rainfall in 180 of 365 days in 2017. I recommend you buy an umbrella.
  115. 115. ARGUMENT = "CLAIM" + "WARRANTING" • "(A)n argument is a claim backed up (warranted) by evidence." (p.47*) • "You can apply (this concept) to any length of text, from a sentence to the whole of a dissertation or book." (p. 48*) *Wallace, M. & Wray, A. (2011). Scholarly reading as a model for scholarly writing. In T.S. Rocco & T. Hatcher (Eds.), The Handbook of Scholarly Writing and Publishing. San Francisco, Jossey- Bass.
  116. 116. After you write, consider: 1. Am I making a claim? 2. If so, is the claim warranted?
  117. 117. 2 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3 CLAIM WARRANTING CLAIM
  118. 118. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  119. 119. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  120. 120. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  121. 121. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  122. 122. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  123. 123. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  124. 124. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  125. 125. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  126. 126. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  127. 127. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  128. 128. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  129. 129. Every area has its SPECIFICITIES!
  130. 130. Choose a mentor text!
  131. 131. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD.
  132. 132. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD. TITLE
  133. 133. But I have no data! • Try to get some! • Think of the article you produce for this class as a “template.” • Best option: use your partial data. • Good option: use unused data (adviser, lab, classmate...). • Another option: Build on what you did before (TCC, dissertation, etc.) • Worst case scenario: Consider a review article. • You have no topic yet? Create one! (Use your adviser.)
  134. 134. ARTICLE INTRODUCTION • Don’t just copy from your dissertation/thesis
  135. 135. ARTICLE INTRODUCTION • Rewrite that story!
  136. 136. YOU
  137. 137. YOU LIT REVIEW
  138. 138. YOU LIT REVIEW ARTICLE
  139. 139. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  140. 140. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  141. 141. The Introduction
  142. 142. Syllabus outline • 15/08 - Introduction • 22/08 - IMRaD, Most common errors, electronic tools • 29/08 - Strategic planning for your article: CARS and other approaches • 05/09 - Title, Abstract e Introduction • 12/09 - Writing your Introduction • 19/09 - Coherence, cohesion and clarity, and use of authorial voice • 26/09 - (Introduction due) The Results section • 03/10- The Discussion section • 10/10 - Discussing and Concluding • 17/10 - Writing (no class) • 24/10 - Students exchange articles (no class) • 31/10 - (peer feedback due) Plagiarism, the submission process • 07/11 - Special guest speaker on journal trends
  143. 143. What tools do you have in your toolbox?
  144. 144. Focus on what you know... • You’ve already thought about (2 levels of) objectives. • You are familiar with the typical Introduction structure (e.g. CARS). • You are aware of the “They say”, “Naysayer”, and your “Niche.” • You know what you should and should not try to “copy.” • You are aware of some typical grammar mistakes. • You can be a "linguistic detective" using tools Google Scholar, Google Translate, Grammarly, SKELL e AntConc, and a mentor text.
  145. 145. Choose a mentor text!
  146. 146. What’s left (perhaps)... •Create a title. •Find "mentor articles" (perhaps with your adviser) and analyze the Introduction, "plagiarizing" useful linguistic features. •Write your Introduction!
  147. 147. 12 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR 3
  148. 148. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  149. 149. CARS • MOVE 1: English is the language of science, but many scientists are not native speakers of English. • MOVE 2: We know that non-native speakers have difficulty, but we do not know if that difficulty is greater than in their first language. • MOVE 3: We will quantify their "burden" in each language. PROBLEM-SOLUTION • SITUATION: English is the language of science. • PROBLEM: But many scientists are not native speakers of English. • SITUATION: We know that non- native speakers have difficulty. • PROBLEM: But we do not know if that difficulty is greater than in their first language. • RESPONSE: We quantified their "burden" in each language.
  150. 150. Create your own CARS • MOVE 1: English is the language of science, but many scientists are not native speakers of English. • MOVE 2: We know that non-native speakers have difficulty, but we do not know if that difficulty is greater than in their first language. • MOVE 3: We will quantify their "burden" in each language. PROBLEM-SOLUTION • SITUATION: English is the language of science. • PROBLEM: But many scientists are not native speakers of English. • SITUATION: We know that non- native speakers have difficulty. • PROBLEM: But we do not know if that difficulty is greater than in their first language. • RESPONSE: We quantified their "burden" in each language.
  151. 151. From last year: Pela primeira vez, iniciei um artigo pela escrita em inglês, sem um "esboço" em português. A escrita acabou fluindo, as ideias não fugiram e percebi que podemos, sim, escrever com qualidade em inglês. Utilizei o Google Tradutor em alguns momentos, o Google Acadêmico e o AntConc para descobrir os termos mais utilizados, e o Grammarly quando surgiam dúvidas. Após discutir a Introdução com a orientadora, fizemos alguns ajustes teóricos e fechamos com um bom desenvolvimento da atividade. Enfim excelente estímulo e oportunidade para começar a escrever em inglês!
  152. 152. The next steps... ASAP • Create a (working) title and Intro outline (CARS, Problem-Solution); • Try to start (just a sentence or two). • Use your mentor text(s) to help! BY NEXT CLASS • Share title and outline with your “orientador”. • Write, write, write! • Bring a printed version of your Intro to class (“presencial”). • “Virtual”: Find someone to share your work with. • Describe your experience in Formative.
  153. 153. Remember...

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