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Discussing and concluding - academic writing in English

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The focus in this class is on awareness of the "naysayer" when discussing research results, and how the use of "hedging" is related to that awareness.

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Discussing and concluding - academic writing in English

  1. 1. Discussing and concluding Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez PRPPG7000 - Academic Writing in English
  2. 2. Syllabus outline • 15/08 - Introduction • 22/08 - IMRaD, Most common errors, electronic tools • 29/08 - Strategic planning for your article: CARS and other approaches • 05/09 - Title, Abstract e Introduction • 12/09 - Writing your Introduction • 19/09 - Coherence, cohesion and clarity, and use of authorial voice • 26/09 - (Introduction due) The Results section • 03/10- No class (SIEPE) • 10/10 - The Discussion section • 17/10 - Discussing and Concluding • 24/10 - Writing (no class) • 31/10 - Plagiarism (Students exchange articles) • 07/11 - (peer feedback due) Special guest speaker on journal trends • 14/11 - The submission process
  3. 3. Introductions will be returned 07/11/18
  4. 4. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULTS I.M.R.aD.
  5. 5. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULTS I.M.R.aD.
  6. 6. Motivos mais comuns para rejeição: Belcher (2007) Bordage (2001) Pierson (2012) Wrong journal X ✓ X Faulty method ✓ ✓ ✓ Lack of transparency X ✓ ✓ Problems with statistics X ✓ ✓ Poor Discussion (or overstating importance of findings) ✓ ✓ ✓ Improper formatting X ✓ X Writing difficult to follow ✓ ✓ ✓ Inadequate review of the literature ✓ ✓ ✓ Nothing new ✓ ✓ ✓ Contribution not clear ✓ ✓ X Poor English X X X Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  7. 7. A good example...
  8. 8. Analysis of policy transfer and diffusion: a combination of methodological tools Policy transfer and diffusion belong to an area of knowledge in development and with a potential to explain political changes at national (COELHO et al., 2016b) and international levels (SILVA et al., 2017), bringing together public policy analysis and international relations areas (OLIVEIRA et al., 2017). As an area of knowledge in development, there is a concern about the establishment of theoretical frameworks and conceptual reviews (DOLOWITZ, MARSH, 1996, 2000; OLIVEIRA et al., 2017; STONE, 2004). In addition to these theoretical concerns, the focus is also on methods for analyzing these iterative processes. This emphasis may be related to the difficulties faced in demonstrating empirically a policy diffusion/transfer process [JS3] (FARIAet al., 2016; COELHO, 2016a; GONNET, 2016). Yet articles with this aim are a minority in studies of policy transfer and diffusion.
  9. 9. Analysis of policy transfer and diffusion: a combination of methodological tools Policy transfer and diffusion belong to an area of knowledge in development and with a potential to explain political changes at national (COELHO et al., 2016b) and international levels (SILVA et al., 2017), bringing together public policy analysis and international relations areas (OLIVEIRA et al., 2017). As an area of knowledge in development, there is a concern about the establishment of theoretical frameworks and conceptual reviews (DOLOWITZ, MARSH, 1996, 2000; OLIVEIRA et al., 2017; STONE, 2004). In addition to these theoretical concerns, the focus is also on methods for analyzing these iterative processes. This emphasis may be related to the difficulties faced in demonstrating empirically a policy diffusion/transfer process [JS3] (FARIAet al., 2016; COELHO, 2016a; GONNET, 2016). Yet articles with this aim are a minority in studies of policy transfer and diffusion.
  10. 10. Analysis of policy transfer and diffusion: a combination of methodological tools Policy transfer and diffusion belong to an area of knowledge in development and with a potential to explain political changes at national (COELHO et al., 2016b) and international levels (SILVA et al., 2017), bringing together public policy analysis and international relations areas (OLIVEIRA et al., 2017). As an area of knowledge in development, there is a concern about the establishment of theoretical frameworks and conceptual reviews (DOLOWITZ, MARSH, 1996, 2000; OLIVEIRA et al., 2017; STONE, 2004). In addition to these theoretical concerns, the focus is also on methods for analyzing these iterative processes. This emphasis may be related to the difficulties faced in demonstrating empirically a policy diffusion/transfer process [JS3] (FARIAet al., 2016; COELHO, 2016a; GONNET, 2016). Yet articles with this aim are a minority in studies of policy transfer and diffusion.
  11. 11. Analysis of policy transfer and diffusion: a combination of methodological tools Policy transfer and diffusion belong to an area of knowledge in development and with a potential to explain political changes at national (COELHO et al., 2016b) and international levels (SILVA et al., 2017), bringing together public policy analysis and international relations areas (OLIVEIRA et al., 2017). As an area of knowledge in development, there is a concern about the establishment of theoretical frameworks and conceptual reviews (DOLOWITZ, MARSH, 1996, 2000; OLIVEIRA et al., 2017; STONE, 2004). In addition to these theoretical concerns, the focus is also on methods for analyzing these iterative processes. This emphasis may be related to the difficulties faced in demonstrating empirically a policy diffusion/transfer process (FARIA et al., 2016; COELHO, 2016a; GONNET, 2016). Yet articles with this aim are a minority in studies of policy transfer and diffusion.
  12. 12. (next paragraph) Since there is a gap in terms of methodological aspects, the objective of this article is to identify which are the frequently used tools in order to demonstrate empirically public policy transfer and/or diffusion. For reaching this objective, we have decided to do a metanalysis a list of 100 articles (search term: policy transfer) and 100 articles (search term: policy diffusion) with the highest impact factor in the Web of Science database . The mapping of these methodological tools might help those scholars that are starting in this field as well as in the development of future studies.
  13. 13. (next paragraph) Since there is a gap in terms of methodological aspects, the objective of this article is to identify which are the frequently used tools in order to demonstrate empirically public policy transfer and/or diffusion. For reaching this objective, we have decided to do a metanalysis a list of 100 articles (search term: policy transfer) and 100 articles (search term: policy diffusion) with the highest impact factor in the Web of Science database . The mapping of these methodological tools might help those scholars that are starting in this field as well as in the development of future studies.
  14. 14. (next paragraph) Since there is a gap in terms of methodological aspects, the objective of this article is to identify which are the frequently used tools in order to demonstrate empirically public policy transfer and/or diffusion. For reaching this objective, we have decided to do a metanalysis a list of 100 articles (search term: policy transfer) and 100 articles (search term: policy diffusion) with the highest impact factor in the Web of Science database . The mapping of these methodological tools might help those scholars that are starting in this field as well as in the development of future studies.
  15. 15. Motivos mais comuns para rejeição: Belcher (2007) Bordage (2001) Pierson (2012) Wrong journal X ✓ X Faulty method ✓ ✓ ✓ Lack of transparency X ✓ ✓ Problems with statistics X ✓ ✓ Poor Discussion (or overstating importance of findings) ✓ ✓ ✓ Improper formatting X ✓ X Writing difficult to follow ✓ ✓ ✓ Inadequate review of the literature ✓ ✓ ✓ Nothing new ✓ ✓ ✓ Contribution not clear ✓ ✓ X Poor English X X X Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  16. 16. Discussion : 6 common elements !
  17. 17. Discussion : 6 common elements ! Revisit points raised in the Introduction
  18. 18. Discussion : 6 common elements ! Revisit points raised in the Introduction Compare with other studies
  19. 19. Discussion : 6 common elements ! Revisit points raised in the Introduction Compare with other studies Expand, explain, extrapolate
  20. 20. Discussion : 6 common elements ! Revisit points raised in the Introduction Compare with other studies Expand, explain, extrapolate Talk about applications and practical implications
  21. 21. Discussion : 6 common elements ! Revisit points raised in the Introduction Compare with other studies Expand, explain, extrapolate Talk about applications and practical implications Talk about limitations
  22. 22. Discussion : 6 common elements ! Revisit points raised in the Introduction Compare with other studies Expand, explain, extrapolate Talk about applications and practical implications Talk about limitations Talk about how the study advances the area; what is still needed
  23. 23. Your homework from last week... Download and read the article on our class webpage. What elements discussed in today’s class are present? Which are missing? (Respond on Formative.)
  24. 24. Why was it rejected? "The manuscript is interesting and it brings original ideas. However a major revision is necessary. The methods should be described comprehensively and not confused as it is. Details such as use of water or not to process the mixtures are not mentioned and this is an important point in this kind of product compositons, mainly due to lime and phase formnation; there are not characterisitics of the individual components as the authors mentioned that the materials were characterized; the results should justify the interpretations and conclusions, however they are just pointed out and not discussed at all. Figures II, III and IV should be standardized (scale). Sometimes one of the components is namely referirng to paper sludge, sometimes it is namely ETE's sludge waste, and so on. Language should be also reviewed. Since the manuscript is concerning to technological development it could present sample image (example: fracture surface image). Finally, a good, very good revision in the manuscript is necessary."
  25. 25. From “Alexa” “Dos seis elementos comuns passados na última aula … Não encontrei nenhum presente na seção de Results and Discussion do artigo rejeitado. Ao meu ver a seção de discussão só tinha comentários sobre os resultados encontrados, não tinha nada de discussão dos mesmos. Nem mesmo o aspecto mais conhecido de trazer os resultados de outros autores para conversar com o seu estava presente nos resultados, muito menos os outros cinco elementos. A minha impressão é que não tinha nenhuma Discussion e sim somente uma explanação dos resultados.”
  26. 26. From “Barbara” “[...] Outro ponto que poderia ser melhorado é em relação a conclusão dos dados, já que das nove composições testadas, apenas uma apresentou resultados promissores, mesmo assim não foram abordados os pontos limitantes desse trabalho.”
  27. 27. LIMITATIONS "DEFECTS"
  28. 28. Abstract Axillary body odor is individually specific and potentially a rich source of information about its producer. Odor individuality partly results from genetic individuality, but the influence of ecological factors such as eating habits are another main source of odor variability. However, we know very little about how particular dietary components shape our body odor. Here we tested the effect of red meat consumption on body odor attractiveness. We used a balanced within-subject experimental design. Seventeen male odor donors were on “meat” or “nonmeat” diet for 2 weeks wearing axillary pads to collect body odor during the final 24 h of the diet. Fresh odor samples were assessed for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity, and intensity by 30 women not using hormonal contraceptives. We repeated the same procedure a month later with the same odor donors, each on the opposite diet than before. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the odor of donors when on the nonmeat diet was judged as significantly more attractive, more pleasant, and less intense. This suggests that red meat consumption has a negative impact on perceived body odor hedonicity.
  29. 29. From the Introduction
  30. 30. From the Introduction
  31. 31. From the Introduction
  32. 32. From the Introduction
  33. 33. From the Method section
  34. 34. From the Method section
  35. 35. Discussion The results of this study show for the first time that red meat consumption may have a perceivable impact on axillary body odor. Odors of donors on the nonmeat diet were judged as more pleasant, more attractive, and less intense. This pattern was not influenced by raters' menstrual cycle phase or partnership status. The number of odor donors was relatively small (17 men). However, the nature of the experiment was balanced and within subject. In other words, each rater assessed some donors first in meat condition and some
  36. 36. Discussion The results of this study show for the first time that red meat consumption may have a perceivable impact on axillary body odor. Odors of donors on the nonmeat diet were judged as more pleasant, more attractive, and less intense. This pattern was not influenced by raters' menstrual cycle phase or partnership status. The number of odor donors was relatively small (17 men). However, the nature of the experiment was balanced and within subject. In other words, each rater assessed some donors first in meat condition and some
  37. 37. Discussion The results of this study show for the first time that red meat consumption may have a perceivable impact on axillary body odor. Odors of donors on the nonmeat diet were judged as more pleasant, more attractive, and less intense. This pattern was not influenced by raters' menstrual cycle phase or partnership status. The number of odor donors was relatively small (17 men). However, the nature of the experiment was balanced and within subject. In other words, each rater assessed some donors first in meat condition and some
  38. 38. The "Naysayer" 1. In the "Discussion" section (online), underline/highlight parts that were probably written thinking of the "Naysayer". 2. Compare with others.
  39. 39. WHERE MANY AUTHORS STOP
  40. 40. DISCUSSING WITH AWARENESS OF “NAYSAYER”
  41. 41. MAKING A CONCESSION
  42. 42. TIP: PRACTICE BEING A NAYSAYER Ask your “orientador” if you can review manuscripts together.
  43. 43. Discussion : 6 common elements ! Revisit points raised in the Introduction Compare with other studies Expand, explain, extrapolate Talk about applications and practical implications Talk about limitations Talk about how the study advances the area; what is still needed
  44. 44. !
  45. 45. “Hedging”: Examples 1. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas are easily lost.
  46. 46. “Hedging”: Examples 1. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas are easily lost. 2. Curitibanos often have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas are easily lost.
  47. 47. “Hedging”: Examples 1. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas are easily lost. 2. Curitibanos often have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas are easily lost. 3. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This may be because umbrellas are easily lost. 4. Curitibanos are known to have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas can be easily lost. 5. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This is likely due to the fact that umbrellas are easily lost.
  48. 48. “Hedging”: Examples 1. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas are easily lost. 2. Curitibanos often have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas are easily lost. 3. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This may be because umbrellas are easily lost. 4. Curitibanos are known to have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas can be easily lost. 5. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This is likely due to the fact that umbrellas are easily lost.
  49. 49. “Hedging”: Examples 1. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas are easily lost. 2. Curitibanos often have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas are easily lost. 3. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This may be because umbrellas are easily lost. 4. Curitibanos are known to have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas can be easily lost. 5. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This is likely due to the fact that umbrellas are easily lost.
  50. 50. “Hedging”: Examples 1. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas are easily lost. 2. Curitibanos often have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas are easily lost. 3. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This may be because umbrellas are easily lost. 4. Curitibanos are known to have many umbrellas. This is because umbrellas can be easily lost. 5. Curitibanos have many umbrellas. This is likely due to the fact that umbrellas are easily lost.
  51. 51. Hedging: a definition In academic writing, a “hedge” is a word or phrase used by the author(s) to show they are being careful about their claims.
  52. 52. Hedging (when discussing results) Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat.
  53. 53. Hedging (when discussing results) Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat.
  54. 54. Hedging (when discussing results) Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat.
  55. 55. Hedging Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat. CLAIM
  56. 56. Hedging Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat. CLAIM
  57. 57. Hedging Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat. CLAIM WARRANTING
  58. 58. Hedging Current knowledge allows us only to speculate what particular compounds and metabolic processes are responsible for hedonic changes in body odor after the meat consumption. We propose that it could be due to changes in amount and/or relative abundance of aliphatic acids. The axillary region contains abundant numbers of apocrine glands producing milky secretions. Fresh apocrine secretion is odorless but is rapidly converted by axillary microflora to odorous breakdown products. Of particular interest are corynobacteria A as they metabolize fatty acids to short aliphatic acids (James et al. 2004). Chromatographic examination of axillary sweat found a number of both saturated and unsaturated and branched and nonbranched aliphatic acids particularly of C5–C11 length (Zeng et al. 1991). If this is the case, we may expect a correlation between the change in the odor and fat proportion in meat. CLAIM WARRANTING
  59. 59. Some common hedges MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a result of suggestseem / appearwould
  60. 60. Some common hedges MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a/the result of + BE + HAVE suggestseem / appearwould
  61. 61. For example...
  62. 62. Some common hedges MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a/the result of + BE + HAVE suggestseem / appearwould
  63. 63. Using hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cognitive functioning before allowing a candidate to run for president.
  64. 64. Some common hedges MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a/the result of + BE + HAVE suggestseem / appearwould
  65. 65. Using hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cogniti.
  66. 66. Some common hedges MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a/the result of + BE + HAVE suggestseem / appearwould
  67. 67. Using hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cognit.
  68. 68. Some common hedges MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a/the result of + BE + HAVE suggestseem / appearwould
  69. 69. Using hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cognitive fu
  70. 70. Some common hedges MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a/the result of + BE + HAVE suggestseem / appearwould
  71. 71. Using hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cognitive functioning before allowing a candidate to run for president.
  72. 72. Some common hedges MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a/the result of + BE + HAVE suggestseem / appearwould
  73. 73. Some common hedges MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a/the result of + BE + HAVE suggestseem / appearwould
  74. 74. Some common hedges MODALITY • may • can • could • might • possibly • likely EFFECT/CAUSE • cause / caused by • attribute / attributable to • due to • affect / affected by • related to • (as) a/the result of + BE + HAVE suggestseem / appearwould
  75. 75. Using hedges • The unexpected result may have been caused by an underestimation of Trump's popularity among mainstream media outlets. • Traditionally democratic states that voted more republican in the election is likely the result of heavier campaigning by Trump. • The low voter turnout on election day is possibly attributable to ambivalent feelings towards Hillary Clinton among democratic voters. • The recent mass influx of Syrian refugees could have affected voter sentiment in favor of Trump. • In future elections, it may be useful to verify emotional stability and cognitive functioning before allowing a candidate to run for president. • The result of the 2016 election would seem to suggest that a change in US politics appears to be needed.
  76. 76. TURMA PRESENCIAL
  77. 77. TURMA À DISTÂNCIA
  78. 78. TURMA TOTAL
  79. 79. Concluding...
  80. 80. How to conclude? • Separate section? ("Conclusion") • Integrated into the Discussion? • How to signal you are “closing”? • What should you include?
  81. 81. First: check the journal (you want to submit to)
  82. 82. Can the Discussion and Conclusion be integrated?
  83. 83. Discussão : 6 elementos comuns ! Retomar assuntos da Introdução Comparar com outros estudos Expandir, explanar, extrapolar Falar de aplicações e implicações práticas Falar das limitações Falar do que ainda há por fazer; como a pesquisa contribui para o avanço
  84. 84. By next class (31/10): 1. Write your (draft!!!) Discussion/Conclusion section on the “Peer Feedback Submission Form” (online). Include “hedging” where appropriate. 2. By 31/10: Submit your (draft!!!) article to prppg7000duvidas@gmail.com. (Assunto: “Draft article”) 3. On 31/10, you will receive instructions on how to give peer feedback. 4. This assignment counts towards your participation grade. (Don’t worry if it’s not “complete.”)
  85. 85. DOWNLOAD

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