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  1. 1. Master of Business Administration Semester I MB0038 –Human Resource Management Set- 1Q1. Trace out the growth of Human Resource Management in India.Ans. Growth of Human Resource Management in India.Contrary to these forces, in INDIA the owner manager/ government/public sector manager wasan industry icon and a national hero of sorts. The personnel management practices weredominant of the brick- and-motor‟ industry. Though the approach it was largely welfare orientedand reactive in nature it served effectively for the large PSU organizations that built thecountry‟s foundation.A large part of the workforce was migrant from the rural parts of the country and armed witheducational qualifications that served as their passport to a secure future. Many left the countryto study and pursue career overseas. This phenomenon was called „brain drain‟ and happenedduring1990 through 2005. The best of the Indian talent left the country. Per present statistics there areclose to 1.7 million people of Indian origin in AMERICA according to the US census bureau.The INDIAN AMERICAN median family is $60,093 as against the national median familyincome of $38,885 left the country, the estimated buying power of the INDIAN AMERICANS inthe United States is around US $20 billion, the high income clearly reflects the advancededucational levels achieved by Indian abroad. Its only in the past 10-12 years with the immensegrowth on account of the IT industry that winds of change began to blow. It was largely theadvent of the information technology era in INDIA that brought with it the western managementpractices.
  2. 2. MNC‟S started up their operations in INDIA the FDI (FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT)went up steeply as the world saw the potential in the country human resources. In INDIA becamea preferred location for MNC‟s primarily from the USA followed by others developed countries.It was natural for the MNC‟s setting up operations in INDIA to establish their existing andproven management practices that were successfully working in the organization back home. Italso helped them manage their business similarly. This gave birth to a new generation of management as well as HRMpractices. New hiringmethods new ways of paying salaries, new employment terms and most importantly increasedfocus on individual performance and outcome. There was emphasis on deliverables and linkingindividual and team performance to business results and success. Given the highly educatedworkforce there was a de-emphasis in the role of the trade unions, the era of the trade unionsdominance give way to the new order of individual negotiated salaries and terms and clearlyperformance linked assessment system. Another transformation that the Indian workplacewitnessed was focused on the ethics and ethical practices in doing business it was only fair toexcept that with the weak legal system, it needed the support of the government policies and thecorporate policies to beat the corruption that existed .This has significantly contributed to INDIAemerging as a preferred destination for doing business.All of this yielded to give the way to the birth of the „professional manager‟.Professional manager today are a critical and essential part of the INDIAN corporate. Theprofessional manager brought about a shift in the culture from a highly author it Arian approachof getting work done to more collaborative and participative approach. In the traditional Indianculture where the child is brought up to dependents on parents and superiors these shift wasbreak through and took it time to manifest. The entrepreneurs who earlier operated in a secure,sheltered market and hardly face challenges , were challenged by the globalization that swept inwith the liberalization policies and measure brought in by the Indian employee and his managerevolved. Together they stopped up to face the challenges head- on and to win not only in INDIAbut also globally. The levers of a) low cost b) highly skilled c) English as the medium ofeducation and it being the corporate language that enabled the flow of global business to INDIA?Hence human relations movement in INDIA has evolved very differently as compared to thedeveloped economies of the USA and the UK. What is currently acting as a limitation is theenhanced awareness on the need for research based HRM practices. While there is a lot of workhappening in education system to promote this.
  3. 3. Q2. What are the factors that impact recruitment in organizations?Ans. The sources of employee‘s recruitment can be classified into two types: Internal and external Filing a job opening from within the firm has advantages of stimulating preparation for possibletransfer of promotion, increasing the general level of morale, and providing more informationabout job candidates through analysis of work histories within the organization. A job postinghas number of advantages. From the view point of employee, it provides flexibility and greatercontrol over career progress. The jobs posted on notice boards, group emails and publishing ininternal news papers. Internal applications often restricted to certain employees, the guidelinesfor companies include:-Good or better in most recent performance review-Dependableattendance record-Not under probationary sanction-Having been in present position for at leastone year. The personnel department acts as a clearing house in screening applications that areunrealistic, preventing an excess number of bids by a single employee and counselingunsuccessful employees in their constant attempt to change their jobs. Similarly the firm may goto external sources for recruitment of lower entry jobs, for expansion, and positions whosespecifications cannot be met by the present personnel.The following external resources are available for firms: a) Advertising:There is a trend toward more selective recruitment in advertising. This can be affected in at leasttwo ways. First advertisements can be placed in media read only by particular groups. Secondly,more information about the company, the job, and the job specification can be included in thead to permit some self-screening. b) Employment Agencies:Additional screening can be affected through the utilization of employment agencies, both publicand private. Today, in contrast to their former unsavory reputation, the public employmentagencies in several states are well-regarded, particularly in the fields of unskilled semi-skilledand skilled operative jobs. In the technical and professional areas, however, the private agenciestend to specialize in a particular engineer.
  4. 4. c) Employee Referrals:Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees may bedrawn. When the labour market is very tight, large employers frequently offer their employeesbonus or prizes for any referrals that are hired and stay with the company for a specific lengthof time. Some companies maintain a register of former employees whose record was good tocontact them when there are new job openings for which they are qualified. This method ofrecruitment, however, suffers from a serious defect that it encouragesnepotism, i.e. Persons of one„s community or caste are employed, who may or mayNot be fit for the job. d) Schools, colleges and professional institutions:These offer opportunities for recruiting their students. They will also have separate placementcell where the bio data and other particulars of the students are available. The prospectiveemployers can review credentials and interview candidates for management trainees orprobationers. This is an excellent source of potential employees for entry-level positions in theorganizations. e) Labour Unions:Firms which closed or union shops must look to the union in their recruitment efforts. This hasdisadvantage of monopolistic workforce. f) Casual applicants:Unsolicited applications, both at the gate and through the mail, constitute a much-used sourceof personnel. These can be developed through attractive employment office facilities, promptand courteous reply to unsolicited letters. g) Professional organizations or recruiting firms or executive recruiters:Maintain complete records about employed executives. These firms are looked upon asheadhunters, raiders and pirates by organizations may employ―executive search firms‖ to helpthem find talent. These consulting firms recommend persons of high calibre for managerial,marketing and production engineers„ posts. h) Indoctrination seminars for collegesAre arranged to discuss the problem of companies and employees. Professors are invited totake part of these seminars. Visits to plants are arranged so that professors may be favourablyimpressed. They may speak well of a company and help it in getting the required personnel.
  5. 5. i) Unconsolidated applications:For positions in which large numbers of candidates are not available from other sources, thecompanies may gain keeping files of applications received from candidates who make directenquiries about the possible vacancies on their own, or may send unsolicited applications. Thiswould be helpful to firms for future vacancies. j) Nepotism:The hiring of relatives will be an inevitable component of recruitment programmes in family-owned firms, such a policy does not necessarily coincide with hiring on the basis of merit, butinterest and loyalty to the enterprise are offsetting advantages. k) Leasing:To adjust to short term fluctuations in personnel needs, the possibility of leasing personnel by thehour or day should be considered. This principle has been particularly well developed inthe office administration field because they can avoid any obligation in pensions, insurance andany other fringe benefits. l) Voluntary Organizations:Such as private clubs, social organizations might also provide employees – handicaps, widowedor married women, old persons, retired hands etc. In response to advertisements. m) Computer Data Banks:When a company desires a particular type of employees, job specifications and requirements arefed to computers, where they are matched against data stored in. This method is very useful inidentifying candidates for hard-t-fit positions which calls for unusual combinations of skills.
  6. 6. Q3. State the major career development activities found in organizations.Ans. Career Development:Although scholars have defined career development (CD) in a variety of ways, Simonsen‟s(1997) definition will be used as the foundation for the proposed framework:Career development is an ongoing process of planning and directed action toward personal workand life goals. Development means growth, continuous acquisition and application of one‟sskills. Career development is the outcome of the individual‟s career planning and theorganization‟s provision of support and opportunities, ideally a collaborative process. . .(Simonsen as cited in Simonsen, 1997, pp. 6-7)This definition recognizes that career development is ongoing, that it involves reciprocalinteraction between employee and employer, and that attainment and/ or enhancement ofindividual capabilities are not restricted to a particular job, career path, or organization.This definition and the framework that follows are predicated on a few essential assumptions.• HRD remains integral to the career-development process. The HRD function is uniquelypositioned to integrate the interests of employees with the needs of the system, staying attuned tothe strategic plans of the organization while remaining cognizant of the free agent nature of theemployer employee relationship (Boudreaux, 2001; Swanson & Holton, 2001; van Dijk, 2004).• The return on investment of career development must be considered to gain organizationalinterest in expanding CD efforts. However, the potential value of career development toorganizational success depends on how well the system supports the career development processin terms of resources allotted and priority assigned to career development endeavors. Forexample, when small systems find their minimal resources stretched, career development maylanguish so that seemingly more urgent needs, like mandatory training, can be addressed(Kuchinke, 2003).Larger systems simply may choose to focus on more high profile initiatives, like organizationdevelopment, rather than invest resources in career development in this era of uncertain loyalties.Yet, one of the advantages of less structured learning activities is that they often are embeddedwithin daily work. As a result, they can be implemented with little financial investment whilecontributing to the success of other endeavors, like organization development.• Career development should not be restricted to a select few or to those at particular levelswithin the system. Conlon (2004) addresses this by noting both the practical as well as the ethical
  7. 7. aspect of this premise. As organizations become flatter, a broad-based, well-developedworkforce will be essential to meet their current and future needs. Ironically, although the HRDliterature has routinely discussed “management development” as separate from “careerdevelopment,” much of what traditionally has been described as “career development” hastargeted managerial-level employees and excluded those in non management tracks (McDonald,Hite, & Gilbreath, 2002).• Career development can be both formal and informal and may take place within and outside ofthe organization. For example, Gilley et al. (2002) describe an “effective career developmentprogram” (p. 63) as one that includes a variety of experiences in addition to classroom training,citing for example, “self-directed learning projects and involvement in professional organizationsand associations” (p. 63).• Individual life and work priorities influence choices about careers and developmentopportunities. In some instances, the choice is one of focusing on intrinsic rather than extrinsicrewards to define career success and satisfaction (Forret & Sullivan, 2002). In others, thedecision may be based less on a quest for a balanced life and/or work experience and more onnecessity.Hite and McDonald (2003) found that women often make career choices based on their familyresponsibilities, sometimes choosing to curtail their career progress to accommodate family rolesand expectations.A Strategic HRD Framework for Career Development.Most HRD practitioners and scholars would argue that HRD needs to be represented indetermining the strategic direction of organizations. Fewer would agree that HRD typically ispresent at the strategic planning table.However HRD‟s presence is critical in determining a company‟s role and responsibilityregarding employees‟ careers. It also is important so career development is not considered astand-alone program, but rather as a process that is integrated into the system such that itinfluences the strategic direction of the organization (Gilley et al., 2002). Gutteridge, Leibowitz,and Shore (1993) advocate for companies to incorporate career development into their strategicplans by recommending a systems approach. Specifically, they suggest that career developmentbe viewed as a way of achieving important business objectives and that employee andorganizational needs be aligned when planning career-development processes. Hall (2002)reinforces the need for career development endeavors to be “managed and integrated” to yieldmaximum benefits to individuals and the system (p. 284). Simonsen (1997) echoes therecommendation that career development be “driven by business needs” and proposes thatorganizations need to develop both a vision and a philosophy of career development (p. 181).
  8. 8. The overarching question at the strategic planning table is as follows:What should the organization‟s philosophy be regarding career development and how, giventoday‟s environment, should this be enacted? Doyle (2000) suggests that a strategy “based onformalized career structures and systems is unlikely to cope with the diversity and „messiness‟that is likely to characterize career management in the future” (p. 239). Rather, a strategy isneeded that is sensitive to the contextual elements that influence CD and recognizes the need forinnovative ways to learn and develop given the current nature of work and organizations.HRD practitioners are well positioned to shape a system that is less paternalistic and controllingand that focuses more on the partnership approach that fosters employee self-development whilestill meeting organizational needs. As the planning evolves from developing a philosophy anddetermining goals, a framework may help guide professionals as they work to implement andintegrate career development into the organization (see Figure 1).We suggest three critical elements to consider in this process: organizational supportmechanisms, learning activities, and evaluation processes.The arrows in the figure indicate that each component of the framework will influence and beinfluenced by the other. For example, the organizational support mechanisms will influence whatlearning activities are developed and nurtured in the organization. In turn, the learning activitieswill affect organizational support mechanisms (e.g., networks and community-based learningmay assist employees in dealing with work-family conflicts). Organizational supportmechanisms will influence what is evaluated regarding CD and how it is evaluated. Theevaluation process also should determine if organizational support mechanisms assist employeesand the organization in achieving career-development objectives.
  9. 9. Q4. What are the major problems faced in benefits management?Ans. Major problems faced in benefits managementOne of the main problems faced by management in organizations is the need to maintain acompetitive advantage. With the global economic climate it has been difficult for companies andorganizations to keep up with their rivals, let alone better them. Corporate culture is oneresponsibility that management need to adhere to because it is vital when you want to succeed inbusiness. It creates a sense of innovation and productivity as opposed to a more negative culturewhich may stifle employees and detrimentally affect job gratification. In addition, managers havea huge responsibility for guiding the organization in the right direction as they are the primedecision makers. Managers have to make the plans and organize their employees and resourcesin order to put the organization in a direction that will grant them success. Most modernmanagement take on a strategic management style which initially states the main aim of theparticular mission which follows by the processes that will be carried out on a day-to-day basis.Moreover, one of the most important aspects that a good manager requires is solidcommunication skills. It is very likely in business that you are going to come into contact withconflicting styles of communication, however it is the managers job to be aware of this as wellas their own style. They need to be able to enforce their own style of communication while beingable to adapt to others, especially if they are consulting with other organisations and companies.Some of the basic problems faced by management are1: How to produce a qualitative product:This is the first problem faced by management that what is to produce, how much to produce andwhere to be produce. And the organization has to decide either they have to produce differentproducts or to emphasis on one product.2: How to deal the labour union:The labour is the group of people working for the betterment of the employees working in theorganization. The management has to decide that how to full fill the demands of the labourunion in respect of salaries, bonuses, insurance, medical allowances, fringe benefits etc.
  10. 10. 3: How to compete in the market:Various decisions for example how to charge the price, how to place the product, how topromote the product has to be taken by the management and they try to solve these problems in abest manner.4: How to utilize the organization resources:The management made various decisions about the organization resources that is man, money,material, machinery, market and methodology.5: To avoid stick out situation:Stock out situation is that situation when the customer demands for the product and the companyhas no product at that time. The management has to decide how to tackle this problem.
  11. 11. Q5.Assume yourself as an HR Manager of a publishing house. You find that the morale of theemployees is generally low. What steps would you take to improve employee morale?Ans. The motivation techniques may be divided into two parts[a] that is to be done; and[b] how and why what is done.The former are steps in motivation and the later are rules governing the steps. Both areperformed simultaneously.These are listed below: a) Size up situation requiring motivation:The first step of motivation is to make sure of motivational needs. Every employee needsmotivation; however, all people do not react exactly as the same way to the same stimuli.Keeping this in mind executive shall size up how much and what kind of motivation isneeded. b) Prepare a set of motivational tools:An executive from his personnel experience should prepare a list of what devices are likely towork with what type of people and under what circumstances. c) Selecting and applying motivator:Proper application of motivational plan is important. This involves selection of theappropriate technique, method of application and the timing and location of applications. d) Follow up the results of applications:The last stage of motivation is to follow-upther e s u l t s o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n . T h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e i s t o as c e r t a i n i f a n employee has been motivated or not. If not some other technique should betried.
  12. 12. Rules of motivating:The motivation manager must be guided with some fundamental rules which should be based onthe following principles. a. Self interest and motivation:Motivation is mainly built on selfishness. Psychologically speaking, selfishness is a part andparcel of life. To deny this is to build the theory on unrealistic foundation. To seek some otherbasis of motivation would be to ignore the real nature of man. The aim should be to learn moreabout selfishness. b. Attainability:Motivation must be establish attainable goals. This does not mean that the goal is realized atonce. This may take years to attain. But it must be within reach.Eight ways to motivate plant employees:Th e fol l o wi n g r e co m m e nd at i ons ar e f o r improving the motivation of employees in theroutine jobs.a. Provide assembly line employees with more than minimum training. This would result ingreater personnel involvement in the job. b. Crate sub goals to measure accomplishment. A sense of completion is importantfor motivation. They are likely to be more interested in the work which will reduce monotonyand mental fatigue.c. Provide regular feedback on performance. Studies show that people work better when theyreceive positive feedback.d. Maintain a neat and orderly work area. If the foreman does not care abouthousekeeping thenemployees may feel that they also need not care about it and this attitude may affect quality ofwork.e . A r r a n g e work situations so that conversation between employees is either easy or possible.Experience workers may to their job with little attention to the task.Conversation my reducemonotony and thus fatigue.f. In c r e as e t h e num be r o f o p er at i on s pe rf o rm ed b y o ne em p l o ye e . Th i s c an b edon e b y simplification of manual operations. It offers several advantages:
  13. 13. The risk of errors reduced; Management can hire employees at lower wages; Training costs are minimized.g . S t r uc t u r e j obs , so t h at w or ke r s c an at l e a st oc c as i on al l y m ov e a bou t t hewo rk a r e a. B esi d e s j ob rotation, there are other ways to provide for physical movement likestetting employees secure their own tools etc.h. Explore ways to assign greater personnel responsibility.Increased responsibility means greater self esteem and greater job meaningfulness. Oneway to enlarge responsibility is to let the employee inspect his own work.
  14. 14. Q6.Explain the general procedures followed in the case of a disciplinary action.Ans. Disciplinary ActionThere are varying penalties for first, second, and third offences of the same rule. Amongthe penalties available in business are:1. Oral reprimand2. Written reprimand3. Loss of privileges4. Fines5. Lay off6. Demotion7. DischargeThe penalties are listed in the general order of severity, from mild to severe for most cases,amoral reprimand is sufficient to achieve the desired result. The supervisor must know his orher personnel in determining how to give a reprimand. For one person, a severe “chewing out”may be necessary in order to get attention and co-operation; another person may require only acasual mention of a deficiency. If the offence is more serious, the reprimand may be put inwritten form. Since a written reprimand is more permanent than an oral one, it is considered amore severe penalty. For such offences as tardiness or leaving work without permission, fines orloss of various privileges can be used. The loss of privileges includes such items as good jobassignments, right to select machine or other equipment, and freedom of movement about theworkplace or company. The more severe penalties of layoff, demotion, and discharge are usuallyoutside the grant of authority to the immediate supervisor. Disciplinary layoffs can vary inseverity from onetoseveral days‟ loss of work without pay. The use of demotions as a penalty is highlyquestionable. If the employee is properly qualified for the present assignment, he or she will be improperlyplaced on a lower job. Discharge is the most severe penalty that a business organization can giveand constitutes “industrial capital punishment”.
  15. 15. Set 2Q1. What are the objectives of human relations?Ans. Objectives of human relationsA human Relations Programme thereby attempts at enhancing employee motivation andworkplace morale through an improved three-way communications and through employeeparticipation in the decision making processes. Human relations seek to emphasize employeeaspects of work rather than technical or economic aspects. For example while it might be in thebest interest of an organization to have a employee skilled and completely proficient inone job/set or responsibilities, today‟s organization provides opportunities for employees tomulti-skill and acquire knowledge of new yet related jobs/responsibilitiesThese acts as a motivator for employees as they benefit by learning new skills / jobs and given anopportunity can perform and excel in another job. It also seeks to make employment and workingconditions less impersonal. The human relations approach emphasizes policies and techniquesdesigned to improve employee morale and job satisfaction. For example it is common place inorganizations to provide for / encourage employee empowerment where-in the team brings aboutcreative measures to reduce cost/improve customer satisfaction. Such teams design andimplement self-driven initiatives to bring about the business result. It is believed that this isaccompanied by increased employee efficiency and reduction in employee dissatisfaction. Anunderstanding of emerging workplace human behavior can be summarized as:i) Assist the manager to develop a better realization of how his own attitudes and behavior playa part in everyday affairs of the team and its morale;ii) Assist the manager to develop a keener sensitivity towards the team members andinterpersonal dynamicsiii) Partner with the managers in helping him drive the business goals and take part ownership ofwork challenges and how best to resolve themiv) Enable him to anticipate and prevent problems, or at least to resolve more effectively thosethat he cannot avoid;v) Network with other teams with related dependencies and help resolve inter-team businessimpacting challenges.
  16. 16. This Scope of Human Relations springs up from the problems which have many different causesand perspectives.Halloran has stated these as:·Every person brings a unique set of talents, ambitions and work experience to a job.These personal attributes change over time, often as a result of the degree of success or failurethe person experiences in the work world.Matching so many unique sets of personal qualities to a standardized technology can createproblems.·The organizational aspects of a company, such as its size, geographic location, economic health,and degree of automation, define the scope of work and the activity in each work division. Thesefrequently arbitrary, structural definitions often cause difficulties inhuman relations Innovations in technology and production methods generally require the restructuring of jobroles and responsibilities. Radical changes in basic organizational structure can cause severestrains between employees and management and create intense problems in human relations.
  17. 17. Q2. Explain the need for human resource planning.Ans. Need for human resource planning Human resource planning system is a mandatory part of every organization‟s annual planningprocess. Every organization that plans for its business goals for the year also plan how it will goabout achieving them, and therein the planning for the human resources:1. To carry on its work, each organization needs competent staff with the necessary qualification,skills, knowledge, work experience and aptitude of work.2. Since employees exit and organization both naturally(As a result of superannuation) and unnaturally (as a result of resignation), there is an on-goingneed for hiring replacement staff to augment employee exit. Otherwise work would be impacted.3. In order to meet for the more employees due to organizational growth and expansion, this isturn call for large quantities of the same goods and services as well as new goods. This growthcould be rapid or gradual depending on the nature of the business, its competitors, its position inthe market and the general economy.4. Often organization might need to replace the nature of the present workforce as a result of itschanging needs, therefore the need to hire new set of employees. To meet the challenges of thechanged needs of technology/product/service innovation the existing employees need to betrained or new skills sets induced into the organization.5. Manpower planning is also needed in order to identify an organizations need to reduce itsworkforce. In situation where the organization is faced with severe revenue and growthlimitation it might need to plan well to manage how it will workforce. Options such asredeployment and outplacement can be planned for and executed properly.
  18. 18. Q3. How can we evaluate the effectiveness of training programs conducted inorganizations?Ans. Training Evaluation and Organizational Performance (Level Four)The foremost strengths of a particular T&D evaluation model are especially those that emphasizethe role of T&D on organisation performance and show a ROI from T&D. These perceptions are found in the Kirkpatrick evaluation model, which introduces the relationship between T&D evaluation and organisation performance. Assessing level four of the Kirkpatrick evaluation model demonstrates these important features. Valued results are connected to the organisational performance measurements, such as ROI, changes in productivity, quality improvement, customer satisfaction and market share (Miller2002). Continuous training programmes are essential for achieving higher productivity, better on the job performance and improved quality (Tennant, Boonkrong & Roberts 2002). These social scientists also pointed out that Japanese organisations emphasise the roles of training more than USA and European manufacturing organisations. This is revealed in the automotive sector with 380.3 training hours per year for Japanese workers, compared with 46.4 for USA workers and 173.3 for European workers. This heavy investment in T&D has led to dramatic performance improvement, in terms of cost, quality and delivery in Japanese organisations. Horwitz (1999) contends that T&D contributes to the organisations performance, success and competitiveness through providing the capacity to enhance individual abilities and competencies as necessary requirements for effective organisational performance. Armstrong (1989) also refers to performance related training designed to develop competencies that impact directly on the bottom line by promoting flexibility and supporting innovation. He also argues, that if the learning that is derived from training is not associated with enhanced job performance or raised capability, then the credibility of both HRD specialist and the process are at risk. The effectiveness of T&D programmes on organisational performance improvement is a difficult, vexatious and problematic task. Thus, training professionals have been challenged to document or demonstrate the results of training on organisational performance improvement (level four) by using organisational performance impact measures, such as ROI, changes in productivity, customer satisfaction, and quality and market share. In this regard, Muhlemeyerand Clarke (1997) argue that it is difficult to measure the correlation between the implementation of T&D and the overall success of the organisation, especially in the case where theorganisations success is measured in financial terms, because there is a little evidence to suggest that training per se can improve the financial performance.
  19. 19. Arguably, evaluation should focus on all organisational stakeholders, comprehensively, and onthe long-term results, and should also use the most suitable information to make judgments about training effectiveness (Russ & Preskill 2001, Burrow & Berardinelli 2003). It is also suggested that evaluation could be very focused and short term or quite comprehensive with a focus on the long term results depending on the type of training and its objectives (Russ & Preskill 2001, Collins 2002, Burrow & Berardinelli 2003). Evaluation should be based on a clear identification of the purpose and results expected from the programme. Thus, if the programme is designed to respond to a particular problem, or meet a specific requirement, evaluation should be used to determine if that specific goal was successfully achieved and not focus on broader expectations. According to Brinkerhoff (1988), good evaluation is likely to provide convincing evidence thatthe programme is aimed at important organisational benefits. Specifically, robust evaluations are likely to lead to participants reporting greater job satisfaction, the achievement of important job reverent skills, a gaining of knowledge and improved work attitude as well as effective transference to the job of learned skills acquired from the T&D programme. However, much of the training efforts in organisations are not specifically related to organisational final outcomes.Training Evaluation ModelsIn order to understand how the T&D evaluation stage should be conducted successfully, it needsto be based on a particular T&D evaluation model. There are many training evaluationapproaches and techniques. However, there are four main complementary evaluationframeworks: (a) Kirkpatrick, (b) the Bell system, (c) Parker, and (d) CIRO. However,Kirkpatricks evaluation model is the one most commonly used by many organisations (Hale2003).According to Kirkpatrick (1996), there are four stages to be considered when evaluating trainingeffectiveness: reaction, learning, behaviour and results level. The reaction level answers whetherpeople are happy with the training inputs (Hall 2003). It evaluates participants reactions,opinions, impressions and attitudes toward the programme. The learning level answers, "what dopeople remember from the training session?" (Hale 2003). To what extent have the participantslearned the material and the particular skills or know how that are contained in the programme?This measurement is made through special standardised tests at the end of the programme, suchas pre, post, paper and pencil tests, skill practice, workshops and job simulation. The behaviourlevel addresses the issue of "whether people use what they know at work?" (Hale 2003), and thechanges in the participants behaviour, skills, patterns of work, relationships and abilities that arenecessary to undertake the task at hand. These indications could be collected throughobservations, survey, interview and comments of supervisors, and colleagues and fromperformance appraisal reviews. Finally, the results level determines "what are the outcomes ofapplications on the job over a period of time?" (Hale 2003). This level of evaluation focuses on
  20. 20. the impact of behaviour change on the organisations performance. Because changing anemployees behaviour and attitudes is not the final objective of T&D, the end results shouldinclude important elements such as, improved productivity, better quality, lower costs, morespeed, fewer accidents, improved morale, lower turnover, and ultimately, more profit and betterservice. To determine the cost efficiency of training, recent ROI is used to establish whether themonetary values of the results exceed the cost of the programme. In this regard, Mann (1996)cited two empirical studies that reviewed the most popular evaluation levels used by USAorganisations when evaluating their training programmes. Both of the studies found that most ofthe surveyed organisations (over half) use assessment of their participants reaction andsatisfaction with the programme as the key methods of evaluating training.All of the evaluation models focus on the following important criteria for determining trainingeffectiveness.* Stakeholder perceptions (level one: reaction)* Learning gain (level two: learning)* On the job performance improvement (level three: behaviour)* Organisational improvement and ROI (level four: results).Stakeholder reaction provides insight into trainees motivation and satisfaction, but does notdirectly measure training results. Historically, training was conducted through measuring thenumber of trainees, as well as their perceptions and attitude towards the programme.Nevertheless, while trainees attendances, perceptions, motivation and attitude towards theprogramme are important outcomes of any training programme, there has yet to be reported asignificant relationship between these outcomes and achieving the programme objectives,including improving an organisations performance (Combs & Falletta 2000, Green 2001).Assessing training effectiveness based on trainees perceptions is described by James and Roffe(2000), and Acton and Gloden (2003) as ad hoc, unsystematic, informal and unstructuredevaluations of training programmes, which tends to be post training appraisals rather thanapproaching the evaluation of training programmes from their design stages.Training effectiveness no longer focuses on trainees perceptions, but is directed at otherimportant factors. These factors incorporate such questions as: Did employee performanceimprove as a result of training? How did training contribute to achieving the organisationscritical goals? (Burrow & Berardinelli 2003). Now there is a stronger acknowledgement for T&Dresults to be connected to the organisational performance measurements, such as ROI, changes inproductivity, quality improvement, customer satisfaction and market share (Miller 2002).
  21. 21. Alternative outcomes are less valued and valuable. Therefore, of the identified evaluation criteriathere are two critical and essential levels that affect other evaluation levels, and they are (a)learning gain (acquired skills, competencies, attitudes and capabilities); and (b) on the jobperformance improvement achieved through changing trainees behaviour and work patterns,which is often called training transfer. Bramley and Kitson (1994) contend that the appropriatetraining evaluation model is the model that facilitates evaluating the third and fourth levels of theKirkpatrick evaluation model (behaviour change and results). These training needs andobjectives are defined in terms of the changed behaviour and increased effectiveness, rather thanjust increasing knowledge, skills and abilities. Also, top management and line managers areinvolved in the whole training process and are able to evaluate the changes in behaviour andeffectiveness, which are occurring as a result of training.
  22. 22. Q4. Assume yourself as an HR Manager. You have been given the responsibility ofpromoting the rightful employees. For this, performance appraisal of the employees mustbe carried out. What appraisal method would you choose? Justify.Ans.A performance appraisal, employee appraisal, performance review, or (career)development discussion is a method by which the job performance ofan employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost, and time) typically by thecorresponding manager or supervisor. A performance appraisal is a part of guiding andmanaging career development. It is the process of obtaining, analyzing, and recordinginformation about the relative worth of an employee to the organization. Performance appraisalis an analysis of an employees recent successes and failures, personal strengths and weaknesses,and suitability for promotion or further training. It is also the judgement of an employeesperformance in a job based on considerations other than productivity alone.AimsGenerally, the aims of a performance appraisal are to: Give employees feedback on performance Identify employee training needs Document criteria used to allocate organizational rewards Form a basis for personnel decisions: salary increases, promotions, disciplinary actions, bonuses, etc. Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development Facilitate communication between employee and employer Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federal Equal Employment Opportunity requirements. To improve performance through counseling, coaching and development.MethodsA common approach to assessing performance is to use a numerical or scalar rating systemwhereby managers are asked to score an individual against a number of objectives/attributes. Insome companies, employees receive assessments from their manager, peers, subordinates,and customers, while also performing a self assessment. This is known as a 360-degreeappraisal and forms good communication patterns.
  23. 23. The most popular methods used in the performance appraisal process include the following: Management by objectives 360-degree appraisal Behavioral observation scale Behaviorally anchored rating scalesTrait-based systems, which rely on factors such as integrity and conscientiousness, are also usedby businesses but have been replaced primarily by more objective and results-oriented methods.The scientific literature on the subject provides evidence that assessing employees on factorssuch as these should be avoided. The reasons for this are twofold:1) Trait-based systems are by definition based on personality traits and as such may not berelated directly to successful job performance. In addition, personality dimensions tend tobe static, and while an employee can change a behavior they cannot change their personality. Forexample, a person who lacks integrity may stop lying to a manager because they have beencaught, but they still have low integrity and are likely to lie again when the threat of being caughtis gone.2) Trait-based systems, because they are vague, are more easily influenced by office politics,causing them to be less reliable as a source of information on an employees true performance.The vagueness of these instruments allows managers to assess the employee based uponsubjective feelings instead of objective observations about how the employee has performed hisor her specific duties. These systems are also more likely to leave a company opento discrimination claims because a manager can make biased decisions without having to backthem up with specific behavioral information. People differ in their abilities and their aptitudes. There is always some difference between the quality and quantity of the same work on the same job being done by two different people. Performance appraisals of Employees are necessary to understand each employee‟s abilities, competencies and relative merit and worth for the organization. Performance appraisal rates the employees in terms of their performance. Performance appraisals are widely used in the society. The history can be dated back to the 20th century and then to the second world war when the merit rating was used for the first time. An employer evaluating their employees is a very old concept.It is an indispensable part of performance measurement. Performance appraisal is necessary to measure the performance of the employees and the organization to check the progress towards the desired goals and aims. The latest mantra being followed by organizations across the world being – "get paid according to what you contribute" – the focus of the organizations is turning to performance management and specifically to individual performance. Performance appraisal helps to rate
  24. 24. the performance of the employees and evaluate their contribution towards the organizationalgoals. If the process of performance appraisals is formal and properly structured, it helps theemployees to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities and give direction to theindividual‟s performance. It helps to align the individual performances with theorganizational goals and also review their performance.Performance appraisal takes into account the past performance of the employees and focuseson the improvement of the future performance of the employees. Here at naukri hub, weattempt to provide an insight into the concept of performance appraisal, the methods andapproaches of performance appraisal, sample performance appraisal forms and the appraisalsoftwares available etc. An attempt has been made to study the current global trends inperformance appraisal.
  25. 25. Q5. What are the objectives of job evaluation?Ans. Job EvaluationLearning Objectives:1. To know basic approach to Job Evaluation.2. to importance of Job Evaluation and its effectiveness.3. To know the important methods of Job Evaluation.Now friends CIQ will discuss about how jobs used to be evaluated in an organization;f somebody having any idea about it pleases start explaining it; this can be explained in thefollowing way. Job evaluation is the process of analyzing and assessing the various jobssystematically to ascertain their relative worth in an organization. Job is evaluated on the basis oftheir content and is placed in the order of their importance. It should be noted that in a jobevaluation programme, the jobs are ranked and not the jobholders. Jobholders are rated throughperformance appraisal. “Job evaluation is a process of finding out the relative worth of a job ascompared to other jobs” Now, who is going to explain the objectives of job evaluation?The following objectives are derived from the analysis of the above-mentioned definitions: -1) To gather data and information relating to job description, job specification and employeespecifications for various jobs in an organization.2) To compare the duties, responsibilities and demands of a job with that of other jobs.3) To determine the hierarchy and place of various jobs in an organization.4) To determine the ranks or grades of various jobs.5) To ensure fair and equitable wages on the basis of relative worth or value of jobs. In otherwords equal wages are fixed to the jobs of equal worth or value.6) To minimize wage discrimination based on sex, age, caste, region, religion etc. Howmany of you know the principles of job evaluation programme? Job evaluationprogramme should be implemented carefully.
  26. 26. The following principles help in successful implementation of the programme:1. Rate the job but not the employee. Rate the elements on the basis of the job demands.2. The elements selected for rating should be easily understood.3. The elements should be defined clearly and properly selected.4. Employees concerned and the supervisors should be educated and convinced about theprogramme.5. Supervisors should be encouraged to participate in rating the jobs.6. Secure employee cooperation by encouraging them to participate in the rating programme.7. Discuss with the supervisors and employees about rating but not about assigning moneyvalues to the points.8. Do not establish too many occupational wages. For, better understandinglet us look at the flowchart given below: JobEvaluationProcess Employee Classification Wage Survey Job Evaluation ProgrammeJobSpecification Job Description Job Analysis Objectives of Job Evaluation Job Evaluation Process:The job-evaluation process starts defining objectives of evaluation and ends with establishingwage and salary differentials. The main objective of job evaluation, aswas stated earlier, is to establish satisfactory wage and salary differentials. Jobanalysis shouldprecede the actual program of evaluation. Job analysisjob analysis, as was discussed earlier, provides job-related data, which would be useful indrafting job description and job specification. A job-evaluation program involves answeringseveral questions: The major ones are: • Which jobs are to be evaluated?• Who should evaluatethe jobs?• What training do the evaluation need?•How much time is involved?• What should bethe criteria for evaluation?• What methods of evaluation are to be employed? Which jobs are tobe evaluated in any exercise, where there are more than 30 or 40 jobs to be evaluated, it isnecessary to identify and select a sample of benchmark jobs, which can be used for comparisonsinside and outside the organs. The benchmark jobs should be so selected to achieverepresentative sample of each of the main levels of jobs in each of the principal occupations. Thesize of the sample depends on the number of different jobs to be covered. It is likely to be lessthan about five percent of the total number of employees in the organization and it would bedifficult to produce a balanced sample unless at least 25 percent of the distinct jobs at each levelof the organization were included. Staffing the Evaluation exercise:
  27. 27. A committee, which consists of Head of several of department‟s, as was pointed out earlier, doesrepresentatives of employee unions and specialist drawn from the National Productivity councilJob evaluation. HRspecialistswill be normally the chairmen of the committee. Responsibility for the overallcoordination of the job-evaluation programme should be in the hands of a senior executive who can thenreport its progress to the board, and advise it on ensuring wage and salary development. Trainingfor the Committee:Members of the job-evaluation committee should be trained in its procedure so as to make theprogram successful. Time Factor: Job evaluation should not be conducted in haste. Any rushingthrough will lead to appeals against the grading of jobs. Eight jobs in a day can be the ideal pace.After this, the quality of evaluation tends to drop, and more time has to spend later in checkingand assessing the validity of the grading. The final review of all the time should be allowed forre-evaluation, if necessary. Isolating Job-evaluation criteria: The heart of job evaluation is thedetermination of the criteria for evaluation. Most job evaluations use responsibility, skill, effortand working conditions as major criteria. Other criteria used are difficulty, time-spanof discretion, size of subordinate staff, and degree of creativity needed. It needs no emphasis thatjob evaluation criteria vary across jobs. So friends you must have got a fair idea what is jobevaluation.
  28. 28. Q6. Why is it important to handle grievances carefully?Ans. Handling a grievanceWhen dealing with a grievance: ensure youre familiar with the procedure and apply it correctly hold any grievance hearing in private without interruptions where a grievance relates to the persons line manager, ensure that the employee can raise the grievance with someone else listen carefully to the persons explanation of the problem and consider whether there is a deeper issue which might be the root cause of the grievance listen to any conflicting points of view weigh up all evidence to see whether there is an issue you need to address decide what action to take, trying to balance fairness to the person without compromising the business or other workers inform all concerned parties of your decision and the appeal process
  29. 29. ensure you resolve any problems relating to policies, procedures or conduct where the grievance procedure highlights these keep the process as confidential as possible Deal with grievances sensitively, particularly where they concernOther workersYou may wish to develop specific procedures for very sensitive matters involving unfairtreatment e.g., discrimination, bullying or harassment. . Consider also having a separate "whistleblowing" procedure, so that workers are encouraged to raise any complaints about wrongdoingeg fraud, internally rather than disclosing them outside the business. If a worker raises a separategrievance during a disciplinary hearing, its good practice to adjourn the hearing untilthe grievance is dealt with. By dealing with problems in a fair and reasonable manner, youremuch less likely to lose valued and skilled staff through resignation. It will also help yousuccessfully defend a constructive dismissal claim.
  30. 30. THANK YOU