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Low Cost Housing India

housing for EWS, LIG in india by well known architects

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HOUSING
(CASE STUDIES)
ASSIGNMENT NO. 2
-PRESENTED BY
ROHAN M. ZAGADE
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE,
COET, AKOLA 444001, MH
❖ YAMUNA HOUSING APARTMENTS, DELHI…………………………..
-CONCEPT
-PLANNING OF DWELLING UNITS
-BUILT FORM
-PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS
-COMMUNITY SPACES
-GREEN SPACES
-PARKING SPACE
-SPATIAL PLANNING
-MERITS & DEMERITS
❖ ASIAN GAMES VIALLAGE, DELHI……………………..
-SITE PLAN AND SECTION
-VEHICULAR PATHWAY
-GREEN SPACES
-FLOOR PLANS
SECTIONS
-VIEWS
❖ ACC TOWNSHIP WALDI, BY CHARLES COREA…….
-LOCATION
-CLIMATE ZONE
-DENSITY
-TYPE ‘B’
-TYPE ‘J'
CONTENTS
PAGE NO.
01
07
14
YAMUNA HOUSING APARTMENTS, DELHI
❑ CONCEPT
• Yamuna apartments belong to a group housing society, which has been designed for
the lower middle income group.
• The site allotted for the housing complex was 4.25 acres , but due to planning
regulations , an area measuring 0.5 acres was required to be left as open space, at
the north east corner. The intention of this open space being , to form a continuous
green space with the adjoining residential complex. The green space has enabled the
housing to have a nice playground.
• The pedestrian movement is along four radial galis where children can play
undisturbed by the vehicular traffic . Plants planted along the side of the gali, present a
refreshing contrast to the external walls of the unit.
• The design concept however, distinguishes it from other
developments in the city. This society consists of 200 members,
most of which came from south indian states of kerala , tamil nadu
and andhra pradesh , constituted a fairly cohesive group with
specific living requirements. Taking these factors into consideration
, the housing was designed as an integral community settlement ,
where the traditional housing elements were incorporated to create
an “urban village “ in a city.
• The design concept revolves around a typical indian village , with
its lively narrow galis or pedestrian streets , where the womenfolk
and children would pull out their charpai onto the gali , so that they
were able to share experience and converstaion with each other,
while doing their household chores. This has been achieved by a
designing a traffic free complex , where the vehicular traffic is
restricted to the periphery and in the basement.
• Galis converge onto an asymmetrically placed central square ,
which forms the focus. It is here that the recreational activities have
been placed.
SITE PLAN
The dwelling units comprise of three basic plan types of
varying floor area , which are grouped together in a repetitive basis, to
form individual housing blocks.
• The access staircase leading to the unit takes off from the gali, thus
maintaining a continuity and acting as transitional space , between
common public areas and private areas of each house.
• It has also enabled residents to converse with each other and
maintain contact with the surroundings while they work.
• Unlike the west , the indian neighbourhoods are open and privacy
is not given much importance. Houses were designed overlooking
each others semi private areas.
• Thus , in addition to sharing experiences while the womenfolk
performed the daily chores , it also enabled assistance in the time
of an urgency .
• In the unit plans , the semi private area or the living room of each
unit has been consciously designed towards the pedestrian spine
to enable communal interaction and acknowledgement of one’s
neighbours.
• The living room has an attached balcony which overlooks the
pedestrian spine.
• This enables the residents to share and exchange social contact at
various levels, thereby retaining the lively character of the gali.
• The private area of the bedrooms are to the rear of the house
opening on to a terrace for sleeping.
• According to the norms of the community , the kitchen is
considered a holy place and is kept clean, it is for this reason that
is has to be kept away form all normal circulation routes within the
house.
• The bathroom and kitchen open onto the internal ventilation and
light shaft , on which they are dependent for their light and
ventilation.
• Access staircase.
• Each block has a set of external staircases which is used to access
the apartments. The staircase splits into another staircase as it
approaches the doors of the apartment. This gives the appearance
of almost a personalized staircase for each house, something
which is not commonly found in group housing.
❑ PLANNING OF DWELLING UNITS
❑ BUILT FORM
The recreational activities
are grouped around the
central square. The club is
located on the first floor
level forming a bridge
across two housing blocks.
A view of the units
grouped around the
central space. The
open air stage is in
the foreground.
• There is an integration of traditional design elements as balconies
for shading the external wall surface , courtyards and terraces for
outdoor sleeping in summer , thus establishing a hierarchy of open
and enclosed spaces, private an semi private areas.
• The unit plan has opening on two sides , thus enabling a fair
amount of cross ventilation.
• Each unit is sheltered on the outside by either a balcony or terrace
The terrace provides a space for outdoor activities.
• Part of the terrace is always open to sky which gives it an added
openness . This has been achieved by changing the shape of the
terrace from square to rectangular on alternate floors. The elected
framework provides considerable variation to the façade and a
strong geometric framework.
• Yamuna apartments are unique in terms of
the volumetric form, owing to the constant
staggering and the breaking up of the
facade.
• Each made up of 3 types of dwelling units,
which are placed over each other in a way
that the built mass is non- aligned.
• Such an arrangement provides optimal
mutual shading, and cuts off the harsh sun.
❑ PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS
• The shape of the built form gives rise to the
• walkways between two blocks, which function
• as streets within the society.
• These `galis’ have been completely pedestrian
• isled and function beautifully as community
• spaces.
• They have been broken into levels, given green
• pockets, and are so well shaded that one can
• easily interact with people without worrying
• about hot summer.
• Instead of splitting two blocks apart,
• these parks bring the two together by
• encouraging people to interact and
• make it lively.
• Since the entire society was designed like a typical
village, chowks form an integral part of this scheme.
• Each pedestrian walkway or `gali’ leads to one of these
asymmetrical cores or `chowks’.
• They provide an interesting focal point for daily activities
to place on a larger scale.
• One such core doubles up to form a badminton court and
a mini stage area for shows to take place, while another
is merely a courtyard which is shaded by trees and is
broken into levels for people to sit and interact.
• These spaces become pivotal in tying the blocks and
paths together.
❑ COMMUNITY SPACES/ ‘CHOWKS’
• There is one major playground tucked further away into the society.
• A small park is situated in one of the chowks which consists of swings for children and
benches to sit.
• Apart from dedicated greens, the pathways are interspersed with green pockets,
planters, trees, shrubs etc. the most prominent trees are frangipans, deodar, mango
etc. they provide ample shading and improve the microclimate to a larger extent.
❑ GREEN SPACES

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Low Cost Housing India

  • 1. HOUSING (CASE STUDIES) ASSIGNMENT NO. 2 -PRESENTED BY ROHAN M. ZAGADE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, COET, AKOLA 444001, MH
  • 2. ❖ YAMUNA HOUSING APARTMENTS, DELHI………………………….. -CONCEPT -PLANNING OF DWELLING UNITS -BUILT FORM -PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS -COMMUNITY SPACES -GREEN SPACES -PARKING SPACE -SPATIAL PLANNING -MERITS & DEMERITS ❖ ASIAN GAMES VIALLAGE, DELHI…………………….. -SITE PLAN AND SECTION -VEHICULAR PATHWAY -GREEN SPACES -FLOOR PLANS SECTIONS -VIEWS ❖ ACC TOWNSHIP WALDI, BY CHARLES COREA……. -LOCATION -CLIMATE ZONE -DENSITY -TYPE ‘B’ -TYPE ‘J' CONTENTS PAGE NO. 01 07 14
  • 3. YAMUNA HOUSING APARTMENTS, DELHI ❑ CONCEPT • Yamuna apartments belong to a group housing society, which has been designed for the lower middle income group. • The site allotted for the housing complex was 4.25 acres , but due to planning regulations , an area measuring 0.5 acres was required to be left as open space, at the north east corner. The intention of this open space being , to form a continuous green space with the adjoining residential complex. The green space has enabled the housing to have a nice playground. • The pedestrian movement is along four radial galis where children can play undisturbed by the vehicular traffic . Plants planted along the side of the gali, present a refreshing contrast to the external walls of the unit. • The design concept however, distinguishes it from other developments in the city. This society consists of 200 members, most of which came from south indian states of kerala , tamil nadu and andhra pradesh , constituted a fairly cohesive group with specific living requirements. Taking these factors into consideration , the housing was designed as an integral community settlement , where the traditional housing elements were incorporated to create an “urban village “ in a city. • The design concept revolves around a typical indian village , with its lively narrow galis or pedestrian streets , where the womenfolk and children would pull out their charpai onto the gali , so that they were able to share experience and converstaion with each other, while doing their household chores. This has been achieved by a designing a traffic free complex , where the vehicular traffic is restricted to the periphery and in the basement. • Galis converge onto an asymmetrically placed central square , which forms the focus. It is here that the recreational activities have been placed. SITE PLAN
  • 4. The dwelling units comprise of three basic plan types of varying floor area , which are grouped together in a repetitive basis, to form individual housing blocks. • The access staircase leading to the unit takes off from the gali, thus maintaining a continuity and acting as transitional space , between common public areas and private areas of each house. • It has also enabled residents to converse with each other and maintain contact with the surroundings while they work. • Unlike the west , the indian neighbourhoods are open and privacy is not given much importance. Houses were designed overlooking each others semi private areas. • Thus , in addition to sharing experiences while the womenfolk performed the daily chores , it also enabled assistance in the time of an urgency . • In the unit plans , the semi private area or the living room of each unit has been consciously designed towards the pedestrian spine to enable communal interaction and acknowledgement of one’s neighbours. • The living room has an attached balcony which overlooks the pedestrian spine. • This enables the residents to share and exchange social contact at various levels, thereby retaining the lively character of the gali. • The private area of the bedrooms are to the rear of the house opening on to a terrace for sleeping. • According to the norms of the community , the kitchen is considered a holy place and is kept clean, it is for this reason that is has to be kept away form all normal circulation routes within the house. • The bathroom and kitchen open onto the internal ventilation and light shaft , on which they are dependent for their light and ventilation. • Access staircase. • Each block has a set of external staircases which is used to access the apartments. The staircase splits into another staircase as it approaches the doors of the apartment. This gives the appearance of almost a personalized staircase for each house, something which is not commonly found in group housing. ❑ PLANNING OF DWELLING UNITS
  • 5. ❑ BUILT FORM The recreational activities are grouped around the central square. The club is located on the first floor level forming a bridge across two housing blocks. A view of the units grouped around the central space. The open air stage is in the foreground. • There is an integration of traditional design elements as balconies for shading the external wall surface , courtyards and terraces for outdoor sleeping in summer , thus establishing a hierarchy of open and enclosed spaces, private an semi private areas. • The unit plan has opening on two sides , thus enabling a fair amount of cross ventilation. • Each unit is sheltered on the outside by either a balcony or terrace The terrace provides a space for outdoor activities. • Part of the terrace is always open to sky which gives it an added openness . This has been achieved by changing the shape of the terrace from square to rectangular on alternate floors. The elected framework provides considerable variation to the façade and a strong geometric framework. • Yamuna apartments are unique in terms of the volumetric form, owing to the constant staggering and the breaking up of the facade. • Each made up of 3 types of dwelling units, which are placed over each other in a way that the built mass is non- aligned. • Such an arrangement provides optimal mutual shading, and cuts off the harsh sun.
  • 6. ❑ PEDESTRIAN PATHWAYS • The shape of the built form gives rise to the • walkways between two blocks, which function • as streets within the society. • These `galis’ have been completely pedestrian • isled and function beautifully as community • spaces. • They have been broken into levels, given green • pockets, and are so well shaded that one can • easily interact with people without worrying • about hot summer. • Instead of splitting two blocks apart, • these parks bring the two together by • encouraging people to interact and • make it lively. • Since the entire society was designed like a typical village, chowks form an integral part of this scheme. • Each pedestrian walkway or `gali’ leads to one of these asymmetrical cores or `chowks’. • They provide an interesting focal point for daily activities to place on a larger scale. • One such core doubles up to form a badminton court and a mini stage area for shows to take place, while another is merely a courtyard which is shaded by trees and is broken into levels for people to sit and interact. • These spaces become pivotal in tying the blocks and paths together. ❑ COMMUNITY SPACES/ ‘CHOWKS’ • There is one major playground tucked further away into the society. • A small park is situated in one of the chowks which consists of swings for children and benches to sit. • Apart from dedicated greens, the pathways are interspersed with green pockets, planters, trees, shrubs etc. the most prominent trees are frangipans, deodar, mango etc. they provide ample shading and improve the microclimate to a larger extent. ❑ GREEN SPACES
  • 7. • Car parking for the houses is limited to the periphery of the housing and no car can come through to the internals of the society. Vehicular movement for every other reason is restricted to the perimeter as well. ❑ PARKING • Each block consists of 2 types of flats, 2 and 3 bedroom respectively. Examples, flat type 1 has 3 bedrooms, whereas, flat type 2 has 2. there is a service entrance from the kitchen, accessed by the same staircase which leads to the guest entry. • The design of every unit is such that the living room opens into a balcony, which provides a direct visual connection with the house opposite to it. • Bedrooms opens into a patio/balcony on the backside of the block, and are adjoined by the balconies of the other houses. The patio is then half covered by the patio of the floor above it, which gives it the staggered appearance. • Service shafts: 2 apartment units share 1 common shaft, which is shared by the living room, kitchen and the bathroom in one unit. ❑ SPATIAL PLANNING The open air stage forms a part of the recreational facilities grouped around the central square. • Units on the ground floor have a private courtyard which is partly covered . It forms an important space for outdoor activities , sitting out in summer evenings and on cold wintry days, etc. • The change in the shape of the terrace , from square to rectangular , on alternate floors provides considerable variation to the façade and strong geometric frame work. • The external walls finished with stone aggregate which practically requires no maintenance besides an occasional washing down with water to remove the dust along with reinforced concrete bands at terrace levels provide a refreshing contrast against the landscape.
  • 8. ❑ MERITS • Community spaces like O.A.T, public seating, gardens etc. are provided. • Water tank orientation with good use of levels. • Neighbourhood is maintained. • Better use of site’s irregular negative space by providing children’s play area and gardens there. • Landscaping is used as a very important key feature in complete design. • Privacy is maintained by providing a small breathing space in every apartment i.e. in ground floor it is next to main door and in upper floors it is as balconies. • Two main, three sub and one service Entries are provided for the better use of spaces. • Non- accessible Terrace gardens are provided to enclosure to the outer space and at the same time they also gives the view of the open sky which merges with the landscaping on the upper terrace gardens. ❑ DEMERITS • Security pipelines are exposed and are running along the window. • Basement is not used for any purpose. • Parking was not made according to the requirement, cars were parked on the roadside. • The designer has tried to make the open spaces face towards the southern side to avoid direct light entering the area. • The complex gives a sense of enclosure. • There are many buffer zones within the complex which form the space of gathering , social interaction. • 35 percent of the total area is the built up area. There are large open spaces for public use provided on the periphery of the complex. • The built up area is in staggered form and oriented in such a way that they form a sense of enclosure within the complex. Bey balconies have been provided with the built units that add to the aesthetics and functionality to the built form. Source-www.archnet.org
  • 9. • Project-Asian games village • Location- New Delhi, India • Time period- 1980 to 1982 • Building Type- family housing • Construction System- concrete • Climate- hot • Context- • urban Style- Modern ASIAN GAMES VILLAGE, NEW DELHI –BY RAJ REWAL • In the Asian housing ,the urban pattern of Jaipur and Jaisalmer has been explored. • A relatively wide variety of unit types, from individual houses to apartment type. • In all, there are some 500 housing units, comprising 200 individual town houses and 300 apartments in two-storey to four-storey with each unit type has variations according to areas. • The combination of various dwelling types into an urban pattern of unusual diversity makes the Asian village quite remarkable. • The architect interwove three principle dictates that simultaneously conjoined traditional layouts with a contemporary response: • Configuring a low rise High density development representative of the typical Indian ‘Mohalla’ or community Creating cluster formations ideal for the Indian climate. • In all, there are some 500 housing units, comprising 200 individual town houses and 300 apartments in two-storey to four-storey with each unit type has variations according to areas. • A relatively wide variety of unit types, from individual houses to apartment type. • The combination of various dwelling types into an urban pattern of unusual diversity makes the Asian village quite remarkable.
  • 10. ❑ STREET JAISALMER ASIAN GAMES VILLAGE ❑ GATEWAYS JAISALMER ASIAN GAMES VILLAGE JAISALMER ASIAN GAMES VILLAGE ❑ ROOF TERRECES
  • 11. ❑ SITE PLAN ❑ SITE SECTION
  • 12. • Dining complex which is now used as a recreational and community centre. PATHWAY • With a mix of a street and squares ,the architect recreates what he calls the ‘theatre of the street’, where public interaction can spill from their immediate spaces as neighbours into a community and works towards making them active participants and not just viewers. • The cubic solids and voids are characteristic of the Indian urban fabric.
  • 14. • Peripheral roads are connected to cul-de-sac parking areas which in turn give access to individual garages or car porches attached to houses or apartment block. • The terraces formed on the upper storeys provide for a semi- private space .Reminding us of the characteristics of the houses in Jaisalmer. • A cluster in Asian games village –the basic unit of four apartments is designed in such a way that it can be linked with cantilevers on ends and partly on fronts to create a variety of interlinking spaces.
  • 17. • The units has been designed so that it can form a cluster with either four or six units to create a variety of inner spaces. • A typical block designed in a way that it can be linked at all ends, including the front and can combine as different permutations that mix and merge to shape new elements, each adding a different experience. • With a restricted budget ,wanting minimal issues with construction and maintenance, the architect choose Jaisalmer stone grit as an external finish, using variations to distinguish the unit types, but in harmony with the whole. • The combination of grit with cement also helped fortify the 9” bricks against water leakage. Source-www.rajrewal.in/projects
  • 18. ACC TOWNSHIP, WALDI -BY CHARLES CORREA • In 1984, the Associated Cement Company, the first Indian supplier of cement and concrete, commissioned Charles Correa two projects in two separate lots to be incorporated in a neighbourhood exists (ACC colony), for their workers near the industry itself. • LOCATION: Wadi, Gulbarga district, north of the state of Karnataka (India) • LOCATION: ACC district (north-west, near ACC concrete factory), Latitude 17 ° 4 '0 "North, Longitude 76 ° 59' -1" East • CLIMATE ZONE: dry and healthy climate, characterized by the monsoon season in the summer months and temperatures with an annual average of 26 to 30; the average rainfall is 750 mm per year • SUBJECT: two interventions positioned along the perimeter of two different lots; the first type has 368 apartments, the second 48 houses at the court SITE PLAN • DENSITY- Intervention area 46.053 ~ 4.61 ha, 10.182 ~ 1.02 ha Building area 17.664 m² ~ 1.77 ha, 2.860 m² ~ 0.29 ha Green areas 12.268 m² ~ 1.26 ha, 2.475 m² ~ 0.25 ha • ORIENTATION: the main access to the two areas is located respectively North-West and South-West, but the individual units change orientation assuming different directions in the general composition • ACCOMMODATION COMPOSITION: there are 2 types of apartments in the complex "B", and a type of terraced houses in the complex "J" • The apartments consist of: - living room, - service space and kitchen - bedroom - garden or terraces on the upper floors • The terraced houses are composed of: - living room, - service areas and kitchen - bedroom - courts and garden - second bedroom on the first floor and a "barsati" terrace • CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES: reinforced concrete bearing structure TYPE ‘B’ TYPE ‘J’
  • 19. • The first type of units- TYPE-B- consists of 368 flats, each with an area of 48 sq.m. These 3 structures are arranged in a highly formal manner to form a series of interconnected units, courtyards and gardens. The units decrease on the upper levels to form terraces overlooking the central space. TYPE ‘B’ SITE PLAN SITE SECTION SITE VIEW
  • 20. GROUND FLOOR FIRST FLOOR SECOND FLOOR ISOMETRIC VIEW OF ONE CLUSTER SITE ELEVATION
  • 21. TYPE ‘J’ SITE PLAN SITE SECTION ROAD NETWORK RESIDENTIAL & OPEN SPACES The second type– the larger TYPE-J units- are approximately 65 sq.m. each. •These consists of 45 courtyard houses, ventilated by internal patios, arranged in tightly-knit clusters. •Each two-storey unit has a barsati (rainy season) room on the terrace. SITE ELEVATIONS
  • 22. GROUND FLOOR FIRST FLOOR ISOMETRIC VIEW OF ONE CLUSTER SECTION “Not only does affordable workforce housing change the lives of its residents, the benefits are passed along to the community in significant ways. It revitalizes distressed neighbourhoods and promotes economic and social integration while building community.” ❑ CONCLUSION