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Clase cat

  1. 1. M. en C. Rodrigo Martínez Espinosa Bioquímica, Medicina. 1.5 Ciclo de Krebs 1.Metabolismo de los carbohidratos
  2. 2. <ul><li>OBJETIVO: </li></ul><ul><li>Que el alumno comprenda la importancia del Ciclo de Krebs y que conozca las moléculas que en el intervienen. </li></ul><ul><li>Secciones de la clase: </li></ul><ul><li>¿Qué sabemos del Ciclo de Krebs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2) ¿Por qué es importante el Ciclo de Krebs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) ¿Cuáles son los pasos del Ciclo de Krebs? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>¿Qué sabemos del Ciclo de Krebs? </li></ul>Ciclo del ácido citrico Ciclo de los ácidos tricarboxilicos (TCA)
  4. 4. ¿Por qué es importante el Ciclo de Krebs?
  5. 5. <ul><ul><ul><li>3) ¿Cuáles son los pasos del Ciclo de Krebs? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. E1: depende de tiamina (vitamina B1).
  7. 17. Rol del CAT en el anabolismo
  8. 18. Regulación del CAT
  9. 19. CONCLUSIONES <ul><li>El ciclo de Krebs (ciclo del ácido cítrico, ciclo de los ácidos tricarboxilicos) se alimenta de productos carbohidratos, grasas y proteínas, que son oxidados a CO2. </li></ul><ul><li>La acetil-CoA entra al ciclo al unirse con oxaloacetato y formar citrato. </li></ul><ul><li>En siete reacciones enzimáticas consecutivas el citrato pasa a oxaloacetato, formando dos CO2, tres NADH, una de FADH2 y GTP. </li></ul><ul><li>Los intermediarios en el ciclo pueden alimentar diversas rutas biosintéticas. </li></ul>
  10. 20. 1.6 Cadena de electrones 1.Metabolismo de los carbohidratos
  11. 23. NADH:ubiquinona oxidoreductasa Complejo I
  12. 24. Succinato dehydrogenasa Complejo II
  13. 25. Citocromo bc1 Complejo III
  14. 26. Ciclo Q
  15. 27. Citocromo oxidasa Complejo IV
  16. 28. Modelo Quimiosmótico
  17. 29. ATPasa FoF1
  18. 32. Regulación de las vías productoras de ATP
  19. 33. CONCLUSIONES <ul><li>En la mitocondria se toman los electrones del NADH y FADH que son transferidos a O2 reduciéndolo a H2O. </li></ul><ul><li>El paso de los electrones por cuatro complejos enzimáticos (Complejo I, II, III y IV) esta acoplado a la movilización de protones a través de la membrana. </li></ul><ul><li>El paso de protones a través de la membrana crea un gradiente electroquímico, que es la fuente motora de la ATPsintasa (Complejo V). </li></ul><ul><li>Durante el paso de los electrones se pueden formas especies reactivas de oxígeno tóxicas. </li></ul>
  20. 35. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX DEFICIENCY Most children with this enzyme deficiency present in infancy with delayed development and reduced muscle tone often associated with ataxia and seizures. Some infants have congenital malformations of the brain. ¿why? Without mitochondrial oxidation, pyruvate is reduced to lactate. The ATP yield from anaerobic glycolysis is less than a tenth of that produced from complete oxidation of glucose via the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The diagnosis is suggested by elevated lactate, but with a normal lactate/pyruvate ratio, i.e. no evidence of hypoxia. A ketogenic diet and severe restriction of protein (<15%) and carbohydrate (<5%) improves mental development. Such treatment ensures that the cells use acetyl-CoA from fat metabolism. A few children show a reduction in plasma lactate on treatment with large doses of thiamine, but the outlook is generally poor.
  21. 36. El beri-beri se da por la deficiencia de tiamina, ¿Qué metabolitos medirías para saber si un paciente lo tiene?

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