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Authors forward
This analysis is written in the context of the global problem of marine litter and specifically plastic
po...
Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved
More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@ham...
Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved
More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@ham...
Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved
More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@ham...
Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved
More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@ham...
Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved
More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@ham...
Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved
More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@ham...
Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved
More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@ham...
Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved
More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@ham...
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The jazz effect

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How does one of the region’s largest cultural events affect shoreline litter density? What does the host city do to mitigate shoreline litter? What are the cost-effective solutions? Find out here

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The jazz effect

  1. 1. Authors forward This analysis is written in the context of the global problem of marine litter and specifically plastic pollution. According to some predictions there will be more plastic in the water than fish in a few years. Multinational companies pour millions of dollars into well publicized ideas to “clean the oceans of plastic” or develop products made from plastic debris that is “harvested” on the open ocean. Giving the casual observer an impression that “everything is going to be ok” or that the next “big idea” is just around the corner and once we figure out how to turn the garbage into money the problem will be solved. But the problem is money, isn’t it? In Switzerland, the water tower of Europe, in the shadow of Nestle world headquarters on the shores of Lake Geneva you can expect to find trash floating in the water and on every beach along 142kms of coast line. If you were to add all that trash up it would total between 700’000 and 1’200’000 pieces of garbage on any day of the year1 . There is so much garbage in our water that the number of Q-tips on the beach in Montreux is determined to a certain degree by the discharge rate of the Rhone river2 . This in a country that has one of the highest recycling rates in the world, where each garbage bag is taxed 3.5CHF and where most of the city streets are swept clean every day. The solution to the “plastic ocean” will not be found in the middle of pacific garbage patch, it is under our city streets. For the most part the garbage in the ocean was made, purchased, used and discarded on land. By renovating and expanding the capacity of storm water drainage systems and water treatment plants to include filtering of solids the amount of trash that enters the water can be significantly reduced. This technology exists today and could be put in place anywhere there is an existing water treatment system. Imagine that something useful can be produced from the garbage that is floating (and sinking) in the ocean. Then the cost of material and ease of access would be central to any business development scheme. Wouldn’t it be easier and cheaper to collect the raw materials (garbage) closer to the source? Wouldn’t it be easier to exploit if you could predict material availability and price based on known variables? How is it more efficient to scale up an enterprise or produce merchandise when the raw material is floating around the ocean in unknow quantities? Imagine that in the future the garbage collected from storm water systems could be exploited in the same way that old landfills are currently exploited for metals and other resources. hammerdirt 1 Based on the probability mass function of the lognormal distribution of 80 samples with μ= 1.68 and σ = 0.91 2 Regression of 52 beach litter surveys against the daily discharge rate of the Rhone, P= 0.00022, t-Stat = 3.97 Somebody needs to do this
  2. 2. Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@hammerdirt.ch Introduction to the region and the Montreux Jazz Montreux Switzerland is a city on the south end of Lake Geneva. Home to 25’000 people and part of the region called “The Riviera Vaudois”, Montreux and the towns within the communal border boasts multiple luxury hotels, a casino, a convention center, a sports auditorium, a railway junction for trains to Gstaad, multiple private international schools and a small ski resort. The lakeside promenade is perhaps the most spectacular on the lake, with a view on the Swiss Alps and the mouth of Rhone river, the promenade or the “Quai des fleurs” is adorned with a variety of trees and flowers from all over the world. Not surprisingly Montreux and the region have attained a certain reputation with an elite class of tourists and event organizers. The most famous and and one of the largest annual events is the “Montreux Jazz Festival”, started in in 1967 by local resident Claude Nobs, the Montreux Jazz has hosted the biggest names in the music industry. Initially the Montreux Jazz was housed in the casino and offered an intimate setting for concert goers and performers. At present the festival is housed at the Stravinsky convention center and extends along the lakeside promenade (situation map on next page). Temporary constructions extend out over the lake creating unique experiences for the approximately 240’000 visitors (Jazz 2016). The Montreux Jazz brings the world to Montreux and is an economic and cultural event that benefits almost all residents of the region. Introduction to hammerdirt and the Montreux Clean Beach Project Montreux is also the home of the Montreux Clean Beach Projects (MCBP). The MCBP is a series of projects by the hammerdirt association with the singular objective of quantifying the levels of aquatic litter or visible pollutants on the lake shore and providing reliable and verifiable data to government authorities, political and business leaders and civil society. In the first year MCBP1 (2014-2015) lakeshore garbage was counted in liters and only specific items were identified. This was changed in year two MCBP2 (2015-2016), the Marine Litter Watch (MLW)3 classification system was adopted. The protocol requires the removal, classification and counting of all pieces of trash on the shore. This method provides a very detailed data set, thus allowing a more thorough analysis of the composition and quantities of garbage on the lakeshore. 3 Marine Litter Watch is a program by European Environmental Agency to measure the load of debris in coastal environments. http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/coast_sea/marine-litterwatch The Jazz Effect An analysis of two years of beach litter surveys on the shores of Lake Geneva in the region of Montreux. In total 14,473 pieces of garbage collected in the region and on the shoreline at different periods of the year help identify root causes, items of interest and most importantly possible solutions. Contents: The layout and the litter surveys 2 Identifying the trend 2 Composition of beach litter 3 Different locations and pressures 4 Layout and price sensitivity 4 The evidence: Everybody benefits 5 The Montreux Jazz is not alone 7 Hammerdirt is an independent association, no financial assistance has been received for the beach litter surveys.
  3. 3. Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@hammerdirt.ch The layout and the litter surveys. Map 1 designates the location of the Montreux Jazz Festival, MCBP litter survey locations and the zone allocated to vendors not affiliated with the Montreux Jazz Festival. Identifying the trend Year over year results for cleanup operations at the Baye de Montreux are displayed in charts 1 and 2. The year 2 surveys are more sensitive to changes in quantity of trash and therefore reflect the density with greater accuracy. It should also be noted that when volume is used (year one) objects that are larger will increase the result but that does not indicate “how many” of an object you found. To understand the difference, think of how many candy wrappers fit into a 35-liter trash bag as opposed to how many 1 liter bottles fit into the same size bag. Even with these differences the peaks in July and December for both years is obvious as well as the trough in January and February. Quantity is only part of the story, the fact that there is more trash on the beach doesn’t say anything about what the trash is, where it came from or how it got there. Certainly, not enough information to find an appropriate solution. For that more information is needed. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 11/24/14 12/11/14 12/18/14 1/3/15 2/21/15 2/28/15 3/8/15 3/21/15 3/29/15 4/5/15 4/12/15 4/19/15 4/26/15 5/29/15 6/7/15 7/7/15 7/12/15 Litersoftrashremoved Chart 1: Survey results MCBP1 Baye de Montreux, liters of trash removed Nov 2014 - July 2015, n=34 Qty Average 0 200 400 600 800 1000 11/23/15 12/4/15 12/10/15 12/17/15 1/7/16 1/19/16 2/11/16 3/24/16 4/14/16 5/28/16 6/28/16 7/10/16 7/16/16 Piecesoftrashremoved Chart 2: Survey results MCBP2 Baye de Montreux, pieces of trash removed Nov 2015 - July 2016, n=26 Qty Average 1 3 4 2 5 Official site of the Montreux Jazz Managed by the city of Montreux Beach litter survey locations 1.Baye de Clarens 2.Le Pierrier 3.Pierrier Sud 4.Baye de Montreux droite 5.Baye de Montreux gauche
  4. 4. Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@hammerdirt.ch Composition of beach litter Chart 3 and Chart 4 display the composition of the beach litter collected at the same site on two different days. On June 28th 650 items were classified into 35 MLW categories (chart 4) and on July 16th 880 items were classified into 41 MLW categories (chart 3). The results were filtered for garbage that is commonly associated with direct littering from parties at the beach or trash left by beachgoers and picnickers. This includes objects like drink bottles, plastic food wrappers, drinking straws, cigarette butts and the like. The other items were placed into a category called “Everything else”4 . On June 28th, the part of the garbage on the beach that is attributed to direct littering is 33% of the total and on July 16th that part is 81%. On July 16th there is more trash on the lakeshore and a greater percentage of that trash could be reasonably attributed to visitors based on the type of objects found. Which one of these results is the exception? Which is the rule? To answer the question more thoroughly the same criteria was applied to all results at the Bayed de Montreux and then compared to another set of results from the Baye de Clarens. 4 The full classification can be seen in annex A 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 6/28/2016 montreuxrd Chart 4: Composition and density of beach litter Baye de Montreux June 28, 2016 pieces/meter 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 7/16/2016 montreuxrd Chart 3: Composition and density of beach litter Baye de Montreux July 16, 2016 pieces/meter Everything else Trash left by users
  5. 5. Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@hammerdirt.ch Different locations different pressures At the Baye de Montreux, the beach litter is frequently composed of objects that are abandoned by beachgoers. June 28th was the exception at the Baye de Montreux (chart 5). In contrast, the Baye de Clarens is more frequently composed of Items such as broken up Styrofoam, broken plastic, and industrial sheeting rather than fast- food wrappers or drink bottles. (chart 6) In this sense the Baye de Montreux is unique. Of the 17 locations and 80 samples that comprise the study the Baye de Montreux has the highest density of litter left by beachgoers or visitors. This despite the constant work done by city employees to evacuate the debris on the shoreline. Most of the cleanup operations for this project happened after city workers had cleaned the beach. Conclusion: The Montreux Jazz Festival does have a significant effect on the amount of litter on the lakeshore. However, the problem is pre-existing in Montreux. The Montreux Jazz simply compounds the problem and underscores the need for appropriate, scalable solutions throughout the year. Solutions based on layout: price sensitivity The location map on page 2 identifies the different areas of activity during the Montreux Jazz. In the pink zone, all the vendors are approved by the Jazz festival and pay for the right to be near the music venues. The yellow area is managed by the city of Montreux, the rents are lower and there is a wider variety of consumer goods available. Beer is one of the most common beverages sold and is available up and down the promenade. The management of the Jazz Festival has adopted the policy of reusable glasses. Beer, wine and certain cocktails are all served in a reusable plastic goblets that are usually marked with the logo of the jazz festival. The deposit per glass is 2CHF and is refunded if the user returns the goblet. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 11/23/15 12/4/15 12/10/15 12/17/15 1/7/16 1/19/16 2/11/16 3/24/16 4/14/16 5/28/16 6/28/16 7/10/16 7/16/16 Density:pieces/meter Chart 5: Composition and density of beach litter, Baye de Montreux, n=26 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11/24/15 12/2/15 12/8/15 12/16/15 1/6/16 1/23/16 2/10/16 3/24/16 3/31/16 4/7/16 4/14/16 5/10/16 5/17/16 Density:pieces/meter Chart 6: Composition and density of beach litter, Baye de Clarens, n=13
  6. 6. Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@hammerdirt.ch The city of Montreux has not adopted the same policy. The independent vendors installed in the yellow zone (location map) use disposable cups for all beverages sold during the festival. Furthermore, beer is 4CHF per glass in the yellow zone as opposed to 5CHF per glass in the pink zone. Thus, in the zone managed by the city the beer is cheaper and more convenient (no waiting in line to have your 2CHF refunded). For moderate consumers of alcohol price is important, given products of equal quality, the average consumer generally chooses the less expensive option. Conclusion: There is a 3CHF price differential for two products of equal value within a 500meter stretch of the Jazz Festival. This price differential is attained by a combination of using single-use plastic cups and lower rents. The cost of cleanup is assumed by the city and a portion of the single cups finish in the lake. Solution: Extend the reusable cup program to the entire promenade and fix the price of alcoholic beverages with the Jazz Festival. Given the volumes of beer sold at the elevated price within the zone of the Montreux Jazz it is unlikely that this action will have a negative impact on sales. Market research indicates that at equal prices consumers prefer the ecologically responsible option. Solutions based on the evidence: Everybody benefits Image one depicts the status of the beach on the morning of July 16th . Image two depicts the garbage after sorting and counting. The proximity of the garbage to the lake cannot be understated. By comparing image 2 with the results of the inventory (chart 3 and annex A) clearly few of the products on the beach come from the Montreux Jazz. Many of the local businesses are represented: such as Denner, Migros, Mcdonalds and even single use cups from Amstein. As was stated in the introduction almost everybody benefits from the Montreux Jazz including local businesses. Image 1: The Baye de Montreux July 16th 2016 Image 2: Trash sorted and counted Baye de Montreux July 16th 2016
  7. 7. Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@hammerdirt.ch As an example of the difference, image three depicts the trash collected and sorted on May 28th at the same location, a day that had an average density for the survey (chart 5). The difference in quantity between image two and three is obvious, but the origin of the trash remains the same. Drinks purchased at the Denner market, ice-cream spoons from Movenpick and a Mcdonalds container are the the most identifiable objects. The increase in quantity of trash from image three to image two can be translated into an increase in revenue for the local businesses and an increase in value-added-tax (VAT) for the municipality. Image four gives the same location at the time of the survey on May 28th . Besides the difference in garbage on the shoreline nothing changes. Despite an annual event that will attract at least 250’000 people the number of garbage cans remains the same, there are no ashtrays nor is there any preventive message at this location during the Jazz Festival. Conclusion: There is an increase in revenue across the board for most businesses in the area including payment of VAT but the infrastructure does not meet the demands in terms of waste disposal or litter prevention. Solution: Local businesses and residents need to be made aware of the current situation and the quantities of garbage that are being introduced into the lake because of lack of infrastructure and/or resources. Together, local businesses, sponsors of the Montreux Jazz and the local administration could help adopt a community based approach. Establishing baselines and setting limits for the level of pollution allowed by any activity would be a good start. Requiring event organizers (public and private) to produce a pollution prevention program at each event and or support local pollution prevention programs would also be a key indicator to visitors of the importance of the lake to the local community. Finally, encourage residents to monitor the levels of pollution on the lakeshore, participate in biodiversity studies or water quality monitoring year-round and use the data produced (like this document) to investigate other innovative programs with measurable results. Image 3: Trash sorted and collected Baye de Montreux May 28th 2016 Image 4: Baye de Montreux May 28th 2016
  8. 8. Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@hammerdirt.ch The Montreux Jazz is not alone It would be too easy to blame shoreline pollution on one of the biggest cultural event in the region. Unfortunately, the problem exists at some level all year round, the amplitude follows the economic rhythm of the city itself. Hotel room sales are often cited as one indicator of the health of the tourism industry. Chart 7 displays the relationship of hotel room check-ins5 and garbage on the beach in Montreux for November 2015 to July 2016. The biggest event in the city is the “Montreux Christmas Market”. Although official numbers are hard to obtain, almost 500’000 people are expected at this month- long event. Like the Montreux Jazz Festival, shops and kiosques are setup on the lakeside promenade offering all kinds of consumer goods and dining experiences. Although the temperature hovers between 0 and 5 degrees Celsius the beach litter climbs along with the hotel nights and the number of days at the Christmas Market. Conclusion: Beach litter and aquatic litter are recurring problems at events on the lakeshore, indifferent of the time of year or the temperature. The current infrastructure and processes are insufficient when faced with anticipated surges in population density. Solution: Increase the capacity of fixed infrastructure, thus enabling continued growth and minimizing ecological impact. The city of Montreux and the commercial partners have created a successful economic model. However, the ecological impact of the current business model has been underestimated by local authorities, business owners and event organizers. Thus, solid waste is released into the lake year-round at a rhythm that follows the regional economic cycle. 5 Hotel room data from the Swiss federal office of statistics web portal 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 11/23/15 12/11/15 12/29/15 1/16/16 2/3/16 2/21/16 3/10/16 3/28/16 4/15/16 5/3/16 5/21/16 6/8/16 6/26/16 7/14/16 Densityoftrashpersample Chart 7: Litter density per survey Baye de Montreux and hotel check-ins per month city of Montreux Litter density 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 hotelcheckins Hotel check-ins Image 5: Trash collecting and sorting Baye de Montreux December 10th 2015
  9. 9. Hammerdirt association, La Tour-de-Peilz 2016, all rights reserved More questions? Contact hammerdirt association info@hammerdirt.ch Annex A: List of inventories used in this document, items in red are considered as left by user (chart 3 and 4) LOCATION MONTREUXRD MONTREUXRD MONTREUXRD DATE 5/28/2016 6/28/2016 7/16/2016 PLASTIC BAGS COLLECTIVE ROLE 0 0 5 DRINK BOTTLES <= 0.5L 0 1 3 DRINK BOTTLES => 0.5L 0 0 6 FOOD CONTAINERS/FAST FOOD CONTAINERS 3 7 15 PLASTIC CAPS LIDS UNIDENTIFIED 0 14 8 PLASTIC CAPS/LIDS DRINKS 2 35 15 PLASTIC CAPS/LIDS CHEMICALS AND DETERGENTS 0 18 1 PLASTIC RINGS FROM BOTTLE CAPS/LIDS 0 22 4 TOBACCO POUCHES 3 20 15 CIGARETTE LIGHTERS 3 1 0 CIGARETTE BUTTS 216 0 471 CANDY AND CHIPS BAGS 5 87 15 LOLIPOP STICKS 3 5 6 CUPS AND CUP LIDS 0 16 19 TOYS AND FIREWORKS 0 4 1 CUTLERY AND TRAYS 3 3 9 STRAWS AND STIRERS 0 14 12 FISHING LINE 3 0 0 STRAPPING BANDS 1 5 5 INDUSTRIAL SHEETING, INDUSTRIAL PACKAGING 0 138 15 SHOTGUN CARTRIDGES 1 37 5 PLASTIC PIECES 1 > <50 CM 8 120 31 PLASTIC PIECES > 50CM 0 0 0 POLYSTYRENE PIECES 1 > < 50 CM 9 0 14 POLYSTYRENE PIECES > 50CM 0 0 0 COTTON SWABS 2 19 15 SANITARY TOWELS/TAMPONS AND BACKING STRIPS 0 5 0 MEDICAL/PHARMA CONTAINERS AND TUBES 1 2 0 BIOMASS HOLDERS SEWAGE TREATMENT 0 4 6 PLASTIC CONSTUCTION WASTE 3 43 9 DOG FECES BAGS 0 0 0 BOTTLES INCL. PIECES 0 0 12 CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL 0 0 0 BOTTLE CAPS 10 0 21 AEROSOL SPRAY CANS 0 0 0 BEVERAGE CANS 0 0 10 FOIL WRAPPERS 4 0 5 WIRE, WIRE MESH, BARBED WIRE 0 0 1 OTHER METAL < 50CM 0 0 0 CARTONS/TETRAPACK OTHER 0 0 0 CIGARETTE PACKETS 0 0 14 CUPS, FOOD TRAYS, WRAPPERS, DRINK CONTAINERS 0 0 57 PAPER FRAGMENTS 0 0 46 OTHER PAPER ITEMS 10 0 0 CORKS 0 0 2 ICE-CREAM STICKS, CHIP FORKS 2 1 1 PROCESSED TIMBER 0 0 0 BALLONS AND BALLOON STICKS 1 3 0 SMALL PLASTIC BAGS 0 2 2 OTHER COSMETICS 0 2 1 CAR PARTS 0 1 0 PENS AND PEN LIDS 1 3 1 TELEPHONES 0 0 1 PLASTIC FLOWER POTS 0 0 2 SYRINGES AND NEEDLES 0 1 0 BOAT BUMPERS 0 4 0 BUCKETS 0 5 0 TAGS FISHING AND INDUSTRY 0 0 2 BAIT CONTAINERS 0 2 0 PARAFIN/WAX 0 3 0 OTHER TEXTILES - RAGS 0 3 1 WEIGHTS/HOOKS/LURES 3 0 0 Want the data? Contact us, it’s free.

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