Action plans for climate ethics 2007


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Action plans for climate ethics 2007

  1. 1. Rohullah Azhad, M. A. in I.R. Global classroom IIJustice on Climate change, Sustainable Development and Human Rights KazNU Al-Farabi Almaty – Kazakhstan, 2012
  2. 2. Summary Heavy snowfall in Ireland causing damages East of Africa worst droughtThe whole world is vulnerable to climate change but scientific and empiricalresearch has confirmed what was already anecdotally clear: climate change affects people differently those who are more socially or poor economicallyInternational community has recognized the direct and indirect effects ofclimate change on human rights and the dis-proportionate impact felt bythose who are already vulnerable. (Where there are rights, there are responsibilities.) Ensures people’s dignity and respects their rights. Meets their basic needs and where resources are shared equitably. Supporting people to cope and adapt their livelihoods. Not to leave the future to chance. To increase understanding of the interconnections between lifestyles and public policy choices. 2 7/5/2012
  3. 3. Summary (Continued)Recurring food and energy crises and the alarming depletion anddegradation of natural resources and systems on which human lifedepends, more than ever call into question how current sustainabledevelopment models are and how should it be?With its causes and consequences bound up in these convergent crises,climate change is a particularly ominous symptom of the failure ofdevelopment decisions. A change of direction to deal with the climatecrisis must be a symbol of the shift to a new development paradigm.This paper looks at the frameworks needed to support and secureaction on climate change at global and national levels. Highlighting thework of partners to support affected communities and their efforts toinfluence their governments to bring about policy change, it seeks toplace political and public discussion on climate action in the context ofa debate on the broader issue of sustainable development. 3 7/5/2012
  4. 4. IntroductionGoals of the research: how can achieve clear environment , decrease harm and disadvantages of climate change. How much important is international efforts and convergence? In which level actions are more effective; national, sub-national, or international? list and cite many frameworks and conferences, proved necessity of Rio+20.In which level were previous conferences on climate changes much more effective; and are efforts in many conferences and meetings every year a factor to lead countries to achieve their goals better? Individual and political actions for one or two time Sub-national level actions for a short period International political frameworks and conferences foreverOrganization of the research Concepts and principles International Frameworks and conferences specially Rio+20 Conclusion and recommendation 4 7/5/2012
  5. 5. Climate ethics, Climate justice, ProgramsJustice on climate ethics 5 7/5/2012
  6. 6. Climate ethicsClimate ethics is generally used as a term for viewing climate changeas an ethical issue and considering how its causes and effects relateto concepts of justice, particularly social and environmental justice.For example examining issues such as equality, human rights,collective rights and historical responsibility to climate change. Everyone has a right to life, liberty, and personal security. Humans have rights to life, liberty, and personal security that create duties in others to refrain from interference with these basic rights.In this paper we seek to help clarify our duties to prevent theneglect or violation of those rights. Of course, climate change policymaking raises additional ethical issues including questions aboutduties to protect future generations of humans, plants, animals, andecosystems. 6 7/5/2012
  7. 7. Principles of Climate ethicsRespect and protect Human RightsSupport the right to developmentHighlight gender equality and equityShare benefits and burdens equitablyLeave fossil fuels in the groundDemand real and effective solutionsEqual access to resourcesUse effective partnerships to secure Climate JusticeHarness the transformative power of education for climatestewardshipEnsure that decisions on Climate Change are participatory,transparent and accountable 7 7/5/2012
  8. 8. Climate justiceClimate Justice is generally used as a term for viewing climate change as an ethicalissue and considering how its causes and effects relate to concepts of justice,(social justice and environmental justice). This term is also used with reference tolegal systems, where justice is achieved through application and development oflaw in the area of climate change.Climate Justice is a new and growing area of research that focuses on theethical dimensions of climate change, and concepts such as climate justice.Climate Justice links human rights and development to achieve a human-centred approach, safeguarding the rights of the most vulnerable and sharingthe burdens and benefits of climate change and its resolution equitably andfairly. Climate justice is informed by science, responds to science andacknowledges the need for equitable stewardship of the world’s resources.Climate justice is a vision to dissolve and alleviate the discrimination created byclimate change. As a form of environmental justice, climate justice is the fairtreatment of all people and freedom from unequal burdens with the creation ofpolicies and projects that address climate change and the systems that createclimate change and perpetuate discrimination. 8 7/5/2012
  9. 9. Climate justice is a fluid concept, however, there are recurring themes across various definitions. The following definitions taken from Organizing Cools The Planet give a picture of the various understandings of climate justice:Demanding Climate Justice section Environmental Justice and of Hoodwinked in the Hothouse Climate Change InitiativeClimate Justice as Evaluative Model: Roots in Environmental Justice:“Climate Justice is a struggle over “Climate Justice is a vision toland, forest, water, culture, food dissolve and alleviate the unequalsovereignty, collective and social rights; it is a burdens caused by climate change.struggle that considers “justice” at the basis of any As a form of environmental justice,solution; a struggle that supports climate solutions climate justice is the fair treatmentfound in the practices and knowledge of those of all people and freedom fromalready fighting to protect and defend their discrimination with the creation oflivelihoods and the environment; a struggle that policies and projects that addressinsists on a genuine systematic transformation in climate change and the systemsorder to tackle the real causes of climate change…Climate Justice addresses four key themes: root that create climate change andcauses, rights, reparations and participatory perpetuate discrimination.”democracy.” 9 7/5/2012
  10. 10. Principles of Climate justiceIndigenous Environmental NetworkFour Principles for Climate Justice: “Industrialized society mustredefine its relationship with the sacredness of Mother Earth: Leave Fossil Fuels in the Ground Demand Real and Effective Solutions Industrialized – Developed Countries Take Responsibility Living in a Good Way on Mother Earth" 10 7/5/2012
  11. 11. The Program on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate ChangeIn December 2004 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Collaborative Program on the EthicalDimensions of Climate Change was launched at the 10th Conference of Parties to theUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major outcome of thismeeting was the Buenos Aires Declaration on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change.The program on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change seeks to: Facilitate express examination of ethical dimensions of climate change; Create better understanding about the ethical dimensions of climate change among policy makers and the general public; Assure that people around the world, including those most vulnerable to climate change, participate in any ethical inquiry about responses to climate change; Develop an interdisciplinary approach to inquiry about the ethical dimensions of climate change and support publications that examine the ethical dimensions of climate change; Make the results of scholarship on the ethical dimensions of climate change available to and accessible to policy makers, scientists, and citizen groups; Integrate ethical analysis into the work of other institutions engaged in climate policy 11 7/5/2012
  12. 12. Climate justice actions,Action Plans on Climate justice 12 7/5/2012
  13. 13. Climate Justice ActionClimate Justice Action (CJA) "is a global network of groups and individuals committed totaking action to prevent catastrophic climate change". CJA formed as part of the alternativemobilization around the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen,and organized mass Direct actions during the conference.The Network has a strong emphasis on climate justice, and has the following goals: To promote and strengthen the rights and voices of Indigenous and affected peoples (including workers) in confronting the climate crisis. To support reparations and the repayment of ecological debt to the Global South by industrialized rich countries To build a global movement for climate justice that encourages urgent action to avoid catastrophic climate change. To highlight the critical role of biodiversity in weathering the climate crisis, and to defend the existence of all species. To expose the roles of false and market-based climate “solutions” as well as corporate domination of climate negotiations in worsening the climate crisis. To advance alternatives that can provide real and just solutions to the climate crisis. Our network is committed to working with respect, trust and unity towards these goals. To both sharpen our understanding of, and to address, the root social, ecological, political and economic causes of the climate crisis toward a total systemic transformation of our society. 13 7/5/2012
  14. 14. Individual and political action on climate change Individual and political action on climate change can take many forms, most of which have the ultimate goal of limiting and/or reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, toward avoiding dangerous climate change. Political action Protest movementsPolitical action can gain media, change laws A number of groups from around theand regulations that relate to climate world have come together to workchange, such as tax incentives, greenhouse on the issue of global warming. 2005,gas emissions limits or establishing a a coalition of 50 NGOs called Stopregulatory framework within which carbon Climate Chaos launched in Britain, totrading markets can operate. Political action highlight the issue of climate change.can also gain media and public attention toclimate change. Political action from the The Campaign against Climatecommunity, however, is often challenged by Change was created to focus purelyinterests within the fossil-fuel industry., on the issue of climate change and toSome climate change sceptic groups are pressure governments into action byindependent of the fossil-fuel industry, such building a protest movement ofas the Australian Youth Climate Change sufficient magnitude to effectCouncil (AYCCC). political change. 14 7/5/2012
  15. 15. Sub-national level actionSome states, regions, and cities in the world are taking the leadon developing emissions reduction methods in the absence offederal policy and may provide models for future national efforts.Their efforts are achieving real measurable emissions reductionsand by pursuing policies and programs that have climate benefits,they have promoted state economic development, improved airquality and trimmed their vulnerability to energy price spikes. Inthe long run, addressing climate change will requirecomprehensive national policy and international agreements.However, in the absence of federal policy, states and regions aretaking the lead on developing policies that may provide modelsfor future national efforts. 15 7/5/2012
  16. 16. United Kingdom Ghent, BelgiumThe town of Totnes in Devon through its "TransitionTown Totnes" Project has adopted an Energy The city promotes a meat-Descent Plan, as a response in answer to the twin free day on Thursdays calledproblems of greenhouse gas emissions and peak oil. Veggiedag, with vegetarian-As a result of a series of large, well-attended public only food in public canteensgatherings with key experts from around the world, for civil servants and electedand the organization of a number of special interest councilors, soon in all schools,groups, the community has come together with and promotion of vegetarianlecturers and trainers shared with Schumacher eating options in town. ThisCollege, through a process of participative strategic campaign is linked to theplanning, to hone their skill in project development. recognition of the detrimentalAs a result of the initiatives, a large number of other environmental effects ofcommunities have started Transition Town projects, meat production, which theand there are now more than 400 around the United Nations Food andworld, ranging from small communities to whole Agriculture Organization hascities (e.g. Berlin). The concepts of including food established to representmiles or carbon neutral labels on packaging has nearly one-fifth of globalbeen gaining interest in the UK. greenhouse gas emissions. 16 7/5/2012
  17. 17. International political frameworks The European Union Emissions Trading SchemeUnder Kyoto, countries with targets can elect to reach these targets in co-operation with other countries. The European Union has decided to work as aunit to meet its emissions targets. The European climate change programattempts to do this by utilizing an emissions trading scheme known as theEuropean Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. The principle of thisscheme is quite simple: to make their legally binding commitments under Kyoto,countries can either make these savings within their own country, or they canbuy these emissions reductions from other countries. These other countrieswould still need to meet their Kyoto targets, but the use of a free market systemensures the reductions are made for the least possible costs. Most reductions aremade where these reductions are cheapest, and the excess reductions can besold on to other countries where such cuts would be less economically viable. South Africa (Ecologize Politics, Politicize Ecology)South Africas first National Conference on Environment and Development was held atthe University of the Western Cape in conjunction with the Cape Town Ecology Group andthe Western Cape Branch of the World Conference on Religion and Peace in 1991.Prominent persons involved in this conference were Ebrahim Rasool, Cheryl Carolus, 17 7/5/2012Faried Esack, and Julia Martin.
  18. 18. International political frameworks United Nation conferences and frameworks United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 1972The UNs first major conference on international Climate Justice Now!environmental issues, marked a turning point in CJN is a global coalitionthe development of international environmental of organizations andpolitics which convened under United Nations networks campaigningauspices, held in Stockholm, Sweden. for climate justice. The113 countries, 19 inter-governmental agencies, coalition was founded atabout 400 IGOs and NGOs the UNFCCC meeting inThe meeting agreed upon a Declaration Bali, and has sincecontaining 26 principles concerning the mobilized for UNFCCCenvironment and development; an Action Plan meetings in Bangkok,with 109 recommendations, and a Resolution. Copenhagen and Cancun. 18 7/5/2012
  19. 19. UNCED: UN-FCCC/Kyoto Protocol/Earth summit 1992 (Rio)United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is an internationalenvironmental treaty produced at the United Nations Conference onEnvironment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to14, 1992. (172 governments 2,400 NGOs)The objective of the treaty is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in theatmosphere at a level that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference withthe climate system. (Non-binding)The treaty provides for updates (called "protocols") that would set mandatoryemission limits. The principal update is the Kyoto Protocol, which has becomemuch better known than the UNFCCC itself.The parties to the convention have met annually from 1995 in Conferences ofthe Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change. In 1997,the Kyoto Protocol was concluded and established legally binding obligationsfor developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Anotheragreement was to "not carry out any activities on the lands of indigenouspeoples that would cause environmental degradation or that would beculturally inappropriate".The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents:Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21, Forest Principles 19 7/5/2012
  20. 20. WSSD, Earth Summit 2002 (Rio+10)World Summit on Sustainable Development took place inJohannesburg, South Africa, from 26 Aug to 4 Sep 2002. It wasconvened to discuss sustainable development by the UnitedNations. WSSD gathered a number of leaders from business andnon-governmental organizations,The Johannesburg Declaration was the main outcome of theSummit; however, there were several other internationalagreements. It laid out the Johannesburg Plan ofImplementation as an action plan. Agreement was made torestore the worlds depleted fisheries for 2015. It was agreed toby negotiators at the World Summit.The initial informal discussions on a possible new Summit in 2002were held in February 1998 and hosted by Derek Osborn who co-chaired the preparatory meetings for Rio+5 and StakeholderForum for a Sustainable Future. 20 7/5/2012
  21. 21. United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2009Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center inCopenhagen, Denmark, between 7 - 18 Dec. COP 15 - MOP 5According to the Bali Road Map, a framework for climatechange mitigation beyond 2012 was to be agreed there.The Copenhagen Accord was drafted by the United States,China, India, Brazil and South Africa on December 18, andjudged a "meaningful agreement" by the United Statesgovernment. It was "taken note of", but not "adopted", in adebate of all the participating countries the next day, and itwas not passed unanimously. The document recognized thatclimate change is one of the greatest challenges of thepresent day and that actions should be taken to keep anytemperature increases to below 2°C. Many countries and non-governmental organizations were opposed to this agreement,but, throughout 2010, 138 countries had either formally signedon to agreement or signaled they would. 21 7/5/2012
  22. 22. United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2010Was held in Cancún, Mexico, from 29 Nov to 10 Dec 2010. COP 16 - CMP 6The outcome of the summit was an agreement adopted by the statesparties that called for a large "Green Climate Fund", and a "ClimateTechnology Centre" and network. It looked forward to a secondcommitment period for the Kyoto Protocol.The agreement further recognizes that deep cuts in global greenhousegas emissions are required, with a view to reducing global greenhousegas emissions so as to hold the increase in global average temperaturebelow 2°C above pre-industrial levels, and that Parties should takeurgent action to meet this long-term goal, consistent with science andon the basis of equity; and recognizes the need to consider, in thecontext of the first review, strengthening in relation to a global averagetemperature rise of 1.5°C. The agreement also notes that addressingclimate change requires a paradigm shift towards building a low-carbonsociety. The agreement calls on rich countries to reduce theirgreenhouse gas emissions as pledged in the Copenhagen Accord, andfor developing countries to plan to reduce their emissions. 22 7/5/2012
  23. 23. United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2011Was held in Durban, South Africa, from 28 Nov to 11 Dec 2011 to establish anew treaty to limit carbon emissions. COP 17 - CMP 7The conference agreed to a legally binding deal comprising all countries,which will be prepared by 2015, and to take effect in 2020. There was alsoprogress regarding the creation of a Green Climate Fund (GCF) for which amanagement framework was adopted.A primary focus of the conference was to secure a global climate agreementas the Kyoto Protocols first commitment period (2008–2012) was about toend. It was also expected to focus on "finalizing at least some of the CancunAgreements", reached at the 2010 Conference, such as "co-operation onclean technology", as well as "forest protection, adaptation to climateimpacts, etc.Forcing countries for the first time to admit that their current policies areinadequate and must be strengthened by 2015, it has snatched 2 °C from thejaws of impossibility. At the same time it has re-established the principle thatclimate change should be tackled through international law, not national, 23 7/5/2012voluntarism."
  24. 24. The UN Conference on Sustainable Development, known as Rio+20, isalmost here. The year 2012 marks the 20th anniversary of the UNConference on Environment and Development, referred to as theEarth Summit, a milestone in the global sustainability process and thebirthplace of the Local Agenda 21 movementThe decision to hold the conference in 2012 in Rio de Janeiro wasmade by UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/64/236 on 24December 2009.In 2012 the United Nations will convene the United NationsConference on Sustainable Development, also known as Rio 2012 orRio+20, hosted by Brazil in Rio de Janeiro, as a 20-year follow-up to thehistoric 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment andDevelopment (UNCED) that was held in the same city. The conferenceis organized by the United Nations Department of Economic andSocial Affairs.The conference will focus on two themes: building a green economyand creating an effective institutional framework for sustainabledevelopment. 24 7/5/2012
  25. 25. In the run-up to and during the Rio+20 conferences, ICLEI willorganize two main events aimed at accelerating action on globalsustainability. The ICLEI World Congress 2012, and parallel eventUrban Nature (12-14 June) will bring together Members, partners,experts, researchers and businesses, to find solutions to the urbanand global challenges we face:Strongly linked to Rio+20, the Congress is a unique opportunity toexchange with other large and leading cities facing similarchallenges and to develop partnerships to strengthen your workin this area.The Rio+20 Global Town Hall is the place where the sustainableurban future will be discussed at Rio+20. Local governmentleaders can connect with UN officials, country negotiators, leadingprivate sector executives and other important individuals in aninteractive situation close to Rio+20 seeks to build global politicalconsensus on a pathway towards greater environmental, socialand economic sustainability. 25 7/5/2012
  26. 26. International Community, European Union Conclusion andRecommendations 26 7/5/2012
  27. 27. In recent years calls for climate justice have gained support amongglobal civil society and other actors. While there is no one definition ofclimate justice, the importance of the concept is that it broadens thedebate on climate change beyond technical and political discussion toa focus on people and on rights and responsibilities. This is a criticalcontribution.Although efforts of every unique country, regardless in governmentallevel, media or civil society, help reducing harms and damages onenvironment caused by climate change, there is need coordination forsum up these gains and attempts in a global level to achieve the goalsquickly and easily. It is right that climate change is different in everyregion and places around the world, but indirectly, it has effect forwhole atmosphere surround the earth. Therefore all regulations,activities, and funds should be synchronized in internationalconferences and summits to achieve this aim better. But continuing ofclimate change in the future compels humans that follow their plansevery year in many different meetings and conferences. Of courseRio+20 emphasis previous achievements and adds new tools and ideasfor future measures. 27 7/5/2012
  28. 28. While recognition of the need to protect the environment indevelopment has increased markedly in the last decades, thishas largely focused on reducing the impacts of existing practicesrather than rethinking the way in which humans view andinteract with the earth. Many climate justice movementsadvocate a profound rethink of the way we manage the naturalenvironment and its resources.Which we believe that the EU and international community needto urgently implement in order to address the issue of climatechange in ways which benefit those living in poverty. Theserecommendations, whilst they are numerous, are not enough.They represent the first step towards redirecting developmenttowards a more sustainable and equitable future for all. We need to maximize synergies and minimize risks in addressing agriculture and climate change We need strong EU leadership – a key to progress We need fair, ambitious and binding global action 28 7/5/2012
  29. 29. Thank you! 29 7/5/2012