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Academic Writing: Think before you write

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Important factors to consider before you start to write your research article or similar academic text.

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Academic Writing: Think before you write

  1. 1. Think before you write Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez PRPPG7000 - Academic Writing in English
  2. 2. Syllabus outline • 15/08 - Introduction • 22/08 - IMRaD, Most common errors, electronic tools • 29/08 - Strategic planning for your article: CARS and other approaches • 05/09 - Title, Abstract e Introduction • 12/09 - Writing your Introduction • 19/09 - Coherence, cohesion and clarity, and use of authorial voice • 26/09 - (Introduction due) The Results section • 03/10- The Discussion section • 10/10 - Discussing and Concluding • 17/10 - Writing (no class) • 24/10 - Students exchange articles (no class) • 31/10 - (peer feedback due) Plagiarism, the submission process • 07/11 - Special guest speaker on journal trends
  3. 3. TODAY... 1. Go (quickly!) over grammar homework 2. Your thoughts on the corpus exercise (AntConc) 3. Further thoughts on grammar and what is “correct” 4. Important factors to consider when planning your article
  4. 4. Remember...
  5. 5. The grammar homework
  6. 6. CORRECT
  7. 7. The first step to improvement!
  8. 8. CORRECT
  9. 9. Eu tomo café. SUJEITO VERBO OBJETO
  10. 10. Eu tomo café. SUJEITO VERBO OBJETO I drink coffee. SUJEITO VERBO OBJETO
  11. 11. Eu tomo café. SUJEITO VERBO OBJETO sempre ADVERBIO
  12. 12. Eu tomo café. SUJEITO VERBO OBJETO sempre always ADVERBIO I coffee. SUJEITO VERBO OBJETO drink
  13. 13. Eu tomo café. SUJEITO VERBO OBJETO sempre always ADVERBIO I coffee. SUJEITO VERBO OBJETO drink X
  14. 14. Foi importante mover o objeto SUJEITO VERBO OBJETO cuidadosamente carefully ADVERBIO It was important to the object SUJEITO VERBO OBJETO move X
  15. 15. CORRECT
  16. 16. CORRECT
  17. 17. CORRECT
  18. 18. CORRECT
  19. 19. Comment 1 “A experiência com AntConc foi interessante pois as palavras mais recorrentes coincidem com o tema de minha pesquisa. Algo que me chamou atenção foi o fato de a palavra "wood" ter sido mais utilizada do que a palavra "timber", mesmo se tratando da aplicação da madeira no setor da construção (pensava que seria o contrário).”
  20. 20. Comment 2 Achei muito útil para dúvidas quanto à preposição a ser utilizada após uma palavra. Por exemplo, eu já tive dúvidas sobre a preposição a ser utilizada após a palavra "release": "from" ou "of". O certo é utilizar "the release of the inhibitor from the nanocontainers" e não "the release of the inhibitor of the nanocontainers". Essa dúvida pode ser resolvida facilmente através da ferramenta "Concordance" do AntConc, pois percebi que ao clicar sobre a palavra "release", todos os contextos utilizavam a concordância "release from".
  21. 21. Comment 3 "Na minha área específica (exercício para pessoas com Doença de Parkinson), ainda há pouco consenso sobre a terminologia mais empregada, o que dificulta encontrar artigos e até mesmo escrevê-los. Porém, com a lista de frequência ficou muito mais fácil encontrar os termos e as palavras mais utilizadas."
  22. 22. Comment 4 "O mais interessante é ver a aplicação dessas palavras no contexto da área. Mesmo tendo algum conhecimento da língua inglesa, muitas vezes nos deparamos com situações que não sabemos se estão corretas e aqui fica bem fácil de localizar. Eu sempre uso o google para me ajudar a buscar a expressão correta, mas aqui é fácil localizar a melhor expressão no que refere a termos técnicos."
  23. 23. Comment 5 "Aprendi bastante mexendo com o software. Algumas palavras mais comuns que apareceram na lista foram surpresas, enquanto algumas já eram esperadas. Mas o mais interessante foi observar como elas são utilizadas nos contextos originais. Essa facilidade de poder observar, analisar e verificar seu uso foi enriquecedor demais. Além do fato de que o software não apresenta somente os dados quantitativos, de quantas vezes o termo se repete, mas você pode observar como é utilizado qualitativamente, isto é, o conteúdo que está por atrás de cada uso."
  24. 24. http://www.worldmapper.org/images/largepng/205.p ng
  25. 25. INNER OUTER EXPANDING Kachru, 1982 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  26. 26. INNER OUTER EXPANDING Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  27. 27. “Writing for academic publishing is in effect now writing in English as a lingua franca.” (p. 50) Mauranen, A., Hynninen, N., & Ranta, E. (2016). English as the academic lingua franca. In K. Hyland, & P. Shaw (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of English for academic purposes (pp. 44-55). New York: Routledge. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  28. 28. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR de mudanças nos preconceitos
  29. 29. “evidences”? Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  30. 30. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  31. 31. Evidências sobre evidence Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  32. 32. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  33. 33. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  34. 34. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  35. 35. Research questions ● Is there evidence of non-native linguistic forms in articles published in international English-medium journals? ● If so, how generalizable is the evidence? ● Is there evidence of a trend of growth of acceptance of such linguistic forms? Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  36. 36. The Corpus ● 8 international Food Science journals ● 2 periods: 2000-2005, and 2010-2015 ● For each year, and always different editions, 2 articles written by natives were chosen, and 2 articles non-natives ● Total number of articles: 384 (192 native, 192 non-native) ● Total: 2.17 million words Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  37. 37. JOURNAL PUBLISHER LOCATION IMPACT (JCR) No. articles Journal of Food Science Wiley-Blackwell United States 1.81 x48 Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture John Wiley & Sons United States 2.46 x48 Food Microbiology Elsevier United States 3.76 x48 Food Policy Elsevier United Kingdom 3.08 x48 Food Quality and Preference Elsevier United Kingdom 3.19 x48 International Journal of Food Science and Technology Blackwell United Kingdom 1.64 x48 Food Chemistry Elsevier Netherlands 4.52 x48 Journal of Food Engineering Elsevier Netherlands 3.09 x48 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  38. 38. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  39. 39. Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  40. 40. "researches" NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS ● NO ATTESTED EXAMPLES NON-NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS 10 hits (8 articles)LL = 13.80, p < 0.001, %DIFF = -100 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  41. 41. "researches" Attested in: Spain, Brazil, China, Serbia Journals: USA - 2, UK - 3 , Netherlands - 1 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  42. 42. "prove" NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS NON-NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS 2 hits 15 hits (12 articles) LL = 11.17, p < 0.0001, %DIFF = 645.14 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  43. 43. "prove" Attested in: Spain, Greece, China, Italy, Taiwan, Colombia Journals: USA - 3, UK - 2 , Netherlands - 0 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  44. 44. "nowadays" NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS NON-NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS 1 hit 21 hits (19 articles) LL = 22.23, p < 0.0001, %DIFF = 1986.39 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  45. 45. Attested in: Greece, Spain, Brazil, China, Thailand, Belgium Journals: USA - 2, UK - 3 , Netherlands - 2Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  46. 46. "works" NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS NON-NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS 10 hits (6 articles) 60 hits (35 articles) LL = 39.30, p < 0.0001, %DIFF = 496.11 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  47. 47. Attested in: France, Spain, Brazil, China, Argentina, Chile, Italy, Portugal, Turkey Journals: USA - 3, UK - 3 , Netherlands - 2 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  48. 48. "Besides" NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS NON-NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS 5 hits 89 hits (55 articles) LL = 90.70, p < 0.0001, %DIFF = 1668.46 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  49. 49. "Besides" ▪Used often as a sentence-initial discourse marker in the non-native articles analyzed Attested in: Denmark, Netherlands, Jordan, Belgium, Japan, Norway, Poland, Finland, Germany, Taiwan, Greece, Mexico, Uruguay, Serbia, France, Spain, Brazil, China, Argentina, Chile, Italy, Portugal, Turkey Journals: USA - 3, UK - 3 , Netherlands - 2Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  50. 50. "in this context" NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS NON-NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS 5 hits 42 hits (25 articles) LL = 33.06, p < 0.0001, %DIFF = 734.56 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  51. 51. "In this context" ▪Often used as a discourse marker, synonymous to "thus"/"therefore" Attested in: Norway, France, Greece, Brazil, Japan, Spain, Uruguay, Chile, Belgium, Argentina, Italy Journals: USA - 2, UK - 3 , Netherlands - 2Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  52. 52. "it is well known that" NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS NON-NATIVE AUTHOR CORPUS 6 hits 18 hits (17 articles) LL = 6.20, p < 0.01, %DIFF = 198.06 Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  53. 53. "it is well known that" Attested in: Korea, Spain, Brazil, Italy, Serbia, Argentina, France Journals: USA - 2, UK - 3 , Netherlands - 1Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  54. 54. Total number of articles in which terms appear, by time period *** *** ** * * Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  55. 55. INNER OUTER EXPANDING Prof. Dr. Ron Martinez - UFPR
  56. 56. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD.
  57. 57. Kahoot.it
  58. 58. "Start with your data"
  59. 59. "Start with your data" •"The story grows organically from the data..." •"When you run into problems is when the author knows the story they want to tell before they collect the data." (p. 9)
  60. 60. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD.
  61. 61. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD.
  62. 62. "They Say, I Say" •"(A) writer needs to indicate not only what his or her thesis is, but also what larger conversation that thesis is responding to." (p. 20) •"(W)hen is comes to constructing an argument […], remember that you are entering a conversation and therefore need to start with 'what others are saying'…" (p. 20)
  63. 63. TWO LAYERS OF AIMS SPECIFIC AIM (of the study, the article itself) PERSONAL AIM (“conversation” you want to enter, what you want the article to “do” for you)
  64. 64. TWO LAYERS OF AIMS SPECIFIC AIM (of the study, the article itself) PERSONAL AIM (“conversation” you want to enter, what you want the article to “do” for you) JOURNAL
  65. 65. DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION METHOD RESULT S I.M.R.aD.
  66. 66. The Naysayer
  67. 67. (Beginning of abstract) "While the number of research articles written by non-native speakers of English and published in English-medium international journals is on the rise, little is known about the extent to which that trend may be affecting the way in which English is used in that genre. To address this gap, a corpus …"
  68. 68. (Beginning of abstract) "While the number of research articles written by non-native speakers of English and published in English-medium international journals is on the rise, little is known about the extent to which that trend may be affecting the way in which English is used in that genre. To address this gap, a corpus …"
  69. 69. C.A.R.S.  (Swales, 1990) •Create •A •Research •Space
  70. 70. C.A.R.S.  (Swales, 1990) •Create •A •Research •Space IN THE INTRODUCTION
  71. 71. (Beginning of abstract) "While the number of research articles written by non-native speakers of English and published in English-medium international journals is on the rise, little is known about the extent to which that trend may be affecting the way in which English is used in that genre. To address this gap, a corpus …"
  72. 72. (Beginning of abstract) "While the number of research articles written by non-native speakers of English and published in English-medium international journals is on the rise, little is known about the extent to which that trend may be affecting the way in which English is used in that genre. To address this gap, a corpus …" 1
  73. 73. (Beginning of abstract) "While the number of research articles written by non-native speakers of English and published in English-medium international journals is on the rise, little is known about the extent to which that trend may be affecting the way in which English is used in that genre. To address this gap, a corpus …" 1 2
  74. 74. (Beginning of abstract) "While the number of research articles written by non-native speakers of English and published in English-medium international journals is on the rise, little is known about the extent to which that trend may be affecting the way in which English is used in that genre. To address this gap, a corpus …" 1 2 3
  75. 75. "C.A.R.S." framework • Establish “territory”: Mention importance, what the “conversation” is. • Establish “niche”: Mention the “gap.” • Occupy niche: Say how that gap will be filled. 1 2 3
  76. 76. (Beginning of abstract) "While the number of research articles written by non-native speakers of English and published in English-medium international journals is on the rise, little is known about the extent to which that trend may be affecting the way in which English is used in that genre. To address this gap, a corpus …" 1 2 3
  77. 77. It is well established that violent video games increase aggression. There is a stronger evidence of short-term violent video game effects than of long-term effects. The present experiment tests...
  78. 78. It is well established that violent video games increase aggression. There is a stronger evidence of short-term violent video game effects than of long-term effects. The present experiment tests...
  79. 79. It is well established that violent video games increase aggression. There is a stronger evidence of short-term violent video game effects than of long-term effects. The present experiment tests...
  80. 80. It is well established that violent video games increase aggression. There is a stronger evidence of short-term violent video game effects than of long-term effects. The present experiment tests...
  81. 81. It is well established that violent video games increase aggression. There is a stronger evidence of short-term violent video game effects than of long-term effects. The present experiment tests... 1 2 3
  82. 82. "They Say, I Say" •"(A) writer needs to indicate not only what his or her thesis is, but also what larger conversation that thesis is responding to." (p. 20) •"(W)hen is comes to constructing an argument […], remember that you are entering a conversation and therefore need to start with 'what others are saying'…" (p. 20)
  83. 83. Hirano (2009) “The findings from the analysis (of Brazilian introductions) using the CARS model … show significant deviation (...). To start with, seven out of the 10 (Brazilian) introductions do not contain a move 2 (i.e., they do not establish a niche).” (p. 243)
  84. 84. (Hirano, 2009) “Three of the introductions contain a single move: BESP1 only contains Move 1 whereas BESP3 and BESP8 only contain Move 3. None of them follow a strict M1–M2–M3 sequence. The only sequence that is repeated is M1–M3, which occurs four times.” (p. 244)
  85. 85. Brazilian journal analyzed
  86. 86. International journal analyzed
  87. 87. Rating criteria: TESOL Quarterly
  88. 88. Homework 1. Read (at least) the Introduction in Hanauer and Englander (2011), “Quantifying the burden of writing research articles”. Pay special attention to its structure. Also notice if you “hear” the authors addressing a “naysayer.” 2. Do Module 3 on Go Formative.

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