Why Systems Work



     CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules....
Why systems work, change, and last

      Shared values and principles
      Clear and simple rules
      Business IT alig...
Shared values and principles that state what we 
should and should not do
Clear and simple rules that state
what you can and cannot do, must and must not do
A general framework for designing rules

                                             WHO
                                ...
Prevent “World’s Dumbest Bank” transfer


                                     with banks that are
                       ...
Prevent United Airlines $25 fare US to Paris


                                        Unless authorized
                 ...
Prevent parents boarding flight, forgetting children


                                          The check-in agent



   ...
Business IT Alignment
Strategy Rules
• Mission
• Values
• Principles
• Vision
• Strategy

Business Rules
• Policy
• Rules
...
Enterprise 
Architecture
Strategy Rules
• Mission
• Values
• Principles
• Vision
• St t
    Strategy

Business Rules
• Pol...
Enterprise 
Architecture
Strategy Rules
• Mission
• Values
• Principles
• Vision
• St t
    Strategy

Business Rules
• Pol...
Enterprise 
Architecture
Strategy Rules
• Mission
• Values
• Principles
• Vision
• St t
    Strategy

Business Rules
• Pol...
Enterprise 
Architecture
Strategy Rules
• Mission
• Values
• Principles
• Vision
• St t
    Strategy

Business Rules
• Pol...
The bridge between 
  business and IT

      CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered tr...
Business and IT are in different worlds




Business                                                                      ...
Rules and knowledge are the bridge 
                between Business and IT




Business                                  ...
Architecture is how to design systems
        Engineering is how to build systems




Business                            ...
TM
                                   ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA FrameworkTM
                                     Enterprise...
TM
                                   ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA Framework TM
                                      Enterpri...
TM
                                   ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA Framework TM
                                     Enterpris...
TM
                                   ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA Framework TM
                                     Enterpris...
TM
                                 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK
                                 Object Oriented...
TM
                                   ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK
                                        Struct...
TM
                                   ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA Framework TM
                                     Enterpris...
TM
                            ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA Framework
                              Enterprise Architecture – ...
TM
                              ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK
                             Complete “Business Rul...
Traditional Procedural Language
DATA:
  X is TRUE                                                             Traditional ...
Declarative (Rule‐based) Language                                                                       DATA:  X is TRUE

...
Traditional approach                                          Modern approach 
using hard‐coded rules                     ...
Benefits of centralizing rules in one rulebase


            Can take a broader view of the customer

                    ...
Why Systems Work
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Why Systems Work

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Why systems work, change, and last. Presented at October Rules Fest ORF2008 (www.rulesfest.org)

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Why Systems Work

  1. 1. Why Systems Work CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 1
  2. 2. Why systems work, change, and last Shared values and principles Clear and simple rules Business IT alignment A framework for designing and building any system E t Enterprise architecture i hit t Knowledge engineering 2 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com
  3. 3. Shared values and principles that state what we  should and should not do
  4. 4. Clear and simple rules that state what you can and cannot do, must and must not do
  5. 5. A general framework for designing rules WHO (people/organization) RULE condition/decision permission/constraint WHY (goal/motivation) 5 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com
  6. 6. Prevent “World’s Dumbest Bank” transfer with banks that are declaring bankruptcy WHO (people/org) WHY (goal/motivation) Loss Prevention i.e. $426 million transfer to Lehman Brothers the day it declared insolvency 6 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com
  7. 7. Prevent United Airlines $25 fare US to Paris Unless authorized by senior mgmt WHO (people/org) WHY (goal/motivation) Prevent “fantasy fares” glitch i.e. $25 fares US to Paris 7 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com
  8. 8. Prevent parents boarding flight, forgetting children The check-in agent WHO (people/org) WHY (goal/motivation) Ensure no child is left behind i.e. forget toddler at the airport 8 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com
  9. 9. Business IT Alignment Strategy Rules • Mission • Values • Principles • Vision • Strategy Business Rules • Policy • Rules • Rulebase • Rulesets • Rules To see a Flash video of the “Rules EA Framework RuleMap”, visit www.RuleMap.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 9
  10. 10. Enterprise  Architecture Strategy Rules • Mission • Values • Principles • Vision • St t Strategy Business Rules • Policy • Rules • Rulebase • Rulesets • Rules To see a Flash video of the “Rules EA Framework RuleMap”, visit www.RuleMap.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 10
  11. 11. Enterprise  Architecture Strategy Rules • Mission • Values • Principles • Vision • St t Strategy Business Rules • Policy • Rules • Rulebase • Rulesets • Rules To see a Flash video of the “Rules EA Framework RuleMap”, visit www.RuleMap.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 11
  12. 12. Enterprise  Architecture Strategy Rules • Mission • Values • Principles • Vision • St t Strategy Business Rules • Policy • Rules • Rulebase • Rulesets • Rules To see a Flash video of the “Rules EA Framework RuleMap”, visit www.RuleMap.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 12
  13. 13. Enterprise  Architecture Strategy Rules • Mission • Values • Principles • Vision • St t Strategy Business Rules • Policy • Rules • Rulebase • Rulesets • Rules To see a Flash video of the “Rules EA Framework RuleMap”, visit www.RuleMap.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 13
  14. 14. The bridge between  business and IT CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 14
  15. 15. Business and IT are in different worlds Business Technology Dollars Data CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 15
  16. 16. Rules and knowledge are the bridge  between Business and IT Business Technology Dollars Rules Data Knowledge CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 16
  17. 17. Architecture is how to design systems Engineering is how to build systems Business Technology Dollars Rules Data Knowledge CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 17
  18. 18. TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA FrameworkTM Enterprise Architecture – - A FRAMEWORK DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business (CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE System MODEL MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL) Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEM SYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODEL MODEL (LOGICAL) (LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural Assertion Designer Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY MODEL MODEL (PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System Builder Builder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = Action DETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILED REPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS (OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT) Sub- Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step Contractor FUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGY ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) Enterprise Architecture – A Framework™  231-0531 ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231‐0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 18
  19. 19. TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA Framework TM Enterprise Architecture – - A FRAMEWORK Complete “Business Model” Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business (CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE System MODEL MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL) Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEM SYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODEL MODEL (LOGICAL) (LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural Assertion Designer Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY MODEL MODEL (PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System Builder Builder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = Action DETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILED REPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS (OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT) Sub- Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step Contractor FUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGY ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) Enterprise Architecture – A Framework™  231-0531 ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231‐0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 19
  20. 20. TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA Framework TM Enterprise Architecture – - A FRAMEWORK Complete “System Model” Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business (CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE System MODEL MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL) Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEM SYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODEL MODEL (LOGICAL) (LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural Assertion Designer Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY MODEL MODEL (PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System Builder Builder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = Action DETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILED REPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS (OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT) Sub- Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step Contractor FUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGY ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) Enterprise Architecture – A Framework™  231-0531 ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231‐0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 20
  21. 21. TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA Framework TM Enterprise Architecture – - A FRAMEWORK Complete “Technology Model” Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business (CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE System MODEL MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL) Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEM SYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODEL MODEL (LOGICAL) (LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural Assertion Designer Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY MODEL MODEL (PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System Builder Builder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = Action DETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILED REPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS (OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT) Sub- Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step Contractor FUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGY ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) Enterprise Architecture – A Framework™  231-0531 ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231‐0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 21
  22. 22. TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK Object Oriented Modeling (UML; Use Cases) DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business (CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE System MODEL MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL) Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEM SYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODEL MODEL (LOGICAL) (LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural Assertion Designer Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY MODEL MODEL (PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System Builder Builder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = Action DETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILED REPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS (OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT) Sub- Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step Contractor FUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGY ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) Enterprise Architecture – A Framework™  231-0531 ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231‐0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 22
  23. 23. TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK Structured Methods Modeling DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business (CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE System MODEL MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL) Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEM SYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODEL MODEL (LOGICAL) (LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural Assertion Designer Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY MODEL MODEL (PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System Builder Builder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = Action DETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILED REPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS (OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT) Sub- Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step Contractor FUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGY ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) Enterprise Architecture – A Framework™  231-0531 ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231‐0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 23
  24. 24. TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA Framework TM Enterprise Architecture – - A FRAMEWORK Complete “Data Model” Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business (CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE System MODEL MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL) Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEM SYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODEL MODEL (LOGICAL) (LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural Assertion Designer Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY MODEL MODEL (PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System Builder Builder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = Action DETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILED REPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS (OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT) Sub- Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step Contractor FUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGY ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) Enterprise Architecture – A Framework™  231-0531 ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231‐0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 24
  25. 25. TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTUREA Framework Enterprise Architecture – - A FRAMEWORK Complete “Business Process Model” Architecture TM DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business (CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE System MODEL MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL) Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEM SYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODEL MODEL (LOGICAL) (LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural Assertion Designer Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY MODEL MODEL (PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System Builder Builder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = Action DETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILED REPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS (OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT) Sub- Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step Contractor FUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGY ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) Enterprise Architecture – A Framework™  231-0531 ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231‐0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 25
  26. 26. TM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE - A FRAMEWORK Complete “Business Rule Model” Architecture DATA What FUNCTION How NETWORK Where PEOPLE Who TIME When MOTIVATION Why SCOPE List of Things Important List of Processes the List of Locations in which List of Organizations List of Events Significant List of Business Goals/Strat SCOPE to the Business Business Performs the Business Operates Important to the Business to the Business (CONTEXTUAL) (CONTEXTUAL) Planner ENTITY = Class of Function = Class of Node = Major Business People = Major Organizations Time = Major Business Event Ends/Means=Major Bus. Goal/ Planner Business Thing Business Process Location Critical Success Factor e.g. Semantic Model e.g. Business Process Model e.g. Business Logistics e.g. Work Flow Model e.g. Master Schedule e.g. Business Plan ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE System MODEL MODEL (CONCEPTUAL) (CONCEPTUAL) Owner Ent = Business Entity Proc. = Business Process Node = Business Location People = Organization Unit Time = Business Event End = Business Objective Owner Reln = Business Relationship I/O = Business Resources Link = Business Linkage Work = Work Product Cycle = Business Cycle Means = Business Strategy e.g. Logical Data Model e.g. Application Architecture e.g. Distributed System e.g. Human Interface e.g. Processing Structure e.g., Business Rule Model SYSTEM SYSTEM Architecture Architecture MODEL MODEL (LOGICAL) (LOGICAL) Node = I/S Function Ent = Data Entity Proc .= Application Function (Processor, Storage, etc) People = Role Time = System Event End = Structural Assertion Designer Reln = Data Relationship Cycle = Processing Cycle Designer I/O = User Views Link = Line Characteristics Work = Deliverable Means =Action Assertion e.g. Physical Data Model e.g. System Design e.g. Technology Architecture e.g. Presentation Architecture e.g. Control Structure e.g. Rule Design TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY MODEL MODEL (PHYSICAL) (PHYSICAL) Node = Hardware/System Builder Builder Ent = Segment/Table/etc. Proc.= Computer Function Software People = User Time = Execute End = Condition Reln = Pointer/Key/etc. I/O = Data Elements/Sets Link = Line Specifications Work = Screen Format Cycle = Component Cycle Means = Action DETAILED e.g. Data Definition e.g. Program e.g. Network Architecture e.g. Security Architecture e.g. Timing Definition e.g. Rule Specification DETAILED REPRESEN- REPRESEN- TATIONS TATIONS (OUT-OF- (OUT-OF CONTEXT) CONTEXT) Sub- Contractor Ent = Field Proc.= Language Stmt Node = Addresses People = Identity Time = Interrupt End = Sub-condition Sub- Reln = Address I/O = Control Block Link = Protocols Work = Job Cycle = Machine Cycle Means = Step Contractor FUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING e.g. DATA e.g. FUNCTION e.g. NETWORK e.g. ORGANIZATION e.g. SCHEDULE e.g. STRATEGY ENTERPRISE ENTERPRISE John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) Enterprise Architecture – A Framework™  231-0531 ©John A. Zachman, Zachman International (810) 231‐0531 Reprinted by permission – www.zifa.com CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 26
  27. 27. Traditional Procedural Language DATA: X is TRUE Traditional Procedural language is  R1: IF a is true THEN b is true sequential, forward only Loop #1 Ran 10,000 rules Suppose your rules are out of order? 1  rule fired R10: IF y is true THEN z is true Problems arise if sequence is incorrect (R100) What if you have to add a new rule? Loop #2 Developer has to figure out what order  , Ran 10,000 rules R100: IF x is true THEN  00 i p to put it in 2 rules fired y is true Adding a new rule could break existing  (R10, R1000) rules CONCLUSION: Once you get an answer, the rest of  Approve R1000: IF z is true THEN  “APPROVE” the rules fire anyway Results Ran 20,000 rules Only 3 rules fired R10,000: IF d is true THEN  “DENY” You have to loop a few times to get  around sequence problem 28 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com
  28. 28. Declarative (Rule‐based) Language DATA:  X is TRUE Search for rules that match the data Rules are in no particular order R50: IF x is false THEN “Deny” Cycle #1 R100: IF x is true THEN y is True Ran 2 rules Execute those rules R50 does not fire Fired 1 rule R100 fires because x is true (R100)  R10: IF y is  true THEN z  is true DATA:  X is TRUE Cycle #2 Y is TRUE Ran 1 rule R10,000: IF  d is true  Fired 1 rule  R1: IF a is  THEN  “DENY” Search for rules that match the data  (R10) true THEN  R10: IF y is true THEN z is True b is true Execute those rules R10 fires because y is true Cycle #3 R50: IF x is  Ran 1 rule false THEN  DATA:  X is TRUE “DENY” Fired 1 rule  Y is TRUE (R1000) Z is true R1000: IF z  is true  THEN  Results “APPROVE” Search for rules that match the data R1000: IF z is true THEN “APPROVE” Search found  Execute those rules 4 matching rules R100: IF x is  true THEN  R1000 fires because z is true Only 3 rules fired y is true CONCLUSION:  APPROVE 29 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com
  29. 29. Traditional approach  Modern approach  using hard‐coded rules using business rules Database  2nd Tier Rule Engine  Client  Client  3rd Tier Applications  Applications  1st Tier 1st Tier Code Business Rules Data CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com 30
  30. 30. Benefits of centralizing rules in one rulebase Can take a broader view of the customer If you just cancelled my policy… If you just raised my premium… If you just lost my luggage… …stop sending me email or text messages with special  offers for a while  I’m not happy with you right now Less code Easier maintenance ($6/$1) Faster time to market … etc… 31 CONFIDENTIAL & PROPRIETARY Copyright © 2002‐2008  BizRules is a registered trademark of BizRules.com

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