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Obbbbb ppt

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Obbbbb ppt

  1. 1. THEORIES & MODELSOF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR<br />REPRESENTATIONS OF HOW THE REAL WORLD FUNCTIONS<br />Help us organize our knowledge<br />Summarize diverse findings & highlight relationships<br />Tell us what to pay attention to (and what to ignore)<br />Help us understand why events occur as they do (causal relationships)<br />Give guidance about how to bring about change<br />
  2. 2. THREE KINDS OF THEORIES/MODELS<br />DESCRIPTIVE 80+ %<br />PREDICTIVE 15+ %<br />PRESCRIPTIVE < 5 %<br />
  3. 3. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONSFAYOL (16)<br />PLANNING<br />ORGANIZING<br />LEADING<br />CONTROLLING<br />
  4. 4. MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIESMINTZBERG<br />MANAGERIAL ACTIVITY IS CHARACTERIZED BY VARIETY, FRAGMENTATION, AND BREVITY<br />LITTLE TIME FOR QUIET REFLECTION<br /> CRISES ARE INTERSPERSED WITH TRIVIAL EVENTS<br /> MUST BE ABLE TO SHIFT GEARS QUICKLY<br /> ONLY SPENDS AN AVERAGE OF NINE MINUTES PER ACTIVITY<br />THE MANAGER PERFORMS A GREAT DEAL OF WORK AT AN UNRELENTING PACE<br />IN ONE DAY:<br /> PROCESSED 36 PIECES OF MAIL<br /> ATTENDED 8 MEETINGS<br /> TOOK A TOUR OF THE PLANT<br /> MET WITH UNHAPPY CUSTOMERS<br />
  5. 5. MANAGERIAL ROLESMINTZBERG (73)<br />INTERPERSONAL ROLES<br />Figurehead<br />Leader (Supervisor)<br />Liaison (Linking-Pin)<br />INFORMATIONAL ROLES<br />Monitor<br />Disseminator<br />Spokesperson<br />DECISIONAL ROLES<br />Innovator (Entrepreneur)<br />Disturbance Handler (Crisis)<br />Resource Allocator<br />Negotiator<br />
  6. 6. MANAGEMENT SKILLSKATZ (74)<br />TECHNICAL <br />SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE & PROFICIENCY<br />ABILITY TO WORK WITH THINGS, TOOLS & TECHNIQUES<br />(A FOCUS ON WHAT IS DONE)<br />HUMAN<br />WORK WITH AND THROUGH OTHER PEOPLE & GROUPS<br />MOTIVATES, COMMUNICATES, AND RESOLVES CONFLICTS<br />(A FOCUS ON HOW SOMETHING IS DONE)<br />CONCEPTUAL<br />UNDERSTANDS THE CORPORATION AS A WHOLE; SEES THE “BIG PICTURE”<br />FUTURE-ORIENTED….THINKS STRATEGICALLY<br />ANALYTIC AND DECISION-MAKING ABILITY<br />INFORMATION PROCESSING & PLANNING ABILITIES<br />(A FOCUS ON WHY SOMETHING IS DONE)<br />
  7. 7. EFFECTIVE v. SUCCESSFUL MANAGERSLuthans (88)<br />STUDIED FOUR MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES:<br />TRADITIONAL MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES<br /> Plans, sets objectives, strategies, makes decisions, oversees controls, etc.<br />COMMUNICATION ACTIVITIES<br />Exchanges relevant information inside the firm, stays in touch with others<br />HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES<br /> Inspires and motivates, involves staff in decisions, educates & develops staff<br />NETWORKING ACTIVITIES<br /> Interacts with outsiders, is politically & socially active within the organization<br />
  8. 8. RESEARCH FINDINGS ONEFFECTIVE v. SUCCESSFUL MANAGERS<br />N = 450 Percentage of time devoted to each activity<br />MGRL ACTIVITYAVERAGE EFFECTIVE SUCCESS<br />TRADITIONAL 32 % 19 % 13 %<br />COMMUNICATION 29 % 44 % 28 %<br />HUMAN RESOURCE 20 % 26 % 11 %<br />NETWORKING 19 % 11 % 48 %<br />
  9. 9. EFFECTIVE MANAGERS<br />Quality and quantity of performance achievement<br /> Satisfaction and commitment of workers<br />SUCCESSFUL MANAGERS<br /> Speed of promotion within the organization<br />CONCLUSION:<br />Promotions aren’t necessarily based on performance…<br />but are related to social and political activity in the firm.<br />
  10. 10. THE MANAGERIAL GRIDBLAKE & MOUTON (64)<br />
  11. 11. SEARCHING FOR THE“PRINCIPLES” OF MANAGEMENT<br />MANAGEMENT THEORIES ARE DERIVED FROM:<br />INDIVIDUAL OBSERVATION<br /> PERSONAL EXPERIENCE AND OBSERVATION<br /> CASE SITUATIONS AND STUDIES<br /> ARCHIVAL RECORDS AND DOCUMENTS<br />SURVEY RESEARCH<br />INTERVIEWS<br /> QUESTIONNAIRES<br />EXPERIMENTATION<br /> LABORATORY<br /> FIELD <br /> NATURAL<br />
  12. 12. EVALUATING RESEARCH<br />IS IT VALID?<br /> DOES THE STUDY MEASURE WHAT IT CLAIMS TO MEASURE?<br />IS IT RELIABLE?<br /> ARE THE MEASUREMENTS CONSISTENT WHEN REPEATED? <br />IS IT GENERALIZABLE?<br /> ARE THE FINDINGS APPLICABLE TO OTHER SITUATIONS?<br />IS IT ETHICALLY APPROPRIATE?<br /> WERE PRIVACY & CONFIDENTIALITY MAINTAINED IN THE STUDY?<br />
  13. 13. OBSERVATION & CASES<br />ADVANTAGES<br />Probes one situation in great depth<br />Rich in details, clues and possible causes <br />Facilitates discovery of unexpected relationships<br />Starting point for theory development<br />DISADVANTAGES<br />Selective observation and bias…information is easily distorted/lost<br />What we “know” about a case is limited by the data available/provided<br />Observation/data gathering is time consuming…when do we stop?<br />Data are not easily quantifiable…relationships can’t be tested <br />Generalizations are not possible from a sample of one<br />
  14. 14. SURVEY RESEARCH<br />ADVANTAGES<br />Questions can be standardized<br />Collects information independent of the researcher<br />Allows quantitative analyses<br />Sampling of populations is possible<br />DISADVANTAGES<br />Often identifies symptoms (and emotions), rather than causes <br />Requires expertise to design…and time to administer<br />Objectivity of responses<br />Questions may “shape” the responses<br />Social desirability bias<br />Confidentiality and sensitive questions<br />Issue of non-response<br />Little control is really evident<br />One-shot studies<br />Hard to really prove cause-effect relationships<br />
  15. 15. EXPERIMENTS<br />ADVANTAGES<br />Can infer “cause-effect” relationships<br />Can be repeated…checked for consistency<br />DISADVANTAGES<br />Difficult to control all the variables<br />Realism is lost in the laboratory<br />Precision is lost in the field<br />No controls over natural experiments<br />Manipulation may affect worker productivity<br />When is the best time to take an observation/measurement?<br />Subject loss<br />Subject bias<br />Generalizability to other organizations/settings<br />
  16. 16. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS<br />

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