Open source technology1.Open software is software whose source code is published andmade available to public,enabling anyone to copy ,modifying the source code without paying fees.2.Open source code can evolve through community cooperationThese communities are composed of individual programmers as well as very large companies. Many of these individualsprogrammers who start an open source project usually end up as large companies with open source programs.
Examples of open-source software products are: 7-Zip — file archiver Blender — 3D graphics editor Eclipse — development environment comprising an IDE GIMP — graphics editor Inkscape - Vector graphics editor for .svg Mozilla Firefox — web browser Mozilla Thunderbird — e-mail client
Advantages of open source technology Open Source License PRICE: Generally no or low license fees; Availability of source code coupled with permission to make modifications; Access open source development community, which may be very active with respect to code used. Continuing improvement; outstanding development; More likely to be built to open standards, so interoperable with other open standards systems
Disadvantages of open source technology Proprietary Software COST! License fee Product bundling—example: Microsoft office. Licensee cannot modify or enhance the code; Often not built to open standards, leading to interoperability problems; Shut off from continuing development and information sharing in open source community; Some proprietary code is not as good as its open source counterparts.
Open standard Not just “open mouth”. Merged Perens/Krechmers/ECs definition: 1. Availability: available for all to read and implement 2. Maximize End-User Choice: Create a fair, competitive market for implementations; NOT lock the customer in. Multiple implementors 3. No Royalty: Free for all to implement, with no royalty or fee 4. No Discrimination: Dont favor one implementor over another (open meeting, consensus/no domination, due process) 5. Extension or Subset: May be extended or offered in subset form
Why Open Source? All software has source code. Open source software grants every user access to that code. Freedom means choice. Choice means power. Thats why we believe open source is inevitable. It returns control to the customer. You can see the code, change it, learn from it. Bugs are found and fixed quickly. And when customers are unhappy with one vendor, they can choose another without overhauling their entire infrastructure. No more technology lock-in. No more monopolies. Open source is not nameless, faceless, and its not charity. Nor is it solely a community effort. What you see today is a technology revolution driven by market demand.
Mission Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process. The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in. One of our most important activities is as a standards body, maintaining the Open Source Definition for the good of the community. The Open Source Initiative Approved License trademark and program creates a nexus of trust around which developers, users, corporations and governmentcan organize open source cooperation.
Benefits of Using Open source technology Reliability Stability Auditability Cost Flexibility and Freedom Support and Accountability
Reliability Reliability is a loose term. Broadly, we can take it to mean the absence of defects which cause incorrect operation, data loss or sudden failures, perhaps what many people would mean when they use the term `bug. Strictly, a bug would also mean failure to meet the specification, but since most Open Source projects dispense with the concept of anything easily recognisable as a formal specification, its hard to point to that as good way of defining what is a bug and what is a feature. Determining what constitutes a bug is usually by agreement amongst the developers and users of the software (an overlapping community in many cases). Obvious failure to perform is easily recognised as a bug, as is failure to conform to appropriate published standards. Security related failings (exploits or vulnerabilities) are clearly bugs too.
Stability In a business environment software is mostly a necessary evil, a tool to do a job. Unless the job changes or more efficient processes are discovered then there is rarely pressure or need to alter the software that is being used to assist the task. This is more or less directly counter to what motivates software vendors who are in the unenviable position of supplying a commodity that does not wear out or age much.
Auditability A rarely-understood benefit of Open Source software (any software where the source code is published) is its auditability. Closed-source software forces its users to trust the vendor when claims are made for qualities such as security, freedom from backdoors, adherence to standards and flexibility in the face of future changes. If the source code is not available those claims remain simply claims.
Cost Most current Open Source projects are also available free of royalties and fees, leading to the confusion around the commonly used term `free software. Regrettably the English language does not have separate concepts for free-of-charge and free as in unconstrained; other languages are better equipped to describe the difference between `freedom and `free of charge .
Flexibility and Freedom Open Source projects have very little motivation to attempt this kind of lock-in strategy. Since there is no commercial benefit to be had, adherence to de-jure or de-facto standards (where they exist) is typically high. Where standards for interworking do not exist, the fact that the source code is published means that proprietary data formats cant be used to manipulate lock-in. This at least partly explains the relative success of Open Source software in infrastructure areas. Many vendors have tried to create web servers to compete with Apache, but because the network protocol used between browsers and the web server is well specified they have had to compete on quality or features rather than through more insidious tactics.
Support and Accountability Open-source software does not differ from proprietary software in this respect. Open-source licences typically disclaim all liabilities and warranties, including such basic warranties as merchantability and fitness for purpose. Those in the know, who have adopted Open Source Software already, will shrug their shoulders and choose the practical benefits of increased reliablility and security over illusory options to sue or pursue other remedies from a negligent vendor.
Why best open source technology 1. lower cost 2. security 3.no vendor 4. better quality
Open source vs. source-available Although the OSI definition of "open source software" is widely accepted, a small number of people and organizations use the term to refer to software where the source is available for viewing, but which may not legally be modified or redistributed.
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