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Linux_commands

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Linux_commands

  1. 1. XUsefull Commands forUsefull Commands forRedhatRedhatVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerPresented ByTEJVEER SINGHID:VGT136T
  2. 2. XIntrductionIntrductionVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerThe Linux Directory LayoutFile/Directory BasicsFile ViewingFile PropertiesFile CompressionFile ComparisonFile Text ManipulationDisks and File SystemsFile LocationBackups and Remote StorageAudio and VideoHostsSpelling OperationsNetworkingPrinting
  3. 3. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerDirectory Description/bin Essential command binaries (programs)are storedhere(bash, ls, mount,tetc.)/boot Static files of the boot loader./dev Device files. In Linux, hardware devices are acceessdjust like other files, andthey are kept under thisdirectory./etc Host-specific system configuration files./home Location of users personal home directories (e.g./home/Raj)./lib Essential shared libraries and kernel modules.The Linux Directory Layout
  4. 4. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerDirectory Description/proc Process information pseudo-filesystem. An interfaceto kernel data structures./root The root (superuser) home directory./sbin Essential system binaries (fdisk, fsck, init, etc)./tmp Temporary files. All users have permission to placetemporary files here./usr The base directory for most shareable, read-only data(programs, l ibraries,documentation, and much ore)./usr/bin Most user programs are kept here (cc, find, du, etc.)./usr/include Header files for compiling C programs.
  5. 5. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerDirectory Description/usr/lib Libraries for most binary programs./usr/sbin Non-vital system binaries (lpd, useradd, etc.)/usr/share Architecture-independent data (icons, backgrounds,documentation, terminfo, man pages, etc.)./usr/src Program source code. E.g. The Linux Kernel, source RPMs,etc./usr/X11R6 The X Window System/var Variable data: mail and printer spools, log files, lock files,etc./usr/local “Locally” installed files. This directory only really matters inenvironments where files are stored on the network. Locally-installed files go in /usr/local/bin, /usr/local/lib, etc.). Alsooften used forsoftware packages installed from source,orsoftware not officially shipped with the distribution.
  6. 6. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerFile/Directory BasicsCommand Taskls List filescp Copy filesmv Rename filesrm Delete filesln Link filescd Change directorypwd Print current directory namemkdir Create directoryrmdir Delete directory
  7. 7. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerFile ViewingCommand Taskcat View filesless Page through fileshead View file beginningtail View ending of filenl Number lines of fileod View binary data of fileXxd View binary data with charectergv View Postscript/PDF filesxdvi View TeX DVI files
  8. 8. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerFile PropertiesCommand Taskstat Display file attributeswc Count bytes/words/linesdu Measure disk usagefile Identify file types /ASCII Filestouch Create new file timestampschown Change file ownerchgrp Change file groupchmod Change file rotections/Permisionchattr Change advanced file attributes/Special Charecterslsattr List advanced file attributes
  9. 9. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerFile CompressionCommand Taskgzip Compress files (GNU Zip)compress Compress files (Unix)bzip2 Compress files (BZip2)zip Compress files (Windows Zip)
  10. 10. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerFile ComparisonCommand Taskdiff Compare files line by linecomm Compare sorted filescmp Compare files byte by bytemd5sum Compute checksums
  11. 11. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerFile Text ManipulationCommand Taskgrep Search text for matching linescut Extract columnspaste Append columnstr Translate characterssort Sort linesuniq Locate identical linestee Copy stdin to a file andto stdout simultaneously
  12. 12. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerDisks and File SystemsCommand Taskdf Show free disk space file &Dir.mount Make a disk accessiblefsck Check a disk for errorssync Flush disk caches
  13. 13. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerFile LocationCommand Taskfind Locate filesslocate Locate files via indexwhich Locate commandswhereis Locate standard files
  14. 14. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerBackups and Remote StorageCommand Taskmt Control a tape drivedump Back up a diskrestore Restore a dumptar Read/write tape archivescdrecord Burn a CDrsync Mirror a set of files
  15. 15. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerAudio and VideoCommand Taskgrip Play CDs and rip MP3sxmms Play audio filescdparanoia Rip audioaudacity Edit audioxcdroast Burn CDs
  16. 16. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerHostsCommand Taskuname Print system informationhostname Print the system’s hostnameifconfig Set/display network informationhost Look up DNSwhois Look up domain registrantsping Check if host is reachabletraceroute View network path to a host
  17. 17. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerSpelling OperationsCommand Tasklook Look up spellingaspell Check spelling interactivelyspell Check spelling in batch
  18. 18. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerNetworkingCommand Taskssh Securely log into remote hoststelnet Log into remote hostsscp Securely copy files between hostssftp Securely files transfer between hostsftp Copy /Transfer files between hostsevolution GUI email clientmutt Text-based email clientmail Minimal email client
  19. 19. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By Tejveermozilla Web browserlynx Text-only web browserwget Retrieve web pages to diskslrn Read Usenet newsgaim Instant messaging/IRCtalk Linux/Unix chatwrite Send messages to a terminalmesg Prohibit talk/writeCommand Task
  20. 20. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By TejveerPrintingCommand Tasklpr Print fileslpq View print queuelprm Remove print jobs
  21. 21. XVolksgeist Technologies LLP Vasundhara Presented By Tejveer

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