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Escrita Acadêmica em Inglês - Módulo 9

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Foco no uso de "hedging"

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Escrita Acadêmica em Inglês - Módulo 9

  1. 1. Escrita Acadêmica em Inglês - Módulo 9 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez PRPPG Universidade Federal do Paraná
  2. 2. Motivos mais comuns para rejeição: Belcher (2007) Bordage (2001) Pierson (2012) Revista errada X ✓ X Método com problemas ✓ ✓ ✓ Falta de detalhes X ✓ ✓ Problemas com estatística X ✓ ✓ Discussão inadequada (ou não fundamentada) ✓ ✓ ✓ Formatação inapropriada X ✓ X Falta de lógica na escrita ✓ ✓ ✓ Literatura inadequada ✓ ✓ ✓ Falta de relevância ✓ ✓ ✓ Relevância não clara ✓ ✓ X Inglês incorreto X X X
  3. 3. Qual foi o motivo da rejeição? "The manuscript is interesting and it brings original ideas. However a major revision is necessary. The methods should be described comprehensively and not confused as it is. Details such as use of water or not to process the mixtures are not mentioned and this is an important point in this kind of product compositons, mainly due to lime and phase formnation; there are not characterisitics of the individual components as the authors mentioned that the materials were characterized; the results should justify the interpretations and conclusions, however they are just pointed out and not discussed at all. Figures II, III and IV should be standardized (scale). Sometimes one of the components is namely referirng to paper sludge, sometimes it is namely ETE's sludge waste, and so on. Language should be also reviewed. Since the manuscript is concerning to technological development it could present sample image (example: fracture surface image). Finally, a good, very good revision in the manuscript is necessary."
  4. 4. Cronograma da Disciplina • 30/08 - Introdução • 06/09 - IMRaD,Os erros mais comuns, uso de alguns recursos eletrônicos • 13/09 - Planejamento estratégicodo artigo: o "naysayer" no texto, claims + warranting,CARS, they say/I say, problem-solution • 20/09 - Título, Resumo e Introdução • 27/09 - Não terá aula (escrita em casa) • 04/10 - Escrita da Introdução e conceitos coerência, coesão e clareza, e uso de voz autorial • 11/10 - Escrita do Método • 18/10 - Escrita dos Resultados • 25/10 - Discussão dos resultados • 01/11 - Discussão + Concluindo • 08/11 - Cover letters e respostas a avaliadores, alunos trocam artigos em andamento com colegas (grupos de 5-6) • 15/11 - Feriado (leitura dos artigos em casa) • 22/11-Feedback em grupos • 29/11 - Lidando com editores e revistas, mesa redonda com editores e pesquisadores; o papel da publicação na carreira
  5. 5. Discussão : 6 elementos comuns ! Retomar assuntos da Introdução Comparar com outros estudos Expandir, explanar, extrapolar Falar de aplicações e implicações práticas Falar das limitações Falar do que ainda há por fazer; como a pesquisa contribui para o avanço
  6. 6. LIMITATIONS "DEFECTS"
  7. 7. Abstract Axillary body odor is individually specific and potentially a rich source of information about its producer. Odor individuality partly results from genetic individuality, but the influence of ecological factors such as eating habits are another main source of odor variability. However, we know very little about how particular dietary components shape our body odor. Here we tested the effect of red meat consumption on body odor attractiveness. We used a balanced within- subject experimental design. Seventeen male odor donors were on “meat” or “nonmeat” diet for 2 weeks wearing axillary pads to collect body odor during the final 24 h of the diet. Fresh odor samples were assessed for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity, and intensity by 30 women not using hormonal contraceptives. We repeated the same procedure a month later with the same odor donors, each on the opposite diet than before. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the odor of donors when on the nonmeat diet was judged as significantly more attractive, more pleasant, and less intense. This suggests that red meat consumption has a negative impact on perceived body odor hedonicity.
  8. 8. O "naysayer" 1. Na seção "Discussion" (online), indentifique apontamentos que foram colocados pelos autores pensando no "naysayer". 2. Compare com outro colega.
  9. 9. • Small sample size • Diet can effect mood, and therefore odor • Effect could be the result of protein, not necessarily meat per se • Not a qualitative chemical change, just a quantitative one due to more meat
  10. 10. ONDE MUITOS AUTORES PARAM
  11. 11. ONDE MUITOS AUTORES PARAM
  12. 12. ONDE MUITOS AUTORES PARAM
  13. 13. !
  14. 14. Hedging (moderando confiança) Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat.
  15. 15. Hedging (moderando confiança) Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat.
  16. 16. Hedging (moderando confiança) Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat. CLAIM
  17. 17. Hedging (moderando confiança) Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat. CLAIM
  18. 18. Hedging (moderando confiança) Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat. CLAIM WARRANTING
  19. 19. Hedging (moderando confiança) Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat. CLAIM WARRANTING
  20. 20. Alguns hedges comuns MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a result of suggestseem / appearwould
  21. 21. Alguns hedges comuns MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a/the result of + BE + HAVE suggestseem / appearwould
  22. 22. Por exemplo...
  23. 23. Exemplos de uso de hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cognitive functioning before allowing a candidate to run for president.
  24. 24. Exemplos de uso de hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cognitive functioning before allowing a candidate to run for president.
  25. 25. Exemplos de uso de hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cognitive functioning before allowing a candidate to run for president.
  26. 26. Exemplos de uso de hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cognitive functioning before allowing a candidate to run for president.
  27. 27. Exemplos de uso de hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cognitive functioning before allowing a candidate to run for president.
  28. 28. Exemplos de uso de hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cognitive functioning before allowing a candidate to run for president. • The result of the 2016 election would seem to suggest that a change in US education appears to be needed.
  29. 29. TURMA PRESENCIAL
  30. 30. TURMA À DISTÂNCIA
  31. 31. TURMA TOTAL
  32. 32. Use hedging 1. Trabalhe junto com 1 ou 2 pessoas. (Turma presencial) 2. Juntos (presencial), identifique números "interessantes"; isto é, dados que obviamente merecem ser mencionados e discutidos. 3. Discutam os possíveis motivos dos dados que vocês identificaram como interessantes. 4. Com base nessa discussão, escrevam juntos 3 frases com hedging. 5. Juntos, escolhem sua frase "favorita";envie essa frase (uma por dupla) pelo link no cabeçalho do slide.
  33. 33. Concluindo...
  34. 34. Como concluir? •Seção separada? ("Conclusion") •Integrar na Discussion? •Como sinalizar? •O que deve incluir?
  35. 35. Primeira dica: consulte a revista
  36. 36. Discussão : 6 elementos comuns ! Retomar assuntos da Introdução Comparar com outros estudos Expandir, explanar, extrapolar Falar de aplicações e implicações práticas Falar das limitações Falar do que ainda há por fazer; como a pesquisa contribui para o avanço
  37. 37. [DA SEMANA PASSADA] Converse com colegas, e esboce sua Discussion 1. Como a sua pesquisa, e seus resultados, se compara com os de outros trabalhos já publicados? 2. Quais são alguns dados especialmente fortes? E "poréns" nos dados (ou similar) no seu artigo? 3. Quais seriam algumas aplicações/implicações dos seus (possíveis) dados? 4. Quais são algumas limitações da pesquisa? 5. Qual é a contribuição principal da sua pesquisa, com ela avança sua área? 6. Quais são os novos rumos para os quais sua pesquisa aponta?
  38. 38. Até semana que vem: 1. Faça uma conclusão. Lembre-se de incluir elementos de 'hedging', e de levar em conta o 'naysayer'. 2. Termine seu primeiro rascunho do artigo completo. O artigo será enviado na quarta-feira que vem (8/11), mas terá tempo durante a aula para dar os 'toques finais'.

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