To inform practical decision-making and, in so
doing, aid business/strategy development
Contents

About Bartlett Research & Analysis

Type of projects undertaken
Ethnography in New Product Development
What we do
Address real business issues through intelligent design of
market research solutions
We provide commercially-ac...
How we do it
The optimum bespoke approach for each particular business
issue to be addressed
No ‗off the shelf‘ solutions,...
Ron Bartlett

• 25 years‘ client-side experience.
• 10 years as Consumer Insight Director.
• 4 years as Retail Research Co...
Our approach
On time, on budget.
Enthusiastic and innovative approach.
Commercially aware

Relationships/understanding cli...
Our techniques

Qualitative

Quantitative

Group
discussions

Face-to-face
(ie, onstreet, exit, inter
cept)

Depth
intervi...
In summary
Value

Efficiency

Insight
Philosophy (ie, senior
consultant on all projects).
Delivery of condensed and
powerf...
Contact details

Ron Bartlett
Bartlett Research & Analysis
12 Harwood Close
Sandal
Wakefield
West Yorkshire
WF2 6QY
Teleph...
Project examples
Product Design – incorporating Semiotics/ Ethnography
Aim

Raw product development, based on
unexplored potential market s...
Consumer Lifestyle Segmentation
Aim

To understand how consumers‘ lifestyle
influences their communication

Research Metho...
Product Development
Aim

To develop new product category for the
UK market

Research Method

Focus groups at concept stage...
Price & Value Relationship
Aim

Consumers perception of price v.
size, complexity and emotional resonance

Research Method...
Understanding consumers at retail
Aim

Understand consumers‘ view overall retail
experience and specific brand image

Rese...
EPoS sales analysis
Aim

Measure sales performance by product;
category; and retailer

Research Method

Build data warehou...
Market assessment
Aim

Research, write and publish a report to
fully understand the market

Research Method

Comprehensive...
Confidentiality
We do not as a matter of policy reveal the names of our clients.

Our recent clients have included:
Greeti...
MRS Code of Conduct
Professional Code:
MRS Code of Conduct
―Members must not disclose the identity of Clients or any
confi...
- Working Together To Provide Insight To inform practical decision-making and, in so
doing, aid business/strategy developm...
Ethnography in Product
Design
Research is dead… long live research

• I attend lots of seminars where the speaker will tell you that
either Marketing or...
Why Market Research?

• Provides actionable insights for the purpose of…
– Developing useful and usable products that
cons...
Issues With Market Research

• Recall in Context
– Most of the purchasing that people do relies on
subconscious influences...
Knowing Your Customer

• We need to understand early in the design process:
– Why people use our products?
– Who will use ...
―Voice of the Consumer‖

• You know something is big when it is simply referred to
by its initials—‗VOC‘
• VOC has been un...
Is Market Research Doing Enough?

• Are we asking the right questions?
• How do we ask those questions?
• Where do we ask ...
The final piece - Observation
Observation before ―Traditional‖ Studies

• Quantitative Marketing Research
– Helps us construct hypotheses
– Helps to ide...
Observation Allows us to Learn Things that
You Cannot Learn any other Way

• Really BIG difference between asking what peo...
What is Ethnography?
• Ethnography:
• ‘‘a descriptive, qualitative market research methodology for studying
the customer i...
Ethnography‘s Signature Attributes
• Observation of people doing whatever it is they do on their
own turf
• Going out into...
Roots of Traditional Ethnography

• Anthropology
• Sociology

• Social Psychology
• Folklore Studies
• Linguistics
The New ‗Ethnographic‘ Methods

• In the 1990s, various methods began to pop-up that
resembled traditional Ethnography, wi...
Names you will have heard
•

‗Shadowing‘

•

‗Day-in-the-Life Studies‘

•

‗Ethnography Lite‘

•

‗Consumer Ethnography‘

...
Ethnography is Not Just One Technique
• Passive Observation

• One to One Depths
• Active Field Observation (includes Dept...
Ethnography in NPD

• Identification of unarticulated needs that are otherwise
difficult to elicit, through—
• Access to a...
A Model for NPD
Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research
Real-world
Observation +Trend Analysis

Discovery

Goal:

1. U...
A Model for NPD
Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research

Discovery

Real-world
Observation +Trend Analysis
Consumer Re...
A Model for NPD
Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research

Discovery
Research

Real-world
Observation +Trend Analysis
Co...
A Model for NPD
Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research

Discovery
Research

Real-world
Observation +Trend Analysis
Co...
A Model for NPD
Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research

Discovery

Goal:
Refined Product Concept that is—
Research
1....
A Model for NPD
Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research

Discovery
Research

Real-world
Observation +Trend Analysis
Co...
Ethnography in NPD

• Ethnography provides the insight at the very first level
of NPD
• Traditional research techniques de...
- Working Together To Provide Insight To inform practical decision-making and, in so
doing, aid business/strategy developm...
Questions
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Bartlett overview incl ethnography

  1. 1. To inform practical decision-making and, in so doing, aid business/strategy development
  2. 2. Contents About Bartlett Research & Analysis Type of projects undertaken Ethnography in New Product Development
  3. 3. What we do Address real business issues through intelligent design of market research solutions We provide commercially-actionable recommendations We understand that delivering well-designed market research is only half the challenge We develop insights that help our clients respond to the everchanging product, retail and consumer landscape We aim to understand our client‘s business strategies
  4. 4. How we do it The optimum bespoke approach for each particular business issue to be addressed No ‗off the shelf‘ solutions, we address each problem as unique Vast experience of all forms of qualitative and quantitative disciplines and wider business strategy experience. Hands-on director-level involvement at all stages Close relationships with our clients, taking time to understand their objectives and underlying business issues. Energetic, enthusiastic and flexible approach.
  5. 5. Ron Bartlett • 25 years‘ client-side experience. • 10 years as Consumer Insight Director. • 4 years as Retail Research Consultant. • Market report writing • Workshop moderation • Naturally inquisitive A wealth of experience across a variety of sectors and backgrounds
  6. 6. Our approach On time, on budget. Enthusiastic and innovative approach. Commercially aware Relationships/understanding client needs. Support services used as required. Keeping things simple.
  7. 7. Our techniques Qualitative Quantitative Group discussions Face-to-face (ie, onstreet, exit, inter cept) Depth interviews (ie, one-on-one, paired) Accompanied shopping trips Consultancy Analysis Workshops/ new product development Sales/ EPoS data Desk research Secondary data Online/selfcompletion Mystery shopping Segmentation/ statistics/ modelling Retail testing Specialising in retail research and market assessments Market intelligence/ entry/sizing
  8. 8. In summary Value Efficiency Insight Philosophy (ie, senior consultant on all projects). Delivery of condensed and powerful analysis. Long-term client relationships (ie, postproject inputs, empathy, understan ding). All the services/resources of a large consultancy. Hands-on ‗accessibility‘ of a small/friendly agency. UK/international coverage Support services subcontracted to long-term partners. Concentration on the ‗added-value‘ elements. Exceptional value for money. Working Together To Provide Insight
  9. 9. Contact details Ron Bartlett Bartlett Research & Analysis 12 Harwood Close Sandal Wakefield West Yorkshire WF2 6QY Telephone: 07756 271441 ron@bartlettresearch.co.uk
  10. 10. Project examples
  11. 11. Product Design – incorporating Semiotics/ Ethnography Aim Raw product development, based on unexplored potential market segments Research Method Internal Ideation workshops, focus groups concepts, designers contribute within group Insight Gained Designers able to gain first-hand insight, bounce ideas off respondents Outcome Generation of several potential market segments, based on identified needs Implementation Evaluate success in market and continuous refinement/ development
  12. 12. Consumer Lifestyle Segmentation Aim To understand how consumers‘ lifestyle influences their communication Research Method Blend of qual. and quant. methods including video diaries, focus groups, and online Insight Gained 5 segments of consumers identified, with different needs in style and emotion Outcome Products re-balanced to address each segment. Each segment adopted by an internal working group in client company Implementation Workshops with client management to drive change through the company
  13. 13. Product Development Aim To develop new product category for the UK market Research Method Focus groups at concept stage; design screen hall tests; competitive retail test Insight Gained Key characteristics of product with high consumer appeal Outcome Introduction of several new brands into the UK market and ultimately into the US market Implementation Iterative process of continuous product development and design leverage
  14. 14. Price & Value Relationship Aim Consumers perception of price v. size, complexity and emotional resonance Research Method Hall test/ mock shop to replicate shopping experience and price expectations Insight Gained Identify each component‘s effect on the perceived price, and pricing sensitivity Outcome Complex price strategies by product type, and a price mix based on emotional need Implementation Price expectation of consumers – and post analysis to isolate individual factors
  15. 15. Understanding consumers at retail Aim Understand consumers‘ view overall retail experience and specific brand image Research Method One to One depth interviews Insight Gained Detailed insight of specific areas that most influence usage and attitudes Outcome Brand image, Point of Sale, and the retail experience fine-tuned to create a compelling offer to consumers Implementation Consumer centric development, focusing on those areas of most interest to consumers
  16. 16. EPoS sales analysis Aim Measure sales performance by product; category; and retailer Research Method Build data warehouse and analyse actual sales in major retailers Insight Gained Actual real sales performance v competitors Outcome Product analysis based on actual consumer sales, product lines rebalanced Implementation Product lines rebalanced to yield greater sales
  17. 17. Market assessment Aim Research, write and publish a report to fully understand the market Research Method Comprehensive review of published material, and observations Insight Gained Provides brand owners with concise information in order to help them formulate their own strategies Outcome Report published to brand owner or to commissioning publisher Implementation Information based product launches
  18. 18. Confidentiality We do not as a matter of policy reveal the names of our clients. Our recent clients have included: Greeting Card Publishers UK & US Designer of a ‗new‘ format of children‘s books A product design company Global market report publisher Working on behalf of clients, we have conducted research in the majority of the major UK retail chains. We operate within the data protection laws, to ensure client and respondent confidentiality.
  19. 19. MRS Code of Conduct Professional Code: MRS Code of Conduct ―Members must not disclose the identity of Clients or any confidential information about Clients without the Client‘s permission unless there is a legal obligation to do so‖ http://www.mrs.org.uk/standards/codeconduct.htm
  20. 20. - Working Together To Provide Insight To inform practical decision-making and, in so doing, aid business/strategy development
  21. 21. Ethnography in Product Design
  22. 22. Research is dead… long live research • I attend lots of seminars where the speaker will tell you that either Marketing or Marketing Research is dead! – They then proceed to tell you about their ‗new‘ brand of Marketing or Marketing Research. • These ‗new‘ tools in market research are an evolution of ‗best practice‘ research techniques
  23. 23. Why Market Research? • Provides actionable insights for the purpose of… – Developing useful and usable products that consumers want and that can be produced and sold at a price that makes a fair profit. • Another way of putting it… – Useful + Usable + Desirable = Valuable • In general, people only pay money for things of value.
  24. 24. Issues With Market Research • Recall in Context – Most of the purchasing that people do relies on subconscious influences – What people say they do and what they actually do are often different. – In essence, each of us is the sum of everything that we have ever experienced.
  25. 25. Knowing Your Customer • We need to understand early in the design process: – Why people use our products? – Who will use products? – How they will use them? – Where will they use them? – What are the alternatives?
  26. 26. ―Voice of the Consumer‖ • You know something is big when it is simply referred to by its initials—‗VOC‘ • VOC has been under attack of late… – You might not understand what ―the Consumer‖ is saying! – Consumers may not be telling us anything useful. • Do we have the right tools to listen to our consumers? • Do we have consumers? the right mind-set to listen to our
  27. 27. Is Market Research Doing Enough? • Are we asking the right questions? • How do we ask those questions? • Where do we ask those questions? • Are we able to make sense of the answers to our questions?
  28. 28. The final piece - Observation
  29. 29. Observation before ―Traditional‖ Studies • Quantitative Marketing Research – Helps us construct hypotheses – Helps to identify the right questions on surveys – Who to survey? • Focus Groups – Choosing the right issues to discuss – Who to include? • Usability Testing – Selecting the right types of participants – Having them perform the most relevant tasks
  30. 30. Observation Allows us to Learn Things that You Cannot Learn any other Way • Really BIG difference between asking what people want and observing what they need.
  31. 31. What is Ethnography? • Ethnography: • ‘‘a descriptive, qualitative market research methodology for studying the customer in relation to his or her environment. Researchers spend time in the field observing customers and their environment to acquire a deep understanding of customers’ lifestyles or cultures as a basis for better understanding their needs and problems’’ (Belliveau, Griffin, and Somermeyer, The PDMA Toolbook, 2002, p. 442). Observation!
  32. 32. Ethnography‘s Signature Attributes • Observation of people doing whatever it is they do on their own turf • Going out into the ―real world‖ and observing • Qualitative • Does not necessarily start with hypotheses • Interaction with respondents • ‗Participant-Observation‘ • Depth Interviewing (Long-Open-ended Interviews)
  33. 33. Roots of Traditional Ethnography • Anthropology • Sociology • Social Psychology • Folklore Studies • Linguistics
  34. 34. The New ‗Ethnographic‘ Methods • In the 1990s, various methods began to pop-up that resembled traditional Ethnography, with a special emphasis on— • Actionable Insights into things like… • Consumer behavior • Consumer preferences material and colour for • Patterns of use and purchase product features, form,
  35. 35. Names you will have heard • ‗Shadowing‘ • ‗Day-in-the-Life Studies‘ • ‗Ethnography Lite‘ • ‗Consumer Ethnography‘ • ‗Field Observation‘ • ‗Contextual Inquiry‘ • ‗Contextual Research‘ • ‗New Product Ethnography‘ • ‗Observational Research‘
  36. 36. Ethnography is Not Just One Technique • Passive Observation • One to One Depths • Active Field Observation (includes Depth Interviews) • Journals • Video / Vox-pops • Participant Observation • Lifestyles • Semiotics
  37. 37. Ethnography in NPD • Identification of unarticulated needs that are otherwise difficult to elicit, through— • Access to actual behavior • Memory cues related to context • Memory cues from actual product usage • Unconscious ‗work-arounds‘ • Access to attitudes and values
  38. 38. A Model for NPD Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research Real-world Observation +Trend Analysis Discovery Goal: 1. Understand the gaps between what people really need and/or want and current products 2. See the way people actually use products Method: 1. Observation of people actually doing what they really do! 2. Trend Analysis 3. Popular Literature Review Deliverables 1. Clear description of a Product Opportunity 2. Initial hypotheses
  39. 39. A Model for NPD Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research Discovery Real-world Observation +Trend Analysis Consumer Research Preliminary Market Research Research Goal: Understanding of what it will take to make the product experience valuable and appealing to the people who will be using it Methods: 1. Observation/Ethnography) 2. Hypothesis Refinement 3. Initial Market Research 4. Human Factors Analysis 5. Questionnaire Pilot Testing 6. Usability Evaluation Planning Deliverables 1. Refined Hypothesis 2. Initial assessment of market size and competitors 3. Results from questionnaire pilot testing 4. Initial Usability Testing Plan
  40. 40. A Model for NPD Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research Discovery Research Real-world Observation +Trend Analysis Consumer Research Preliminary Market Research Actionable Insights Goal: Making sense of Discovery & Research findings Insights Deliverables: 1. Value Opportunities 2. Product Characteristics 3. Market Insights
  41. 41. A Model for NPD Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research Discovery Research Real-world Observation +Trend Analysis Consumer Research Preliminary Market Research Actionable Insights Traditional Market Research Multiple cycles Goal: Transform Opportunities into actual Product Concepts and then reduce the list to one or more that is/are viable Deliverables 1. Useful 2. Usable 3. Desirable
  42. 42. A Model for NPD Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research Discovery Goal: Refined Product Concept that is— Research 1. Useful, usable and desirable 2. Patentable (if relevant) Actionable 3. Ready for Implementation Insights Real-world Observation +Trend Analysis Methods: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Design Consumer Research Usability Testing Preliminary Market Research Appeal Assessment Depth Interviews Engineering Multiple cycles Traditional Market Research Concept Refinement Concept Refinement Deliverables • Refined Product Concept fully specced and ready to implement
  43. 43. A Model for NPD Integrating Ethnography / Design / Research Discovery Research Real-world Observation +Trend Analysis Consumer Research Preliminary Market Research Actionable Insights Multiple cycles Traditional Market Research Concept Refinement Implementation Evaluate success in market / potential for brand extensions, etc
  44. 44. Ethnography in NPD • Ethnography provides the insight at the very first level of NPD • Traditional research techniques develop and prove the concept • Inquisitive ‗client-side‘ researchers have been practicing many ethnography techniques for years – In my client-side time, I always wanted to know WHO? WHAT? WHY? WHERE? And WHEN? – As a retail researcher, I spend many, many hours watching consumers interact with retail and product displays, and trying to understand the demographics / lifestyles / life-stages of consumers
  45. 45. - Working Together To Provide Insight To inform practical decision-making and, in so doing, aid business/strategy development
  46. 46. Questions

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