Conditionals
<ul><li>A conditional sentence is a sentence which has a condition and a result. </li></ul>
<ul><li>If  is used in conditional sentences. </li></ul>
<ul><li>There are  two clauses  in a conditional sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Clause  -  a part of a sentence that contains...
<ul><li>One clause begins with the word  if –  it is called  if clause. </li></ul><ul><li>If  clause + result clause </li>...
<ul><li>The second clause is called the  result clause or the main clause. </li></ul>
The First Conditional <ul><li>If +  Present  simple (if-clause),  Future  simple (main clause). </li></ul>
Example: <ul><li>If I have enough time, I’ll visit my uncle in prison every week. </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>I...
<ul><li>If we begin a sentence with   if  we must have  the comma.   </li></ul><ul><li>If we have the other way round –  n...
<ul><li>The lawyer will still meet with the prisoner  if  the prisoner has no money. </li></ul>
<ul><li>If the prisoners  don’t eat  breakfast, they always  get hungry  in the prison yard. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Present Simple is used in the result clause to show that something always happens. It’s a habitual activity or...
Example: <ul><li>A person  will go  to jail if he  commits  a burglary . </li></ul>
<ul><li>In the result clause  Present Simple  or  Future Simple  is used to show that a predictable fact will happen. </li...
Example: <ul><li>If Tom doesn’t shoplift an apple, he will have nothing to eat tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>Future Simple is...
<ul><li>If the family leave home tomorrow, the burglar will rob their house. </li></ul><ul><li>Present Simple can also be ...
More examples: <ul><li>The murderer will kill his wife if he finds a gun. </li></ul><ul><li>The prisoners can’t use the te...
The Second Conditional <ul><li>If I were a warden, this prisoner wouldn’t be here.  </li></ul><ul><li>The shoplifter would...
<ul><li>A sentence in the second conditional expresses something that is not true in the future or in the present. </li></...
<ul><li>The shoplifter would be taken to jail if I were the shop owner .(I am not the shop owner). </li></ul><ul><li>If th...
<ul><li>To make the 2 nd  conditional we use this formula:  </li></ul><ul><li>If  + Past simple,  would  + base form </li>...
Examples : <ul><li>The warden would change his job if his wife found one. </li></ul><ul><li>The prisoner would escape if h...
The Third Conditional <ul><li>If the prisoner had had enough time, he would have made a new weapon. </li></ul><ul><li>The ...
<ul><li>The third conditional can be used to describe ideas about past situations or events that did not happen. </li></ul...
Examples: <ul><li>If the prisoner had told me about the problem, I would have helped him.   (in reality the prisoner didn’...
<ul><li>The prisoner wouldn’t have broken his arm, if he hadn’t slipped on the ice. </li></ul><ul><li>If you’d told me, I ...
<ul><li>Sometimes, we use  should have ,  could have ,  might have  instead of  would have , for example:   If you had bou...
<ul><li>We use the so-called  zero conditional  when the result of the condition is always true, like a scientific fact : ...
<ul><li>The important thing about the zero conditional is that the condition always has the same result.  </li></ul><ul><l...
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Conditional sentences

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Conditional sentences

  1. 1. Conditionals
  2. 2. <ul><li>A conditional sentence is a sentence which has a condition and a result. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>If is used in conditional sentences. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>There are two clauses in a conditional sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Clause - a part of a sentence that contains a subject and a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>One subject+one verb = a clause. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>One clause begins with the word if – it is called if clause. </li></ul><ul><li>If clause + result clause </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The second clause is called the result clause or the main clause. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The First Conditional <ul><li>If + Present simple (if-clause), Future simple (main clause). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Example: <ul><li>If I have enough time, I’ll visit my uncle in prison every week. </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll visit my uncle in prison every week If I have enough time. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>If we begin a sentence with if we must have the comma. </li></ul><ul><li>If we have the other way round – no comma. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The lawyer will still meet with the prisoner if the prisoner has no money. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>If the prisoners don’t eat breakfast, they always get hungry in the prison yard. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Present Simple is used in the result clause to show that something always happens. It’s a habitual activity or a situation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Example: <ul><li>A person will go to jail if he commits a burglary . </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>In the result clause Present Simple or Future Simple is used to show that a predictable fact will happen. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Example: <ul><li>If Tom doesn’t shoplift an apple, he will have nothing to eat tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>Future Simple is used in a result clause when a sentence concerns a particular activity or situation in the future. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>If the family leave home tomorrow, the burglar will rob their house. </li></ul><ul><li>Present Simple can also be used in the if clause when a sentence concerns a particular activity in the future. </li></ul>
  17. 17. More examples: <ul><li>The murderer will kill his wife if he finds a gun. </li></ul><ul><li>The prisoners can’t use the telephone if they are in solitary confinement. </li></ul><ul><li>If a burglar enters my house, I will shoot him. </li></ul><ul><li>If a purse snatcher grabs your purse, you will be sorry. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Second Conditional <ul><li>If I were a warden, this prisoner wouldn’t be here. </li></ul><ul><li>The shoplifter would be taken to jail if I were the shop owner. </li></ul><ul><li>If the arsonist had some petrol, he would start a fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Larry wouldn’t be a burglar if he had won the lottery. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>A sentence in the second conditional expresses something that is not true in the future or in the present. </li></ul><ul><li>If I were a warden, this prisoner wouldn’t be here. ( in reality I am not a warden ) </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The shoplifter would be taken to jail if I were the shop owner .(I am not the shop owner). </li></ul><ul><li>If the arsonist had some petrol, he would start a fire. (the arsonist doesn’t have petrol). </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>To make the 2 nd conditional we use this formula: </li></ul><ul><li>If + Past simple, would + base form </li></ul>
  22. 22. Examples : <ul><li>The warden would change his job if his wife found one. </li></ul><ul><li>The prisoner would escape if he had a chance. </li></ul><ul><li>If the weather were nice today the prisoners would go into the yard. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Third Conditional <ul><li>If the prisoner had had enough time, he would have made a new weapon. </li></ul><ul><li>The warden would have been angry if he had known the guard had given the prisoner a cigarette. </li></ul><ul><li>If the pickpocket had been quicker he wouldn’t have been caught. </li></ul><ul><li>The burglar would have been rich if he had emptied the safe. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The third conditional can be used to describe ideas about past situations or events that did not happen. </li></ul><ul><li>If + Past Perfect, would have + Past participle. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Examples: <ul><li>If the prisoner had told me about the problem, I would have helped him. (in reality the prisoner didn’t tell me in the past) </li></ul><ul><li>If the burglar had studied the house plan better, he wouldn’t have been arrested. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The prisoner wouldn’t have broken his arm, if he hadn’t slipped on the ice. </li></ul><ul><li>If you’d told me, I would have helped the prisoner. </li></ul><ul><li>If the prisoner had had more money, he would have hired a better lawyer. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Sometimes, we use should have , could have , might have instead of would have , for example: If you had bought a lottery ticket, you might have won. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>We use the so-called zero conditional when the result of the condition is always true, like a scientific fact : If you heat ice it melts. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>The important thing about the zero conditional is that the condition always has the same result. </li></ul><ul><li>If I am late for work my boss is angry. </li></ul>

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