Pesticides can have direct effect to the fish or to the food-web where it will change the structure of the aquatic community – detrimental effect on Cladocerans. Somehow it is depend on the persistance, chemical formlation, manner and time of application. In Malaysia there is only a small percentage of freshwater fish come from integrated system compared to the captured fish. They depend on the naturally available fry.
Integrated system of fish/duck is better compare to fish/goat due to the faster transformation of manure to nutrients available for algal utilization when compared to slower decomposition of goat manure thus resulting in the build-up of a toxic condition at the pond bottom (Geeta, 1988).
Integrated aquaculture is successful but more comparative and feasible study on the different livestock-fish farming system. Most of the small farmers did not pay much concern on investment of cost, labor and inputs which should leads to positive perspective on savings in feed and labor costs. In many areas, traditional rice-fish culture has gradually transformed into green/organic food production systems. Certificated and labeled green and organic rice and aquatic products not only bring the farmers more income, but also contribute to holistic rural development.
Balai Budidaya Laut Batam
THE ADVANTAGE AND THEDISADVANTAGE OFINTEGRATED FISH FARMIN ASIA By : Romi Novriadi (Indonesia) Floriefe M G, (Philipines) Priyanka Biswas (Bangladesh) Eamy N Yaacob (Malaysia)
BACKGROUND Integrated f ish farming systems refer to the production, integrated management andcomprehensive use of aquaculture, agriculture andlivestock, with an emphasis on aquaculture. China has a long and rich history of integrated fishfarming. Written records from the f irst and second centuries B.C. documented the integration of aquatic plant cultivation and fish farming.
THE PRINCIPLE OF INTEGRATED FISH FARM The waste products of one biological system serve as nutrients for a second biological system. The integration of fish and plants results in a polyculture that increases diversity and yields multiple products. Water is re-used through biological filtration and recirculation. Local food production provides access to healthy foods and enhances the local economy.
BASIC MODEL OF INTEGRATED FISH FARMa) Agri-based fish farmingb) Live-stock fish farming The fish-cum live-stock farming is realised as innovation for recycling of organic wastes as well as production of high protein content feed at low cost.
MODELS OF INTEGRATED FISH FARMA multilevel integrated fish farming web of chicken-pig-fish (Source : FAO)
MODELS OF INTEGRATED FISH FARMA web of integrated fish farming of cow-earthworm-duck- fish (FAO)
Parallel Connected Web of Multitrades Integrated fish farming network in Xiang Yang Aquaculture Farm, Wuxi (Sorce : FAO)
THE ADVANTAGE OF INTEGRATED FISH FARM1. Efficient waste utilisation from different culture practice for fish production (artificial balance) The re-cycling of organic wastes for fish culture serves the dual purpose of cleaning the environment (by avoiding the problem of waste disposal). This is important to sustainable aquaculture
THE ADVANTAGE OF INTEGRATED FISH FARM2. It reduces the additional cost for supplementary feeding as well as fertilisation Manure loading in integrated fish farming basically comes from poultry and other farm animals, which contain considerable quantities of nutrients for fish production. Protein content from manure ranges between 10 – 30%, energy between 110 - 1400 kcal per kg manure with synthesized soluble vitamins in high concentration (Praff, 1975; Tuleun, 1992). It also contains non digested feed. It can be utilized to replace reasonable parts of feed stuff used in conventional fish production cost
3. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies as a necessary complement to fish farming practice.A study survey in Mekong Delta, Vietnam showed – IPM rice-fish have higest netincome (19 500 000 VND/year/ha) due to comparatively low costs and high yields of both rice and fish.The production costs are lower but the rice yield is similar to that of non-IPM rice farm. Non-IPM rice-ﬁsh farmers have the lowestnet income (15 800 000 VND per year ha−1) due to their high costs and low yields (Berg, 2002)
THE ADVANTAGE OF INTEGRATED FISH FARM3. It reduces the input and increases output and economic efficiency The economic benefit of integrated fish farming cannot be over-emphasized since the integration is varied and diversified in nature. It is one of the most viable, reliable and profitable of any farming enterprise
THE ADVANTAGE OFINTEGRATED FISH FARMincrease 4. Has potential to the production and socio-economic status of weaker section of our society It contributes immensely to the economic empowerment of many families especially in the rural communities. It enables the farmer to be productive all the year round and fully maximize its production
THE ADVANTAGE OFINTEGRATED FISH FARM 4. Meet the Milennium Development Goals (MDG’s) Objective Ensure the food security and the Food availability
THE DISADVANTAGEConsider this The spread of disease To the fish To the Human
THE DISADVANTAGETo the fish Spread of Fish Disease fish become more susceptible to- diseases both parasites, bacteria, and viruses that are transmitted from livestock manure or from food remains with a poor quality, Degradation of Water quality Water as a live place for fish, become worse, as a result of excessive nutrient input and low of dissolved oxygen Environment measurement at Chicken-fish farm
Death fish at Agri-based fish farm N P Pe s ti cid e P C oo he r m qu w ica ali ater l ty Disease
Rice-fish farming in Northern Malaysia, concurrent increase use ofpesticides and herbicides – affected fish species.Double cropping of rice - shorter growing season for fish.Pesticide – necessary for high yield, but adverse effecton health and environment.
THE DISADVANTAGE To the Human Remember about H5N1 ?Chicken farm at Chicken got Given to Catfish Catfish H5N1 virus Now, suppose chickens had died of H5N1. Surely this way, would get H5N1 into the fish guts (how long might it remain?), as well as onto skin, and into water? And how about us as consumer?
THE DISADVANTAGE fish production will be very dependent on the production of other livestock (especially to the food) disrupt the growth rate of fish – fish/duck > fish/goat (Geeta, 1988). Stress fish Where is my Reduce the immunity food?
SOLUTIONSocio-cultural factor – together with economic andtechnical feasibility studies on integrated farming.Budget analysis, estimate cost of production and profitof operation.Finance well-planned development projects to promoteintegrated fish farming.Use of formulated bio-fertilizer and microagent forwater manipulation
SOLUTIONTraining on integrated aquaculture-agriculture by bilateraloranization - World Fish CenterShowed significant positive impact on farmers technicalefficiency, total factor productivity and net incomes (Murshed-E-Jahan and Pemsl, 2011).
ReferencesMurshed-E-Jahan, K. & Pemsl, D.E., 2011. The impactof integrated aquaculture-agriculture on small-scale farmsustainability and farmers livelihoods: Experience fromBangladesh. J. Agri. Syst. 104 (5); 392-402.Berg, H., 2002. Rice monoculture and integrated rice-ﬁsh farmingin the Mekong Delta, Vietnam—economic and ecologicalconsideration. Ecological Economics, 41; 95-107.