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Master of Business Administration                                       Semester II            MB0047 – Management Informa...
from the raw, stored data. The term "MIS" arose to describe such applications providingmanagers with information about sal...
AdvantagesThe following are some of the benefits that can be attained for different types of managementinformation systems...
Conversion is the process of changing or converting the old system into the new. This can bedone in four ways:   Direct c...
2. Explain Knowledge based system? Explain DSS and OLAP with example?Ans.                                   Knowledge-base...
Typical information that a decision support application might gather and present are:   inventories of information assets...
OLAPAn OLAP cube is a set of data, organized in a way that facilitates non-predetermined queriesfor aggregated information...
3. What are Value Chain Analysis & describe its significance in MIS? Explain what ismeant by BPR? What is its significance...
Execution can (when considered as elements of chains) help drive Lean approaches toMaintenance. The Maintenance Value Chai...
core business processes with the aim of achieving dramatic improvements in critical performancemeasures, such as cost, qua...
factor linked to the demise of many reengineering initiatives that looked good on the drawingboard.Some items to use on a ...
information needs. This, in turn, is determined by the types of activities embedded in a businessprocess, and their sequen...
4. Explain DFD & Data Dictionary? Explain in detail how the information requirement isdetermined for an organization?Ans.D...
There are different notations to draw data flow diagrams (Yourdon & Coad and Gane & Sarso),defining different visual repre...
database, plus additional details, like the type and length of each data element. There is nouniversal standard as to the ...
5. What is ERP? Explain its existence before and its future after? What are the advantages& Disadvantages of ERP? What is ...
floor equipment that their customers operate. ERP vendors must be expert in their own products,and connectivity to other v...
Linking current processes to the organizations strategy;Analyzing the effectiveness of each process;Understanding existing...
The software was designed to handle various configurations, and behaves predictably in anyallowed configuration.The effect...
Artificial IntelligenceArtificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer sciencethat...
6. Distinguish between closed decision making system & open decision making system?What is – if ‘analysis? Why is more tim...
(d) It is difficult to decide an objective or a goal and, therefore, the manager resorts to thatdecision, where his aspira...
organization scholarship and research subsequently emphasized the role of the environment. Upthrough the 1960s, it was not...
environment outside of the company, which are necessary for the production subsystem. Thissubsystem also is responsible fo...
SET 21. How hardware & software support in various MIS activities of the organization?Explain the transaction stages from ...
Input unit is used to give input to the processor. Examples of input unit –Keyboard,scanner, mouse, bar code reader etc.A ...
MIS (Managing Information Software) SoftwareMIS software helps for managing your accounts, inventory, taxation, payroll, s...
Many inventory reports are available. There are alphabetizing methods that can be used. You canprint physical inventory sh...
2. Explain the various behavioral factors of management organization? As per Porter, howcan performance of individual corp...
While Classical philosophies rarely took upon a task of developing a specific theory oforganizations, some had used implic...
Methods used in organizational studiesA variety of methods are used in organizational studies. They include quantitative m...
Theories of decision making can be subdivided into three categories   Normative (concentrates on how decision should be m...
3. Compare various types of development aspect of Information System? Explain thevarious stages of SDLC?Ans.              ...
usually initiated as part of a desire to eliminate the older centralized applications and to replacethem with newer person...
All computer systems tend to get cluttered over time with a patchwork of add-on modules, files,and processes. These pieces...
ManualFrom the analysts viewpoint, this is the simplest environment in that all the components of theenvironment are overt...
ReautomationThere have been many attempts to set down analytical and design methodologies fordevelopment projects in autom...
Throughout this book we will use the qualified term hardware platform to represent differencesin computing machinery and t...
4. Compare & Contrast E-enterprise business model with traditional business organizationmodel? Explain how in E-enterprise...
his 1967 article "Business Process Modeling Improves Administrative Control".[2] His idea wasthat techniques for obtaining...
A business process can be decomposed into several sub-processes, which have their ownattributes, but also contribute to ac...
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
Management information system
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Management information system

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M.I.S...... SMU ASSIGNMENT.. SEM --2 ... BY ROHIT MISHRA

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Management information system

  1. 1. Master of Business Administration Semester II MB0047 – Management Information Systems Assignment Set- 11. What is MIS? Define the characteristics of MIS? What are the basic Functions of MIS?Give some Disadvantage of MIS?Ans. A management information system (MIS) provides information which is needed tomanage organizations efficiently and effectively. Management information systems involve threeprimary resources: people, technology, and information or decision making. Managementinformation systems are distinct from other information systems in that they are used to analyzeoperational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer tothe group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of humandecision making, e.g. decision support systems, expert systems, and executive informationsystems.OverviewInitially in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting was produced manually andonly periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and with some additional statistic(s),and gave limited and delayed information on management performance. Data was organizedmanually according to the requirements and necessity of the organization. As computationaltechnology developed, information began to be distinguished from data and systems weredeveloped to produce and organize abstractions, summaries, relationships and generalizationsbased on the data.Early business computers were used for simple operations such as tracking sales or payroll data,with little detail or structure. Over time, these computer applications became morecomplex, hardware storage capacities grew, and technologies improved for connectingpreviously isolated applications. As more and more data was stored and linked, managers soughtgreater detail as well as greater abstraction with the aim of creating entire management reports
  2. 2. from the raw, stored data. The term "MIS" arose to describe such applications providingmanagers with information about sales, inventories, and other data that would help in managingthe enterprise. Today, the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes (but is notlimited to): decision support systems, resource and people management applications, enterpriseresource planning (ERP), enterprise performance management (EPM), supply chainmanagement (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM),project management anddatabase retrieval applications.The successful MIS supports a businesss long range plans, providing reports based uponperformance analysis in areas critical to those plans, with feedback loops that allow for titivationof every aspect of the enterprise, including recruitment and training regimens. MIS not onlyindicate how things are going, but why and where performance is failing to meet the plan. Thesereports include near-real-time performance of cost centers and projects with detail sufficient forindividual accountability. TypesMost management information systems specialize in particular commercial and industrialsectors, aspects of the enterprise, or management substructure. Management information systems (MIS), per se, produce fixed, regularly scheduled reports based on data extracted and summarized from the firm’s underlying transaction processing systems to middle and operational level managers to identify and inform structured and semi-structured decision problems. Decision support systems (DSS) are computer program applications used by middle management to compile information from a wide range of sources to support problem solving and decision making. Executive information systems (EIS) is a reporting tool that provides quick access to summarized reports coming from all company levels and departments such as accounting, human resources and operations. Marketing information systems are MIS designed specifically for managing the marketing aspects of the business. Office automation systems (OAS) support communication and productivity in the enterprise by automating work flow and eliminating bottlenecks. OAS may be implemented at any and all levels of management. School management information systems (MIS) cover school administration, often including teaching and learning materials.
  3. 3. AdvantagesThe following are some of the benefits that can be attained for different types of managementinformation systems. Companies are able to highlight their strengths and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports, employees performance record etc. The identification of these aspects can help the company improve their business processes and operations. Giving an overall picture of the company and acting as a communication and planning tool. The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the company to align their business processes according to the needs of the customers. The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities. Information is considered to be an important asset for any company in the modern competitive world. The consumer buying trends and behaviours can be predicted by the analysis of sales and revenue reports from each operating region of the company.Enterprise applicationsEnterprise systems, also known as enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems provide anorganization with integrated software modules and a unified database which enable efficientplanning, managing, and controlling of all core business processes across multiple locations.Modules of ERP systems may include finance, accounting, marketing, human resources,production, inventory management and distribution. Supply chain management (SCM) systems enable more efficient management of the supply chain by integrating the links in a supply chain. This may include suppliers, manufacturer, wholesalers, retailers and final customers. Customer relationship management (CRM) systems help businesses manage relationships with potential and current customers and business partners across marketing, sales, and service. Knowledge management system (KMS) helps organizations facilitate the collection, recording, organization, retrieval, and dissemination of knowledge. This may include documents, accounting records, and unrecorded procedures, practices and skills.Developing Information Systems."The actions that are taken to create an information system that solves an organizational problemare called system development. These include system analysis, systemdesign,programming/implementation, testing, conversion, production and finally maintenance.These actions usually take place in that specified order but some may need to repeat or beaccomplished concurrently.
  4. 4. Conversion is the process of changing or converting the old system into the new. This can bedone in four ways: Direct cutover – The new system replaces the old at an appointed time. Pilot study – Introducing the new system to a small portion of the operation to see how it fares. If good then the new system expands to the rest of the company. Phased approach – New system is introduced in stages.
  5. 5. 2. Explain Knowledge based system? Explain DSS and OLAP with example?Ans. Knowledge-based systemsKnowledge based systems are artificial intelligent tools working in a narrow domain to provideintelligent decisions with justification. Knowledge is acquired and represented using variousknowledge representation techniques rules, frames and scripts. The basic advantages offered bysuch system are documentation of knowledge, intelligent decision support, self learning,reasoning and explanation. Knowledge-based systems are systems based on the methods andtechniques of Artificial Intelligence.Their core components are: knowledge base acquisition mechanisms inference mechanismsKnowledge Base Systems (KBS) goes beyond the decision support philosophy to indicate theexpert system technology into the decision making framework. Expert Systems (ES) have beenthe tools and techniques perfected by artificial intelligence (AI) researchers to deduce decisioninfluences based on codification of knowledge. The codification of knowledge use the principlesof knowledge representation (part of the large theoretical ideas of knowledge engineering).Typically such codification uses rules like IF-THEN rules to represent logical implications.While for some authors expert systems, case-based reasoning systems and neural networks areall particular types of knowledge-based systems, there are others who consider that neuralnetworks are different, and exclude it from this category.KBS is a frequently used abbreviation for knowledge-based system. Decision support systemA decision support system (DSS) is a computer-based information system that supports businessor organizational decision-making activities. DSSs serve the management, operations, andplanning levels of an organization and help to make decisions, which may be rapidly changingand not easily specified in advance.DSSs include knowledge-based systems. A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from a combinationof raw data, documents, personal knowledge, or business models to identify and solve problemsand make decisions.
  6. 6. Typical information that a decision support application might gather and present are: inventories of information assets (including legacy and relational data sources, cubes, data warehouses, and data marts), comparative sales figures between one period and the next, projected revenue figures based on product sales assumptions.Three fundamental components of a DSS architecture are: 1. the database (or knowledge base), 2. the model (i.e., the decision context and user criteria), and 3. the user interface.The users themselves are also important components of the architecture.[5][12]ApplicationsAs mentioned above, there are theoretical possibilities of building such systems in anyknowledge domain.One example is the clinical decision support system for medical diagnosis. Other examplesinclude a bank loan officer verifying the credit of a loan applicant or an engineering firm that hasbids on several projects and wants to know if they can be competitive with their costs.DSS is extensively used in business and management. Executive dashboard and other businessperformance software allow faster decision making, identification of negative trends, and betterallocation of business resources.A growing area of DSS application, concepts, principles, and techniques is in agriculturalproduction, marketing for sustainable development. For example, the DSSAT4package, developed through financial support of USAID during the 80s and 90s, has allowedrapid assessment of several agricultural production systems around the world to facilitatedecision-making at the farm and policy levels. There are, however, many constraints to thesuccessful adoption on DSS in agriculture.DSS are also prevalent in forest management where the long planning time frame demandsspecific requirements. All aspects of Forest management, from log transportation, harvestscheduling to sustainability and ecosystem protection have been addressed by modern DSSs.A specific example concerns the Canadian National Railway system, which tests its equipmenton a regular basis using a decision support system. A problem faced by any railroad is worn-outor defective rails, which can result in hundreds of derailments per year. Under a DSS, CNmanaged to decrease the incidence of derailments at the same time other companies wereexperiencing an increase.
  7. 7. OLAPAn OLAP cube is a set of data, organized in a way that facilitates non-predetermined queriesfor aggregated information, or in other words, online analytical processing. OLAP is one of thecomputer-based techniques for analyzing business data that are collectively called businessintelligence.OLAP operationsThe analyst can understand the meaning contained in the databases using multi-dimensionalanalysis. By aligning the data content with the analysts mental model, the chances of confusionand erroneous interpretations are reduced. The analyst can navigate through the database andscreen for a particular subset of the data, changing the datas orientations and defining analyticalcalculations. The user-initiated process of navigating by calling for page displays interactively,through the specification of slices via rotations and drill down/up is sometimes called "slice anddice". Common operations include slice and dice, drill down, roll up, and pivot.
  8. 8. 3. What are Value Chain Analysis & describe its significance in MIS? Explain what ismeant by BPR? What is its significance? How Data warehousing & Data Mining is usefulin terms of MIS?Ans. Value chainA value chain is a chain of activities for a firm operating in a specific industry. The business unitis the appropriate level for construction of a value chain, not the divisional level or corporatelevel. Products pass through all activities of the chain in order, and at each activity the productgains some value. The chain of activities gives the products more added value than the sum ofthe independent activities values.It is important not to mix the concept of the value chain with the costs occurring throughout theactivities. A diamond cutter, as a profession, can be used to illustrate the difference of cost andthe value chain. The cutting activity may have a low cost, but the activity adds much of the valueto the end product, since a rough diamond is significantly less valuable than a cut diamond.Typically, the described value chain and the documentation of processes, assessment andauditing of adherence to the process routines are at the core of the quality certification of thebusiness, e.g. ISO 9001. SignificanceThe value chain framework quickly made its way to the forefront of management thought as apowerful analysis tool for strategic planning. The simpler concept of value streams, a cross-functional process which was developed over the next decade, had some success in the early1990s.The value-chain concept has been extended beyond individual firms. It can apply towhole supply chains and distribution networks. The delivery of a mix of products and services tothe end customer will mobilize different economic factors, each managing its own value chain.The industry wide synchronized interactions of those local value chains create an extended valuechain, sometimes global in extent. Porter terms this larger interconnected system of value chainsthe "value system." A value system includes the value chains of a firms supplier (and theirsuppliers all the way back), the firm itself, the firm distribution channels, and the firms buyers(and presumably extended to the buyers of their products, and so on).Capturing the value generated along the chain is the new approach taken by many managementstrategists. For example, a manufacturer might require its parts suppliers to be located nearby itsassembly plant to minimize the cost of transportation. By exploiting the upstream anddownstream information flowing along the value chain, the firms may try to bypass theintermediaries creating new business models, or in other ways create improvements in its valuesystem.Value chain analysis has also been successfully used in large Petrochemical Plant MaintenanceOrganizations to show how Work Selection, Work Planning, Work Scheduling and finally Work
  9. 9. Execution can (when considered as elements of chains) help drive Lean approaches toMaintenance. The Maintenance Value Chain approach is particularly successful when used as atool for helping Change Management as it is seen as more user friendly than other businessprocess tools.Value chain approach could also offer a meaningful alternative to valuate private or publiccompanies when there is a lack of publically known data from direct competition, where thesubject company is compared with, for example, a known downstream industry to have a goodfeel of its value by building useful correlations with its downstream companies.Value chain analysis has also been employed in the development sector as a means of identifyingpoverty reduction strategies by upgrading along the value chain. Although commonly associatedwith export-oriented trade, development practitioners have begun to highlight the importance ofdeveloping national and intra-regional chains in addition to international ones. Business process reengineeringBusiness process re-engineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes withinan organization. According to Davenport (1990) a business process is a set of logically relatedtasks performed to achieve a defined business outcome. Re-engineering is the basis for manyrecent developments in management. The cross-functional team, for example, has becomepopular because of the desire to re-engineer separate functional tasks into complete cross-functional processes. Also, many recent management information systems developments aim tointegrate a wide number of business functions. Enterprise resource planning, supply chainmanagement, knowledge management systems, groupware and collaborative systems, HumanResource Management Systems and customer relationship management.Business process re-engineering is also known as business process redesign, businesstransformation, or business process change management.Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) is basically the fundamental re-thinking and radical re-design, made to an organizations existing resources. It is more than just business improvising.It is an approach for redesigning the way work is done to better support theorganizations mission and reduce costs. Reengineering starts with a high-level assessment of theorganizations mission, strategic goals, and customer needs. Basic questions are asked, such as"Does our mission need to be redefined? Are our strategic goals aligned with our mission? Whoare our customers?" An organization may find that it is operating on questionable assumptions,particularly in terms of the wants and needs of its customers. Only after the organization rethinkswhat it should be doing, does it go on to decide how best to do it.Within the framework of this basic assessment of mission and goals, re-engineering focuses onthe organizations business processes—the steps and procedures that govern how resources areused to create products and services that meet the needs of particular customers or markets. As astructured ordering of work steps across time and place, a business process can be decomposedinto specific activities, measured, modeled, and improved. It can also be completely redesignedor eliminated altogether. Re-engineering identifies, analyzes, and re-designs an organizations
  10. 10. core business processes with the aim of achieving dramatic improvements in critical performancemeasures, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.Re-engineering recognizes that an organizations business processes are usually fragmented intosub processes and tasks that are carried out by several specialized functional areas within theorganization. Often, no one is responsible for the overall performance of the entire process. Re-engineering maintains that optimizing the performance of sub processes can result in somebenefits, but cannot yield dramatic improvements if the process itself is fundamentally inefficientand outmoded. For that reason, re-engineering focuses on re-designing the process as a whole inorder to achieve the greatest possible benefits to the organization and their customers. This drivefor realizing dramatic improvements by fundamentally re-thinking how the organizations workshould be done distinguishes re-engineering from process improvement efforts that focus onfunctional or incremental improvement. The role of information technologyInformation technology (IT) has historically played an important role in the reengineeringconcept. It is considered by some as a major enabler for new forms of working and collaboratingwithin an organization and across organizational borders.Early BPR literature identified several so called disruptive technologies that were supposed tochallenge traditional wisdom about how work should be performed. Shared databases, making information available at many places Expert systems, allowing generalists to perform specialist tasks Telecommunication networks, allowing organizations to be centralized and decentralized at the same time Decision-support tools, allowing decision-making to be a part of everybodys job Wireless data communication and portable computers, allowing field personnel to work office independent Interactive videodisk, to get in immediate contact with potential buyers Automatic identification and tracking, allowing things to tell where they are, instead of requiring to be found High performance computing, allowing on-the-fly planning and revisioningIn the mid 1990s, especially workflow management systems were considered as a significantcontributor to improved process efficiency. Also ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) vendors,such as SAP, JD Edwards, Oracle, PeopleSoft, positioned their solutions as vehicles for businessprocess redesign and improvement.Benefiting from lessons learned from the early adopters, some BPR practitioners advocated achange in emphasis to a customer-centric, as opposed to an IT-centric, methodology. One suchmethodology, that also incorporated a Risk and Impact Assessment to account for the impact thatBPR can have on jobs and operations, was described by Lon Roberts (1994). Roberts alsostressed the use of change management tools to proactively address resistance to change—a
  11. 11. factor linked to the demise of many reengineering initiatives that looked good on the drawingboard.Some items to use on a process analysis checklist are: Reduce handoffs, Centralize data, Reducedelays, Free resources faster, Combine similar activities. Also within the management consultingindustry, a significant number of methodological approaches have been developed.Adequate IT Infrastructure Researchers consider adequate IT infrastructure reassessment andcomposition as a vital factor in successful BPR implementation (Al-Mashari & Zairi, 1999).Hammer (1990) prescribes the use of IT to challenge the assumptions inherent in the workprocess that have existed since long before the advent of modern computer and communicationstechnology (Malhotra, 1998). Factors related to IT infrastructure have been increasinglyconsidered by many researchers and practitioners as a vital component of successful BPR efforts(Ross, 1998). Effective alignment of IT infrastructure and BPR strategy, building an effective ITinfrastructure, adequate IT infrastructure investment decision, adequate measurement of ITinfrastructure effectiveness, proper information systems (IS) integration, effective reengineeringof legacy IS, increasing IT function competency, and effective use of software tools are the mostimportant factors that contribute to the success of BPR projects. These are vital factors thatcontribute to building an effective IT infrastructure for business processes (Al-Mashari & Zairi,1999). BPR must be accompanied by strategic planning which addresses leveraging IT as acompetitive tool (Weicher, et al., 1995).An IT infrastructure is made up of physical assets, intellectual assets, shared services (Broadbent& Weill, 1997), and their linkages (Kayworth, et al., 1997). The way in which the ITinfrastructure components are composed and their linkages determines the extent to whichinformation resources can be delivered. An effective IT infrastructure composition processfollows a top-down approach, beginning with business strategy and IS strategy and passingthrough designs of data, systems, and computer architecture (Malhotra, 1996). Linkages betweenthe IT infrastructure components, as well as descriptions of their contexts of interaction, areimportant for ensuring integrity and consistency among the IT infrastructure components (Ross,1998). Furthermore, IT standards have a major role in reconciling various infrastructurecomponents to provide shared IT services that are of a certain degree of effectiveness to supportbusiness process applications, as well as to guide the process of acquiring, managing, andutilizing IT assets (Kayworth, et al., 1997). The IT infrastructure shared services and the humanIT infrastructure components, in terms of their responsibilities and their needed expertise, areboth vital to the process of the IT infrastructure composition. IT strategic alignment isapproached through the process of integration between business and IT strategies, as well asbetween IT and organizational infrastructures (Al-Mashari & Zairi, 1999).Most analysts view BPR and IT as irrevocably linked. Walmart, for example, would not havebeen able to reengineer the processes used to procure and distribute mass-market retail goodswithout IT. Ford was able to decrease its headcount in the procurement department by 75 percentby using IT in conjunction with BPR, in another well-known example (Weicher, et al., 1995).The IT infrastructure and BPR are interdependent in the sense that deciding the informationrequirements for the new business processes determines the IT infrastructure constituents, and arecognition of IT capabilities provides alternatives for BPR (Ross, 1998). Building a responsiveIT infrastructure is highly dependent on an appropriate determination of business process
  12. 12. information needs. This, in turn, is determined by the types of activities embedded in a businessprocess, and their sequencing and reliance on other organizational processes (Sabherwal & King,1991).Ongoing Continuous Improvement Many organizational change theorists hold a common viewof organizations adjusting gradually and incrementally and responding locally to individualcrises as they arise (Dooley & Johnson, 2001). BPR is a successive and ongoing process andshould be regarded as an improvement strategy that enables an organization to make the movefrom traditional functional orientation to one that aligns with strategic business processes(Vakola & Rezgui, 2000). Continuous improvement is defined as the propensity of theorganization to pursue incremental and innovative improvements in its processes, products, andservices (Dooley & Johnson, 2001). The incremental change is governed by the knowledgegained from each previous change cycle. It is essential that the automation infrastructure of theBPR activity provides for performance measurements in order to support continuousimprovements. It will need to efficiently capture appropriate data and allow access to appropriateindividuals. To ensure that the process generates the desired benefits, it must be tested before it isdeployed to the end users. If it does not perform satisfactorily, more time should be taken tomodify the process until it does.A fundamental concept for quality practitioners is the use of feedback loops at every step of theprocess and an environment that encourages constant evaluation of results and individual effortsto improve (Gore, 1999). At the end user’s level, there must be a proactive feedback mechanismthat provides for and facilitates resolutions of problems and issues. This will also contribute to acontinuous risk assessment and evaluation which are needed throughout the implementationprocess to deal with any risks at their initial state and to ensure the success of the reengineeringefforts. Anticipating and planning for risk handling is important for dealing effectively with anyrisk when it first occurs and as early as possible in the BPR process (Clemons, 1995). It isinteresting that many of the successful applications of reengineering described by its proponentsare in organizations practicing continuous improvement programs. Hammer and Champy (1993)use the IBM Credit Corporation as well as Ford and Kodak, as examples of companies thatcarried out BPR successfully due to the fact that they had long-running continuous improvementprograms (Gore, 1999).In conclusion, successful BPR can potentially create substantial improvements in the wayorganizations do business and can actually produce fundamental improvements for businessoperations. However, in order to achieve that, there are some key success factors that must betaken into consideration when performing BPR. BPR success factors are a collection of lessonslearned from reengineering projects and from these lessons common themes have emerged. Inaddition, the ultimate success of BPR depends on the people who do it and on how well they canbe committed and motivated to be creative and to apply their detailed knowledge to thereengineering initiative. Organizations planning to undertake BPR must take into considerationthe success factors of BPR in order to ensure that their reengineering related change efforts arecomprehensive, well-implemented, and have minimum chance of failure.
  13. 13. 4. Explain DFD & Data Dictionary? Explain in detail how the information requirement isdetermined for an organization?Ans.Data flow diagramA data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data throughan information system, modeling its process aspects. Often they are a preliminary step used tocreate an overview of the system which can later be elaborated. DFDs can also be used forthe visualization of data processing (structured design).A DFD shows what kinds of data will be input to and output from the system, where the data willcome from and go to, and where the data will be stored. It does not show information about thetiming of processes, or information about whether processes will operate in sequence or inparallel (which is shown on a flowchart).It is common practice to draw the context-level data flow diagram first, which shows theinteraction between the system and external agents which act as data sources and data sinks. Onthe context diagram the systems interactions with the outside world are modelled purely in termsof data flows across the system boundary. The context diagram shows the entire system as asingle process, and gives no clues as to its internal organization.This context-level DFD is next "exploded", to produce a Level 0 DFD that shows some of thedetail of the system being modeled. The Level 0 DFD shows how the system is divided into sub-systems (processes), each of which deals with one or more of the data flows to or from anexternal agent, and which together provide all of the functionality of the system as a whole. Italso identifies internal data stores that must be present in order for the system to do its job, andshows the flow of data between the various parts of the system.Data flow diagrams were proposed by Larry Constantine, the original developer of structureddesign based on Martin and Estrins "data flow graph" model of computation.Data flow diagrams (DFDs) are one of the three essential perspectives of the structured-systemsanalysis and design method SSADM. The sponsor of a project and the end users will need to bebriefed and consulted throughout all stages of a systems evolution. With a data flow diagram,users are able to visualize how the system will operate, what the system will accomplish, andhow the system will be implemented. The old systems dataflow diagrams can be drawn up andcompared with the new systems data flow diagrams to draw comparisons to implement a moreefficient system. Data flow diagrams can be used to provide the end user with a physical idea ofwhere the data they input ultimately has an effect upon the structure of the whole system fromorder to dispatch to report. How any system is developed can be determined through a data flowdiagram.In the course of developing a set of levelled data flow diagrams the analyst/designers is forced toaddress how the system may be decomposed into component sub-systems, and to identifythe transaction data in the data model.
  14. 14. There are different notations to draw data flow diagrams (Yourdon & Coad and Gane & Sarso),defining different visual representations for processes, data stores, data flow, and externalentities. Data dictionaryA data dictionary, or metadata repository, as defined in the IBM Dictionary of Computing, is a"centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data,origin, usage, and format."[1] The term may have one of several closely related meaningspertaining to databases and database management systems (DBMS): a document describing a database or collection of databases an integral component of a DBMS that is required to determine its structure a piece of middleware that extends or supplants the native data dictionary of a DBMS DocumentationThe term Data Dictionary and Data Repository are used to indicate a more general softwareutility than a catalogue. A Catalogue is closely coupled with the DBMS Software; it providesthe information stored in it to user and the DBA, but it is mainly accessed by the varioussoftware modules of the DBMS itself, such as DDL and DML compilers, the query optimiser,the transaction processor, report generators, and the constraint enforcer. On the other hand, aData Dictionary is a data structure that stores meta-data, i.e., data about data. The Softwarepackage for a stand-alone Data Dictionary or Data Repository may interact with the softwaremodules of the DBMS, but it is mainly used by the Designers, Users and Administrators of acomputer system for information resource management. These systems are used to maintaininformation on system hardware and software configuration, documentation, application andusers as well as other information relevant to system administration.If a data dictionary system is used only by the designers, users, and administrators and not by theDBMS Software , it is called a Passive Data Dictionary; otherwise, it is called an Active DataDictionary or Data Dictionary. An Active Data Dictionary is automatically updated as changesoccur in the database. A Passive Data Dictionary must be manually updated.The data Dictionary consists of record types (tables) created in the database by systemsgenerated command files, tailored for each supported back-end DBMS. Command files containSQL Statements for CREATE TABLE, CREATE UNIQUE INDEX, ALTER TABLE (forreferential integrity), etc., using the specific statement required by that type of database.Database users and application developers can benefit from an authoritative data dictionarydocument that catalogs the organization, contents, and conventions of one or moredatabases. This typically includes the names and descriptions of various tables and fields in each
  15. 15. database, plus additional details, like the type and length of each data element. There is nouniversal standard as to the level of detail in such a document, but it is primarily a weak kind ofdata. The information requirement is determined for an organizationA data dictionary is a structured repository of data about data. It is a set of rigorous definitionsof all DFD data elements and data structures. Most of the data flow in the DFD are specifiedhere. Some of the most obvious ones are not shown here. The data dictionary entry for weeklytimesheet specifies that this data flow is composed of three basic data entities - the employeename, employee ID and many occurrences of the two - tuple consisting of regular hours andovertime hours. The data dictionary for this DFD is shown below:Weekly timesheet = Emplyee_Name + Employee_ID + {Regular_hours + overtime_hours}Pay_rate = {Horly | Daily | Weekly} + Dollar_amountEmployee_Name = Last + First + Middle_InitialEmployee_ID = digit + digit + digit + digitOnce we have constructed a DFD and its associated data dictionary, we have to somehow verifythat they are "correct". There can be no formal verification of a DFD, because what the DFD ismodeling is not formally specify anywhere against which verification can be done. Humanprocesses and rule of thumb must be used for verification. In addition to the walkthrough withthe client, the analyst should look for common errors. Some common errors are1. Unlabeled data flows.2. Missing data flows: Information required by a process is not available.3. Extraneous data flows: Some information is not bein used in the process4. Consistency not maintained during refinement5. Missing processes6. Contains some control informationThe DFDs should be carefully scrutinized to make sure that all the processes in the physicalenvironment are shown in the DFD. It should also be ensured that none of the data flows isactually carrying control information.
  16. 16. 5. What is ERP? Explain its existence before and its future after? What are the advantages& Disadvantages of ERP? What is Artificial Intelligence? How is it different from NeuralNetworks?Ans. Enterprise resource planningEnterprise resource planning (ERP) systems integrate internal and external managementinformation across an entire organization, embracing finance/accounting, manufacturing, salesand service, customer relationship management, etc. ERP systems automate this activity with anintegrated software application. Their purpose is to facilitate the flow of information between allbusiness functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections tooutside stakeholders.ERP systems can run on a variety of computer hardware and network configurations, typicallyemploying a database as a repository for information.CharacteristicsERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems typically include the following characteristics:An integrated system that operates in real time (or next to real time), without relying on periodicupdates.A common database, which supports all applications.A consistent look and feel throughout each module.Installation of the system without elaborate application/data integration by the InformationTechnology (IT) department.Connectivity to plant floor informationERP systems connect to real–time data and transaction data in a variety of ways. These systemsare typically configured by systems integrators, who bring unique knowledge on process,equipment, and vendor solutions.Direct integration—ERP systems have connectivity (communications to plant floor equipment)as part of their product offering. This requires the vendors to offer specific support for the plant
  17. 17. floor equipment that their customers operate. ERP vendors must be expert in their own products,and connectivity to other vendor products, including competitors.Database integration—ERP systems connect to plant floor data sources through staging tables ina database. Plant floor systems deposit the necessary information into the database. The ERPsystem reads the information in the table. The benefit of staging is that ERP vendors do not needto master the complexities of equipment integration. Connectivity becomes the responsibility ofthe systems integrator.Enterprise appliance transaction modules (EATM)—These devices communicate directlywith plant floor equipment and with the ERP system via methods supported by the ERP system.EATM can employ a staging table, Web Services, or system–specific program interfaces (APIs).The benefit of an EATM is that it offers an off–the–shelf solution.Custom–integration solutions—Many system integrators offer custom solutions. These systemstend to have the highest level of initial integration cost, and can have a higher long termmaintenance and reliability costs. Long term costs can be minimized through careful systemtesting and thorough documentation. Custom–integrated solutions typically run on workstationor server class computers.ImplementationERPs scope usually implies significant changes to staff work processes and practices. Generally,three types of services are available to help implement such changes—consulting, customization,and support. Implementation time depends on business size, number of modules, customization,the scope of process changes, and the readiness of the customer to take ownership for the project.Modular ERP systems can be implemented in stages. The typical project for a large enterpriseconsumes about 14 months and requires around 150 consultants. Small projects can requiremonths; multinational and other large implementations can take years. Customization cansubstantially increase implementation times.Process preparationImplementing ERP typically requires changes in existing business processes.[14] Poorunderstanding of needed process changes prior to starting implementation is a main reason forproject failure. It is therefore crucial that organizations thoroughly analyze business processesbefore implementation. This analysis can identify opportunities for process modernization. Italso enables an assessment of the alignment of current processes with those provided by the ERPsystem. Research indicates that the risk of business process mismatch is decreased by:
  18. 18. Linking current processes to the organizations strategy;Analyzing the effectiveness of each process;Understanding existing automated solutions.ERP implementation is considerably more difficult (and politically charged) in decentralizedorganizations, because they often have different processes, business rules, data semantics,authorization hierarchies and decision centers. This may require migrating some business unitsbefore others, delaying implementation to work through the necessary changes for each unit,possibly reducing integration (e.g. linking via Master data management) or customizing thesystem to meet specific needs.A potential disadvantage is that adopting "standard" processes can lead to a loss of competitiveadvantage. While this has happened, losses in one area are often offset by gains in other areas,increasing overall competitive advantage.ConfigurationConfiguring an ERP system is largely a matter of balancing the way the customer wants thesystem to work with the way it was designed to work. ERP systems typically build manychangeable parameters that modify system operation. For example, an organization can select thetype of inventory accounting—FIFO or LIFO—to employ, whether to recognize revenue bygeographical unit, product line, or distribution channel and whether to pay for shipping costswhen a customer returns a purchase.CustomizationERP systems are theoretically based on industry best practices and are intended to be deployed"as is". ERP vendors do offer customers configuration options that allow organizations toincorporate their own business rules but there are often functionality gaps remaining even afterthe configuration is complete. ERP customers have several options to reconcile functionalitygaps, each with their own pros/cons. Technical solutions include rewriting part of the deliveredfunctionality, writing a homegrown bolt-on/add-on module within the ERP system, or interfacingto an external system. All three of these options are varying degrees of system customization,with the first being the most invasive and costly to maintain. Alternatively, there are non-technical options such as changing business practices and/or organizational policies to bettermatch the delivered ERP functionality.Key differences between customization and configuration include:Customization is always optional, whereas the software must always be configured before use(e.g., setting up cost/profit center structures, organizational trees, purchase approval rules, etc.)
  19. 19. The software was designed to handle various configurations, and behaves predictably in anyallowed configuration.The effect of configuration changes on system behavior and performance is predictable and is theresponsibility of the ERP vendor. The effect of customization is less predictable, is thecustomers responsibility and increases testing activities.Configuration changes survive upgrades to new software versions. Some customizations (e.g.code that uses pre–defined "hooks" that are called before/after displaying data screens) surviveupgrades, though they require retesting. Other customizations (e.g. those involving changes tofundamental data structures) are overwritten during upgrades and must be reimplemented[26].Customization Advantages:Improves user acceptanceOffers the potential to obtain competitive advantage vis-à-vis companies using only standardfeatures.Customization Disadvantages:Increases time and resources required to both implement and maintain.Data becomes visible across the organization. Tasks that benefit from this integrationinclude:• Sales forecasting, which allows inventory optimization• Order tracking, from acceptance through fulfillment• Revenue tracking, from invoice through cash receipt• Matching purchase orders (what was ordered), inventory receipts (what arrived), and costing(what the vendor invoiced)Disadvantages of ERP• Customization is problematic.• Re–engineering business processes to fit the ERP system may damage competitiveness and/ordivert focus from other critical activities• ERP can cost more than less integrated and/or less comprehensive solutions.• High switching costs increase vendor negotiating power vis a vis support, maintenance andupgrade expenses.• Overcoming resistance to sharing sensitive information between departments can divertmanagement attention.• Integration of truly independent businesses can create unnecessary dependencies.• Extensive training requirements take resources from daily operations.
  20. 20. Artificial IntelligenceArtificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer sciencethat aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents"where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions thatmaximize its chances of success.John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956, defines it as "the science and engineering ofmaking intelligent machines.Theoretical and computational neuroscience is the field concerned with the theoretical analysisand computational modeling of biological neural systems. Since neural systems are intimatelyrelated to cognitive processes and behaviour, the field is closely related to cognitive andbehavioural modeling.The aim of the field is to create models of biological neural systems in order to understand howbiological systems work. To gain this understanding, neuroscientists strive to make a linkbetween observed biological processes (data), biologically plausible mechanisms for neuralprocessing and learning (biological neural network models) and theory (statistical learningtheory and information theory).
  21. 21. 6. Distinguish between closed decision making system & open decision making system?What is – if ‘analysis? Why is more time spend in problem analysis & problem definitionas compared to the time spends on decision analysis?Ans. CLASSIFICATION OF DECISION MAKING SYSTEMS [MIS] The decision making systems can be classified in a number of ways. There are two types ofsystems based on the manager’s knowledge about the environment.A. Closed decision making system:If the manager operates in a known environment then it is a closed decision making system. Theconditions of the closed decision making system are:(a) The manager has a known set of decision alternatives and knows their outcomes fully interms of value, if implemented.(b) The manager has a model, a method or a rule whereby the decision alternatives can begenerated, tested, and ranked.(c) The manager can choose one of them, based on some goal or objective.A few examples are:a product mix problem,an examination system to declare pass or fail, oran acceptance of the fixed deposits.B. Open decision making system:If the manager operates in an environment not known to him, then the decision making system istermed as an open decision making system. The conditions of this system are:(a) The manager does not know all the decision alternatives.(b) The outcome of the decision is also not known fully. The knowledge of the outcome may bea probabilistic one.(c) No method, rule or model is available to study and finalize one decision among the set ofdecision alternatives.
  22. 22. (d) It is difficult to decide an objective or a goal and, therefore, the manager resorts to thatdecision, where his aspirations or desires are met best.Deciding on the possible product diversification lines, the pricing of a new product, and the plantlocation, are some decision making situations which fall in the category of the open decisionmaking systems.The MIS tries to convert every open system to a closed decision making system by providinginformation support for the best decision. The MIS gives the information support, whereby themanager knows more and more about the environment and the outcomes, he is able to generatethe decision alternatives, test them and select one of them. A good MIS achieves this. Open and Closed SystemsA system is commonly defined as a group of interacting units or elements that have a commonpurpose. The units or elements of a system can be cogs, wires, people, computers, and so on.Systems are generally classified as open systems and closed systems and they can take the formof mechanical, biological, or social systems. Open systems refer to systems that interact withother systems or the outside environment, whereas closed systems refer to systems havingrelatively little interaction with other systems or the outside environment. For example, livingorganisms are considered open systems because they take in substances from their environmentsuch as food and air and return other substances to their environment. Humans, for example,inhale oxygen out of the environment and exhale carbon dioxide into the environment. Similarly,some organizations consume raw materials in the production of products and emit finished goodsand pollution as a result. In contrast, a watch is an example of a closed system in that it is arelatively self-contained, self-maintaining unit that has little interacts or exchange with itsenvironment.All systems have boundaries, a fact that is immediately apparent in mechanical systems such asthe watch, but much less apparent in social systems such as organizations. The boundaries ofopen systems, because they interact with other systems or environments, are more flexible thanthose of closed systems, which are rigid and largely impenetrable. A closed-system perspectiveviews organizations as relatively independent of environmental influences. The closed-systemapproach conceives of the organization as a system of management, technology, personnel,equipment, and materials, but tends to exclude competitors, suppliers, distributors, andgovernmental regulators. This approach allows managers and organizational theorists to analyzeproblems by examining the internal structure of a business with little consideration of theexternal environment. The closed-system perspective basically views an organization much as athermostat; limited environmental input outside of changes in temperature is required foreffective operation. Once set, thermostats require little maintenance in their ongoing, self-reinforcing function. While the closed-system perspective was dominant through the 1960s,
  23. 23. organization scholarship and research subsequently emphasized the role of the environment. Upthrough the 1960s, it was not that managers ignored the outside environment such as otherorganizations, markets, government regulations and the like, but that their strategies and otherdecision-making processes gave relatively little consideration to the impact these external forcesmight have on the internal operations of the organization.Open-systems theory originated in the natural sciences and subsequently spread to fields asdiverse as computer science, ecology, engineering, management, and psychotherapy. In contrastto closed-systems, the open-system perspective views an organization as an entity that takesinputs from the environment, transforms them, and releases them as outputs in tandem withreciprocal effects on the organization itself along with the environment in which the organizationoperates. That is, the organization becomes part and parcel of the environment in which it issituated. Returning for a moment to the example of biological systems as open-systems, billionsof individual cells in the human body, themselves composed of thousands of individual parts andprocesses, are essential for the viability of the larger body in which they are a part. In turn,"macro-level" processes such as eating and breathing make the survival of individual cellscontingent on these larger processes. In much the same way, open-systems of organizationsaccept that organizations are contingent on their environments and these environments are alsocontingent on organizations.As an open-systems approach spread among organizational theorists, managers beganincorporating these views into practice. Two early pioneers in this effort, Daniel Katz and RobertKahn, began viewing organizations as open social systems with specialized and interdependentsubsystems and processes of communication, feedback, and management linking the subsystems.Katz and Kahn argued that the closed-system approach fails to take into account howorganizations are reciprocally dependent on external environments. For example, environmentalforces such as customers and competitors exert considerable influence on corporations,highlighting the essential relationship between an organization and its environment as well as theimportance of maintaining external inputs to achieve a stable organization.Furthermore, the open-system approach serves as a model of business activity; that is, businessas a process of transforming inputs to outputs while realizing that inputs are taken from theexternal environment and outputs are placed into this same environment. Companies use inputssuch as labor, funds, equipment, and materials to produce goods or to provide services and theydesign their subsystems to attain these goals. These subsystems are thus analogous to cells in thebody, the organization itself is analogous to the body, and external market and regulatoryconditions are analogous to environmental factors such as the quality of housing, drinking water,air and availability of nourishment.The production subsystem, for example, focuses on converting inputs into marketable outputsand often constitutes a primary purpose of a company. The boundary subsystems goal is toobtain inputs or resources, such as employees, materials, equipment, and so forth, from the
  24. 24. environment outside of the company, which are necessary for the production subsystem. Thissubsystem also is responsible for providing an organization with information about theenvironment. This adaptive subsystem collects and processes information about a companysoperations with the goal of aiding the companys adaptation to external conditions in itsenvironment. Another subsystem, management, supervises and coordinates the other subsystemsto ensure that each subsystem functions efficiently. The management subsystem must resolveconflicts, solve problems, allocate resources, and so on.To simplify the process of evaluating environmental influences, some organizational theoristsuse the term "task environment" to refer to aspects of the environment that are immediatelyrelevant to management decisions related to goal setting and goal realization. The taskenvironment includes customers, suppliers, competitors, employees, and regulatory bodies.Furthermore, in contrast to closed-systems, the open-system perspective does not assume that theenvironment is static. Instead, change is the rule rather than the exception. Consequently,investigation of environmental stability and propensity to change is a key task of a company,making the activities of an organization contingent on various environmental forces. As an opensystem, an organization maintains its stability through feedback, which refers to informationabout outputs that a system obtains as an input from its task environment. The feedback can bepositive or negative and can lead to changes in the way an organization transforms inputs tooutputs. Here, the organization acts as a thermostat, identified previously as an example of arelatively closed-system. The difference between closed-systems and open-systems, then, is inthe complexity of environmental interactions. Closed-systems assume relatively littlecomplexity; a thermostat is a simple device dependent mainly on temperature fluctuations.Conversely, open-system such as the human body and modern organizations are more intricatelydependent on their environments. The point is that closed-systems versus open-systems do notrepresent a dichotomy, but rather a continuum along which organizations are more open or lessopen to their environments. The key defining variable governing this degree of openness is thecomplexity of the environment in which the organization is situated.Managers must take into consideration their organizations position along the open-closedcontinuum. The Linux computer operating system, for instance, is "open-source" and Red Hat,Inc., the corporation selling the bundled revisions-the multiple inputs from geographicallydispersed users-represents an organization that would cease to exist if it were not for an open-systems perspective. Thus, stable environments with low complexity are more consistent with arelatively closed-system or mechanistic management style, while rapidly-changing environmentsare more consistent with flexible, decentralized, or "organic" management styles.
  25. 25. SET 21. How hardware & software support in various MIS activities of the organization?Explain the transaction stages from manual system to automated systems?Ans. Hardware support for MISGenerally hardware in the form of personal computers and peripherals likeprinters, fax machines, copier, scanners etc are used in organizationto support various MIS activities of the organization.Advantages of a PC:Advantages a personal computer offers are –a) Speed – A PC can process dataat a very high speed. It can process millions of instructions within fraction of seconds.b) Storage – A PC can store large quantity of data in a small space. It eliminates the need ofstoring the conventional office flat files and box files which requires lots of space. The storagesystem in a PC is such that the information can be transferred from place to anotherplace in electronic form.c) Communication – A PC on the network can offer great support as a communicator incommunicating information in the forms of text and images. Today a PC with internet is usedas a powerful tool of communication for every business activity.d) Accuracy – A PC is highly reliable in the sense that it could be used to performcalculations continuously for hours with a great degree of accuracy. It is possible to obtainmathematical results correct up to a great degree of accuracy.e) Conferencing – A PC with internet offers facility of video conferencing worldwide.Business people across the globe travel a lot to meet their business partner, colleagues,customers etc to discuss about business activities.By video conferencing inconvenience of traveling can be avoided.
  26. 26. Input unit is used to give input to the processor. Examples of input unit –Keyboard,scanner, mouse, bar code reader etc.A processor refers to unit which processes the input received the way it has been instructed. In acomputer the processor is the CPU – Central Processing Unit. It does allmathematical calculations, logical tasks, storing details in the memory etc.Output unit is used to give output s from the computer. Examples of output unit –Monitor,printer, speakers etc.Classification of computers:Computers are classified as follows –a) Depending upon the processor used – eg: Intel PI, PII, PIII, PIV, AMD, Celerons etc.b) Depending upon the purpose for which it is used a Computer may be a general purposecomputer or a specific purpose computer. General purpose computers are the ones usedfor general tasks like business analysis, letter typing, generating reports formanagement decisions, scheduling activities, preparing balance sheets, invoice etc, Specificpurpose computers are custom build for specific tasks like space research, weather forecasting,satellite sensing etc.Unit computers are designed to perform tasks for which they are intended for and for no otherapplications.c) Depending upon the size: A computer may be classified based upon its size andvoluminous computing speed as micro computers, mini computers, main frames and supercomputers. Super computer is the largest in size and also fastest in computing speed.
  27. 27. MIS (Managing Information Software) SoftwareMIS software helps for managing your accounts, inventory, taxation, payroll, stock, banking,financial and other records.MIS involves all aspects of gathering, storing, tracking, retrieving and using information within abusiness or organization. All the policies, procedures, and practices that direct an organizationsoperations and the staff that interact with the information, combined with the software andhardware, comprise an information system.MIS Software was developed specifically for the management and tracking of every transactionin regulated environments. Our high-performance, relational database program tracks andmaintains accurate, real-time information, yet it is easy to implement and use.This MIS Software manages your Daily Schedules, Job Summary, Inventory, Accounts and allthe Daily transaction. Records include Full Accounting and Inventory Features.We offer complete custom development Information systems that can take care of businessoperations.Management Information (MIS), as it is popularly known, deals with the entry and exit ofinformation in a computer system specially designed for the business purpose. It has severalsubcomponents like the Decision support system, marketing information system, financialinformation system, HR information system, production information system and many more.MIS Manager is a readily implementable solution, with capability to interface with any existingData source towards faster and efficient implementation and management. With capability todeploy across the Enterprise, MIS Manager can provide the advantage of managing outputs andReports generated from various sources and technologies.Our System Offers Complete Solutions, which include: Cost Management Product Development Inventory Management Integration with Accounting & Invoice Systems Document Management System MIS Features: Speed of Deployment Customer Support Ease to Use Functionality Achievement of business goals
  28. 28. Many inventory reports are available. There are alphabetizing methods that can be used. You canprint physical inventory sheets, parts under minimum stocking quantity, value of inventory (bysales category) and replacement cost.
  29. 29. 2. Explain the various behavioral factors of management organization? As per Porter, howcan performance of individual corporations be determined?Ans. Organizational behaviorOrganizational behavior is the study of individuals and their actions within the context ofthe organization in a workplace setting. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology,psychology, communication, and management; and it complements the academic studiesof organizational theory (which is more macro-level) and human resource studies (which is moreapplied and business-related). It may also be referred to as organizationalstudies or organizational science. The field has its roots in industrial and organizationalpsychology.OverviewOrganizational studies encompass the study of organizations from multiple viewpoints, methods,and levels of analysis. For instance, one textbook divides these multiple viewpoints into threeperspectives: modern, symbolic, and postmodern. Another traditional distinction, presentespecially in American academia, is between the study of "micro" organizational behaviour —which refers to individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting — and "macro"strategic management and organizational theory which studies whole organizations andindustries, how they adapt, and the strategies, structures and contingencies that guide them. Tothis distinction, some scholars have added an interest in "meso" scale structures - power, culture,and the networks of individuals and i.e. ronit units in organizations — and "field" level analysiswhich study how whole populations of organizations interact.Whenever people interact in organizations, many factors come into play. Modern organizationalstudies attempt to understand and model these factors. Like all modernist social sciences,organizational studies seek to control, predict, and explain. There is some controversy over theethics of controlling workers behavior, as well as the manner in which workers are treated (seeTaylors scientific management approach compared to the human relations movement of the1940s). As such, organizational behaviour or OB (and its cousin, Industrial psychology) have attimes been accused of being the scientific tool of the powerful.Those accusationsnotwithstanding, OB can play a major role in organizational development, enhancingorganizational performance, as well as individual and groupperformance/satisfaction/commitment.One of the main goals of organizational theorists is, according to Simms (1994) "to revitalizeorganizational theory and develop a better conceptualization of organizational life." Anorganizational theorist should carefully consider levels assumptions being made in theory, and isconcerned to help managers and administrators.
  30. 30. While Classical philosophies rarely took upon a task of developing a specific theory oforganizations, some had used implicit conceptions of general organization in construct views onpolitics and virtue; the Greek philosopher Plato, for example, wrote about the essence ofleadership, emphasized the importance of specialization and discussed a primordial form ofincentive structures in speculating how to get people to embody the goal of the just city in TheRepublic. Aristotle also addressed such topics as persuasive communication. The writings of16th century Italian philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli laid the foundation for contemporary workon organizational power and politics. In 1776, Adam Smith advocated a new form oforganizational structure based on the division of labour. One hundred years later, Germansociologist Max Weber wrote about rational organizations and initiated discussion of charismaticleadership. Soon after, Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the systematic use of goal settingand rewards to motivate employees. In the 1920s, Australian-born Harvard professor EltonMayo and his colleagues conducted productivity studies at Western Electrics Hawthorne plant inthe United States.Though it traces its roots back to Max Weber and earlier, organizational studies began as anacademic discipline with the advent of scientific management in the 1890s,with Taylorism representing the peak of this movement. Proponents of scientific managementheld that rationalizing the organization with precise sets of instructions and time-motion studieswould lead to increased productivity. Studies of different compensation systems were carriedout.After the First World War, the focus of organizational studies shifted to how human factors andpsychology affected organizations, a transformation propelled by the identification ofthe Hawthorne Effect. This Human Relations Movement focused on teams, motivation, and theactualization of the goals of individuals within organizations.Prominent early scholars included Chester Barnard, Henri Fayol, Frederick Herzberg, AbrahamMaslow, David McClelland, and Victor Vroom.The Second World War further shifted the field, as the invention of large-scale logisticsand operations research led to a renewed interest in rationalist approaches to the study oforganizations. Interest grew in theory and methods native to the sciences, including systemstheory, the study of organizations with a complexity theory perspective and complexity strategy.Influential work was done by Herbert Alexander Simon and James G. March and the so-called"Carnegie School" of organizational behavior.In the 1960s and 1970s, the field was strongly influenced by social psychology and the emphasisin academic study was on quantitative research. An explosion of theorizing, much of it atStanford University and Carnegie Mellon, produced Bounded Rationality, InformalOrganization, Contingency Theory, Resource Dependence, Institutional Theory,and Organizational Ecology theories, among many others.Starting in the 1980s, cultural explanations of organizations and change became an importantpart of study. Qualitative methods of study became more acceptable, informedby anthropology,psychology and sociology. A leading scholar was Karl Weick.
  31. 31. Methods used in organizational studiesA variety of methods are used in organizational studies. They include quantitative methods foundin other social sciences such as multiple regression, non-parametric statistics, time seriesanalysis,Meta-analysis and ANOVA. In addition, computer simulation in organizationalstudies has a long history in organizational studies. Qualitative methods are also used, suchas ethnography, which involves direct participant observation, single and multiple case analysis,grounded theory approaches, and other historical methods. Fred Arthur.Systems frameworkThe systems framework is also fundamental to organizational theory as organizations arecomplex dynamic goal-oriented processes. One of the early thinkers in the field was AlexanderBogdanov, who developed his Tectology, a theory widely considered a precursor of BertalanffysGeneral Systems Theory, aiming to model and design human organizations. Kurt Lewin wasparticularly influential in developing the systems perspective within organizational theory andcoined the term "systems of ideology", from his frustration with behavioural psychologies thatbecame an obstacle to sustainable work in psychology (see Ash 1992: 198-207). The complexitytheory perspective on organizations is another systems view of organizations.The systems approach to organizations relies heavily upon achieving negativeentropy through openness and feedback. A systemic view on organizations is transdisciplinaryand integrative. In other words, it transcends the perspectives of individual disciplines,integrating them on the basis of a common "code", or more exactly, on the basis of the formalapparatus provided by systems theory. The systems approach gives primacy to theinterrelationships, not to the elements of the system. It is from these dynamic interrelationshipsthat new properties of the system emerge. In recent years,systems thinking has been developed toprovide techniques for studying systems in holistic ways to supplementtraditional reductionistic methods. In this more recent tradition, systems theory in organizationalstudies is considered by some as a humanistic extension of the natural sciences.Managerial rolesIn the late 1960s Henry Mintzberg, a graduate student at MIT undertook a careful study of fiveexecutives to determine what those managers did on their jobs. On the basis of his observations,Mintzberg classifies managerial roles into 3 categories1. Interpersonal Roles2. Decisional Roles3. Informational Roles Rational Decision-Making Model Scientific management Garbage can model
  32. 32. Theories of decision making can be subdivided into three categories Normative (concentrates on how decision should be made) Descriptive (concerned with how the thinker came up with their judgement) Prescripted (aim to improve decision making)Motivation in organizationsMotivation the forces either internal or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and resistanceto pursue a certain course of action. According to Baron et al. (2008):[ "Although motivation is abroad and complex concept, organizational scientists have agreed on its basic characteristics.Drawing from various social sciences, we define motivation as the set of processes that arouse,direct, and maintain human behavior toward attaining some goal"
  33. 33. 3. Compare various types of development aspect of Information System? Explain thevarious stages of SDLC?Ans. The Various Types of Information Systems Analysis ProjectsThere are three types of information systems projects: manual, manual to automated, andreautomation. The last, reautomation, has four subtypes: system rewrite, system redesign andredevelopment, system enhancement, and system maintenance. Each of these involves different,and yet similar, work. The work is similar in that the development activities which are involvedin each follow the same general phases and approach. They are different in that the environmentthat the analyst must examine has substantially different characteristics.This chapter examines each of the various types of analysis projects, along with a briefdiscussion of the Gibson-Nolan electronic data processing (EDP) stages of growth theory and itsimpact on the analysis process. In addition there is a brief discussion of the Anthony model oforganizational structure.A definitionPersonal Computer (PC) - also known as microcomputers or workstations, by the model name ofthe specific vendor (i.e. Apple , Macintosh , or PS/2 or by the brand name, model and speed ofthe processor (i.e. Pentium, Intel or 486/33 Any combination of processor, input device andoutput device designed for use by a single individual. Personal computers may also be calledworkstations.Personal computers may have a character orientation, a graphical orientation, may be connectedto other personal computers, or may operate in a stand alone mode, and may or may not haveconnectivity to a mainframe.Personal computer software is normally characterized by an operating system which providesbasic file access, management and display services and well as application scheduling andmanagement.Reasons For Initiating Information Systems Analysis ProjectsInformation systems analysis projects are initiated for a variety of reasons. These include:As part of a program of System Modernization.Many firms undertake a series of projects to upgrade all data processing technology - bothhardware, operating system and support software and automated business applications. This is
  34. 34. usually initiated as part of a desire to eliminate the older centralized applications and to replacethem with newer personal computer based system.A change in the basic aspects of the users functional roleAs the companies redesign their basic processes either as a result of a continuous improvementeffort, or a more radical Business Process Reengineering effortA change in company strategic objectivesIncreased competition, both in the local and international markets have forced many firms torethink not only how they do business but also what business they should be in. In someinstances, manufacturing firms are becoming service firms, primary producers are becomingassemblers of components produced by others, companies are changing their lines of business,and reexamining the customer base they are focused on. Large firms are divesting themselves ofdivisions and whole product lines and reverting back to what they feel are their core businesses.A need for increased performance, greater or different functionality, different operatingcharacteristics, or increased user friendliness from the automated systemsAs business conditions change, there are increased user demands for greater or in some casesdifferent functionality from the exiting systems. Increased user computer literacy, and exposureto PC applications with Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) have changed user expectations for andtolerance of sometimes awkward, character based systems.A need for more direct and immediate access to the firms automated files.The exposure to the wide variety of workstation based tools and systems. Most userworkstations or PCs have extensive files of their own. The data in these files may have comefrom information keyed in by the user, transferred to the user’s machine from another usermachine via diskette, or down-loaded to the user’s machine from either another workstation orfrom a mini-computer or mainframe via a file transfer mechanism. These transfers are timeconsuming and awkward. Users are increasingly looking for faster access to data regardless ofwhere it resides.A need to upgrade the system to take advantage of more current technology.Vendors are increasing the power (speed and capacity) of their offerings. Capacity includes bothRandom Access Memory (RAM) and hard drive storage. The speed, capacity and variety ofperipheral equipment (printers, plotters, scanners, fax, CD-ROM (Compact Disk - Read OnlyMemory), high resolution monitors, etc.) continues to expand as well. As capacity and speedincrease and as more and more peripheral capability becomes available the variety ofapplications available increases as well and users rush to acquire these new tools.A need to clean up the system -
  35. 35. All computer systems tend to get cluttered over time with a patchwork of add-on modules, files,and processes. These pieces do not work together in a harmonious manner but rather interactawkwardly and inefficiently.Given the above, we can no long assume that a systems analysis project has been undertaken asthe first step toward developing a new or improved .application. Nor can we assume that manyof the constraints that applied to the development of mainframe systems are still in effect. In factwe can no longer assume that we will be developing a mainframe resident system at all. Today’ssystems can reside on a variety of hardware platforms and take a variety of forms. The Three Types of Information Systems Analysis ProjectsThe scope and magnitude of the functional and procedural changes may be fairly narrow or wideranging. In some cases, aside from re-coding the system, there may be no changes infunctionality at all.Given the variety of reasons for a project being undertaken, the starting point may also be quitedifferent from project to project. These starting points reflect the differences in current userprocessing environments and the current level of user automation. Because of these differencesin current user processing environments and user automation, information systems projects canbe categorized into three types. 1. Manual 2. Manual to automated 3. Re automation 4. The last, re automation, has four subtypes. a) System rewrite b) System redesign and redevelopment c) System enhancement d) System maintenanceFrom an analysis perspective, each of these types of projects involves different, and yet similar,work. The work is similar in that the development activities, which are involved in each, followthe same general phases and approach. They are different in that each of the starting or currentenvironments that the analyst must examine have substantially different characteristics. Briefly,these six environmental types and subtypes are as follows.
  36. 36. ManualFrom the analysts viewpoint, this is the simplest environment in that all the components of theenvironment are overt. That is, they are clearly visible from observation and analysis. All work isperformed by user personnel, who work directly with their files, forms, and documents. Theprocessing of these forms and documents, the work flows, and the individual steps are easilyfollowed.At their core all systems analysis projects are concerned with the examination of what are, oronce were, essentially manual operations. In fact, it is helpful, regardless of the type of project,to view all the activities of the user as if they were still being performed by hand. This allows theanalyst to examine in detail each task being performed, each data operation, each datamovement, and each data carrier (a data carrier is a piece of paper, a form, a report, a worksheet,a transaction, etc.).The analysts task in the manual environment is to simplify the work flows, streamline theprocesses, reduce redundant processing, rearrange the tasks so as to ensure more orderlyprocessing, and ensure that the forms, documents, and reports contain all necessary data. Eachtask, and each task step, must be examined to determine (a) if its execution is appropriate and (b)if it is appropriately defined, positioned, and performed.The results of the analysis of manual systems are usually new or revised standards andprocedures which clearly define the processing sequence for the task to be performed and therules which govern their performance. In addition the analyst may develop new input forms,control procedures, monitoring procedures, and reports. The output from the analysis may alsoinclude new or revised work and data flow diagrams.Manual to automatedWorking in this type of environment differs from working in the strictly manual environment inthat the analysts task is to determine whether the manual environment, in whole or in part, canbe augmented by automation, and if so, to what extent. The existing environment must beanalyzed in the same manner as the purely manual, but as the analysis progresses, the analystmust also find ways of substituting automated processing for manual processing. To accomplishthis, the analyst must break each process and task into its component steps and determine if therules for performing the step lend themselves to machine automation.The analysts output for this type of project closely resembles that produced from the strictlymanual project. However, here the analyst must also develop (a) new, input forms suitable to anautomated environment, (b) file content requirements for ongoing master and transaction files,(c) report layouts, and (d) a processing flow which intermixes the original and unmodifiedmanual processes, new manual processes, and new automated processes. The analyst must alsomake a determination as to the costs involved in the automation process, provide projectschedules, and make hardware and software analyses and recommendations.
  37. 37. ReautomationThere have been many attempts to set down analytical and design methodologies fordevelopment projects in automated environments. What many of them ignore is that there aredifferent types of automated business environments, which, while seemingly similar, must in factbe treated differently.What distinguishes these environments is the extent and depth of automation. Early analysismethodologies were predicated on a manual environment. The aim of the analysis was todevelop an automated solution to user business problems. In todays environment, most firms ofany size have existing levels of automation. Many in fact have gone through two and threerounds of automation and reautomation.Many of the existing processes and procedures are either totally automated or were developed asa result of a partial automation of the user area. Many of the forms and transaction flows withinthis type of environment are automated or semi-automated.This prior automation poses a trap for the unwary analyst in that the currently used forms anddocuments of the business may in fact have been designed to support and accommodate anautomated system. These automated systems may have been designed for the business using alevel of technology which is now outdated or inefficient, or for a set of user requirements or abusiness environment which has since become wholly or partially obsolete. Additionally, theseforms and documents are the result of some prior analysts efforts and may not in fact reflect thenatural information or data needs of the firm.The processing flows themselves may be unnatural, to the extent that they reflect the intrusion ofautomated processing sequences. These flows may have been structured to accommodate theneeds of the then prevalent technology rather than the needs of the business. Each of thedocuments, transactions and process flows must be reexamined in the light of the currentbusiness environment and the current business processing needs. They may merely need to berefurbished, or they may need to be scrapped entirely in favor of a new and more streamlinedprocessing flow.The analyst must look with care on batch flows, "processing windows," and transaction holdingqueues. These constraints may have been imposed on the processing environment by therequirements of prior automation efforts, most probably implemented under what is now anoutdated, or, worse, obsolete technology. Re automation is a major type of project whichincorporates the following sub-categories.Platform is the term used to distinguish between the different classes or sizes of computingmachinery –mainframe, minicomputer and microcomputer (or personal computer orworkstation), between the various operating systems on each machine, and in some casesbetween stand-alone machines and networked machines.In some cases the term platform is used to distinguish between one combination of machine andsoftware and some other combination.
  38. 38. Throughout this book we will use the qualified term hardware platform to represent differencesin computing machinery and the qualified term software platform to represent differences inoperating systems on a given class of machinery.The Corporate levelThis level consists those information and business systems which are designed for use by allareas of the corporation. These systems are normally characterized by: 1. Specific functional area responsibility 2. Centralized development and maintenance 3. Requirements that conform to and are constrained by corporate-wide policies and procedures 4. Cross-function or cross-business boundary use 5. Mainframe or Minicomputer residence 6. Supported by additional, non-automated forms 7. Augmented by extensive manual procedures.The Departmental LevelThis level consists of information and business systems which are designed for use by a specificarea or areas of the corporation. These systems are normally characterized by: 1. Specific functional area responsibility 2. Central development and maintenance, local development and maintenance or vendor supplied and supported 3. Support for a single function or activity 4. Minicomputer or Mainframe residenceThe Personal LevelThis level consists of information and business systems which are designed for use by a singleindividual. These systems are normally characterized by: 1. Personal computer residence 2. Support for a single user 3. Customized processing or general facility 4. Customized settings. 5. User built or vendor supplied and maintained.
  39. 39. 4. Compare & Contrast E-enterprise business model with traditional business organizationmodel? Explain how in E-enterprise manager role & responsibilities are changed? Explainhow manager is a knowledge worker in E-enterprise?Ans. Business process modelingBusiness Process Modeling (BPM) in systems engineering is the activity of representingprocesses of an enterprise, so that the current process may be analyzed and improved. BPM istypically performed by business analysts and managers who are seeking to improve processefficiency and quality. The process improvements identified by BPM may or may not requireInformation Technology involvement, although that is a common driver for the need to model abusiness process, by creating a process master.Change management programs are typically involved to put the improved business processesinto practice. With advances in technology from large platform vendors, the vision of BPMmodels becoming fully executable (and capable of simulations and round-trip engineering) iscoming closer to reality every day.Techniques to model business process such as the flow chart, functional flow blockdiagram, control flow diagram, Gantt chart, PERT diagram, and IDEF have emerged since thebeginning of the 20th century. The Gantt charts were among the first to arrive around 1899, theflow charts in the 1920s, Functional Flow Block Diagram and PERT in the 1950s, Data FlowDiagrams and IDEF in the 1970s. Among the modern methods are Unified ModelingLanguage and Business Process Modeling Notation. Still, these represent just a fraction of themethodologies used over the years to document business processes.[1] The term "business processmodeling" itself was coined in the 1960s in the field of systems engineering by S. Williams in
  40. 40. his 1967 article "Business Process Modeling Improves Administrative Control".[2] His idea wasthat techniques for obtaining a better understanding of physical control systems could be used ina similar way for business processes. It took until the 1990s before the term became popular.In the 1990s the term "process" became a new productivity paradigm.[3] Companies wereencouraged to think in processes instead of functions and procedures. Process thinking looks atthe chain of events in the company from purchase to supply, from order retrieval to sales etc. Thetraditional modeling tools were developed to picture time and costs, while modern methods focuson cross-function activities. These cross-functional activities have increased severely in numberand importance due to the growth of complexity and dependencies. New methodologies suchas business process redesign, business process innovation, business processmanagement, integrated business planning among others all "aiming at improving processesacross the traditional functions that comprise a company".In the field of software engineering the term "business process modeling" opposed thecommon software process modeling, aiming to focus more on the state of the practiceduring software development. In that time early 1990s all existing and new modeling techniquesto picture business processes were considered and called "business process modeling languages."In the Object Oriented approach, it was considered to be an essential step in the specification ofBusiness Application Systems. Business process modeling became the base of newmethodologies, that for example also supported data collection, data flow analysis, process flowdiagrams and reporting facilities. Around 1995 the first visually oriented tools for businessprocess modeling and implementation were being presented.Business processA business process is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specificservice or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. There arethree main types of business processes: 1. Management processes, the processes that govern the operation of a system. Typical management processes include "Corporate Governance" and "Strategic Management". 2. Operational processes, processes that constitute the core business and create the primary value stream. Typical operational processes are Purchasing, Manufacturing, Marketing, and Sales. 3. Supporting processes, which support the core processes. Examples include Accounting, Recruitment, Technical support.
  41. 41. A business process can be decomposed into several sub-processes, which have their ownattributes, but also contribute to achieving the goal of the super-process. The analysis of businessprocesses typically includes the mapping of processes and sub-processes down to activity level.A business process model is a model of one or more business processes, and defines the ways inwhich operations are carried out to accomplish the intended objectives of an organization. Such amodel remains an abstraction and depends on the intended use of the model. It can describe theworkflow or the integration between business processes. It can be constructed in multiple levels.A business reference model is a reference model, concentrating on the functional andorganizational aspects of an enterprise, service organization or government agency. In generala reference model is a model of something that embodies the basic goal or idea of something andcan then be looked at as a reference for various purposes. A business reference model is a meansto describe the business operations of an organization, independent of the organizationalstructure that perform them. Other types of business reference model can also depict therelationship between the business processes, business functions, and the business area’s businessreference model. These reference models can be constructed in layers, and offer a foundation forthe analysis of service components, technology, data, and performance.The most familiar business reference model is the Business Reference Model of the US FederalGovernment. That model is a function-driven framework for describing the business operationsof the Federal Government independent of the agencies that perform them. The BusinessReference Model provides an organized, hierarchical construct for describing the day-to-daybusiness operations of the Federal government. While many models exist for describingorganizations - organizational charts, location maps, etc. - this model presents the business usinga functionally driven approach.A business model, which may be considered an elaboration of a business process model,typically shows business data and business organizations as well as business processes. Byshowing business processes and their information flows a business model allows businessstakeholders to define, understand, and validate their business enterprise. The data model part ofthe business model shows how business information is stored, which is useful fordeveloping software code. See the figure on the right for an example of the interaction betweenbusiness process models and data models.Usually a business model is created after conducting an interview, which is part of the businessanalysis process. The interview consists of a facilitator asking a series of questions to extractinformation about the subject business process. The interviewer is referred to as a facilitator toemphasize that it is the participants, not the facilitator, who provide the business process

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