Reported speech

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Reported speech

  1. 1. Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)
  2. 2. <ul><li>If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech . The structure s are different depending on whether you want to transform a statement, question or request. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Statements <ul><li>When transforming statements, check whether you have to change: </li></ul><ul><li>pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>present tense verbs (3rd person singular) </li></ul><ul><li>place and time expressions </li></ul><ul><li>tenses (backshift) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Type Example direct speech “ I speak English.” reported speech (no backshift) He says that he speaks English. reported speech (backshift) He said that he spoke English.
  5. 5. Questions <ul><li>When transforming questions, check whether you have to change : </li></ul><ul><li>pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>present tense verbs ( the 3rd person singular) </li></ul><ul><li>place and time expressions </li></ul><ul><li>tenses (backshift) </li></ul><ul><li>Also note that you have to: </li></ul><ul><li>transform the question into an indirect question </li></ul><ul><li>use the interrogative or  if  /  whether </li></ul>
  6. 6. Type Example with interrogative direct speech “ Why don’t you speak English?” reported speech He asked me why I didn’t speak English. without interrogative direct speech “ Do you speak English?” reported speech He asked me whether / if I spoke English.
  7. 7. Requests <ul><li>When transforming questions, check whether you have to change: </li></ul><ul><li>pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>place and time expressions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Type Example direct speech “ Carol, speak English.“ reported speech He told Carol to speak English.

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