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Roger Bedell Product Director
Furrer+Frey Opbrid
Automated High Power Charger Stations
Contact: rbedell@furrerfrey.ch +41 ...
Motivation
“A number of studies suggest that in the 2020 to 2030 time frame,
heavy-duty vehicles are estimated to overtake...
Motivation
Figure 3: New heavy-duty vehicle sales and fleet-wide fuel consumption in the U.S.
Per Mile (US) costs of
Tractor-trailer
Proposed Solutions
Overhead Catenary – Big Infrastructure
In-Road Inductive Charging – Big Infrastructure
Battery Swapping...
Another Possibility: Tractor Swapping
(Pony Express Model)
Tractor Swapping – Step 1
Tractor-Trailer arrives with low
Battery charge
Fully charged tractor
waiting
Tractor Swapping – Step 2
Driver Unhooks Tractor
From Trailer
Driver switches
Tractors
Tractor Swapping – Step 3
Truck departs with
Full battery
Tractor charges
Enabling Technology 1:
Jost KKS Automated Coupling System
Enabling Technology 2:
Furrer+Frey Opbrid Trůkbaar
Advantages
• No large infrastructure projects needed
• No ultra fast charging needed – high energy batteries
can be used f...
Disadvantages
• Without good scheduling, tractors can be left idle
too long, raising capital costs
• Tractors and trailers...
Possible Scheduling
• Truck departure headway timed to allow enough time
to charge, perhaps 60 minutes (1C charging)
• Tim...
Example: Rotterdam to Zurich
Schedule (assuming 90km/h)
• 08:00 Depart Rotterdam
• Drive 2 hr 15 min (200km)
• 10:15 Mandatory 15 minute break, tractor...
Battery Requirements per tractor
Range needed is about 200km + extra for wind, traffic, hills
Tractor-trailer fuel consump...
Battery Requirements per tractor
Litarion NMC cycle life 9000@1C/1C, 3000@3C/3C
Makes economic sense to extend cycle life ...
Equipment Requirements
Ratio of 3.25/2.25 tractors per load = 1.44 tractors per load
But with some built in time for delay...
Economics
Fuel cost is the largest portion of per mile trucking costs
Average fuel consumption is about 37 l/100km in both...
Economics
If a load is moved 800km per day, savings by
electrification can approach
0.39 l/km * 75% * 800km * 1.20 €/l
280...
Economics
Additional costs:
Batteries – battery cost is currently around
0.06 €/kWh/cycle(0.12 €/km) (Litarion NMC-9k cycl...
Possible “Fatal Flaws”
• What about traffic jams? (accidents, construction etc)
• Will the drivers want to do it? (No idea...
If electrifying is doable, we must do it now.
Global warming is a real and present
danger, and we need to stop burning
fos...
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"Pony Express" electrification of long haul trucks using tractor swapping

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Electrification of long distance trucks is now a reality using the "Pony Express" model of swapping an exhausted "pony" (the tractor part of a tractor-trailer) for a fresh one at charging stations strategically placed along the highway.

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"Pony Express" electrification of long haul trucks using tractor swapping

  1. 1. Roger Bedell Product Director Furrer+Frey Opbrid Automated High Power Charger Stations Contact: rbedell@furrerfrey.ch +41 31 357 6180 Electrification of Long Haul Trucks using Tractor Swapping (Pony Express Model)
  2. 2. Motivation “A number of studies suggest that in the 2020 to 2030 time frame, heavy-duty vehicles are estimated to overtake passenger cars as the largest global contributor to fuel consumption and GHG emissions in the transport sector”
  3. 3. Motivation Figure 3: New heavy-duty vehicle sales and fleet-wide fuel consumption in the U.S.
  4. 4. Per Mile (US) costs of Tractor-trailer
  5. 5. Proposed Solutions Overhead Catenary – Big Infrastructure In-Road Inductive Charging – Big Infrastructure Battery Swapping – difficult to swap the very large batteries needed, expensive stations Ultra-fast Charging during rest times: heavier LTO batteries, very high Charge rates
  6. 6. Another Possibility: Tractor Swapping (Pony Express Model)
  7. 7. Tractor Swapping – Step 1 Tractor-Trailer arrives with low Battery charge Fully charged tractor waiting
  8. 8. Tractor Swapping – Step 2 Driver Unhooks Tractor From Trailer Driver switches Tractors
  9. 9. Tractor Swapping – Step 3 Truck departs with Full battery Tractor charges
  10. 10. Enabling Technology 1: Jost KKS Automated Coupling System
  11. 11. Enabling Technology 2: Furrer+Frey Opbrid Trůkbaar
  12. 12. Advantages • No large infrastructure projects needed • No ultra fast charging needed – high energy batteries can be used for longer runs between charges • Simple, inexpensive and proven equipment • Fast and safe. Swap in just a few minutes for a fully charged battery. • Available today
  13. 13. Disadvantages • Without good scheduling, tractors can be left idle too long, raising capital costs • Tractors and trailers need to both have the KKS System for fast swaps, though manual swapping is possible • Delays in one area can affect the entire system – similar to airport delays • New business model, favors large shippers.
  14. 14. Possible Scheduling • Truck departure headway timed to allow enough time to charge, perhaps 60 minutes (1C charging) • Time tractor swapping should coincide with mandatory driver breaks to reduce the down time associated with leaving and entering the motorway • Best for large wholly owned fleets or a “Tractor Sharing” business model
  15. 15. Example: Rotterdam to Zurich
  16. 16. Schedule (assuming 90km/h) • 08:00 Depart Rotterdam • Drive 2 hr 15 min (200km) • 10:15 Mandatory 15 minute break, tractor swap • Drive 2 hr 15 min (200km) • 12:45 Mandatory 30 minute break, tractor swap • Drive 2 hr 15 min (200km) • 15:30 Mandatory 15 minute break, tractor swap • Drive 2 hr 15 min (200km) • 18:00 End of driver shift, max 9 hours reached, • Destination reached. • 4 swap/charging stations needed.
  17. 17. Battery Requirements per tractor Range needed is about 200km + extra for wind, traffic, hills Tractor-trailer fuel consumption is approx. the same as a 12m bus at ~37l/100km, or ~1kWh/km Assuming 2kWh/km gives a battery of 400kWh Using available NMC batteries with a pack level energy density of 110Wh/kg = 3600kg
  18. 18. Battery Requirements per tractor Litarion NMC cycle life 9000@1C/1C, 3000@3C/3C Makes economic sense to extend cycle life by charging at 1C (400kW) instead of 3C Double the energy density of LTO, ½ the weight. Similar Cost/kWh/cycle Duty cycle 2.25 hr driving/1 hour charging at 400kW (1C)
  19. 19. Equipment Requirements Ratio of 3.25/2.25 tractors per load = 1.44 tractors per load But with some built in time for delays, 1.75 tractors Per load is likely more reasonable. Driving time of tractors depends on operation hours. Assuming 18 hours per day of operation, tractors will Charge 18/4 times per day = 4.5 times per day. 4.5 * 300 days = 1350 times per year, or 6 year lifetime.
  20. 20. Economics Fuel cost is the largest portion of per mile trucking costs Average fuel consumption is about 37 l/100km in both US and EU (similar to 12 meter buses) Fuel costs of electricity are approx. 20% of diesel.
  21. 21. Economics If a load is moved 800km per day, savings by electrification can approach 0.39 l/km * 75% * 800km * 1.20 €/l 280 €/Day * 300 days = 84.240 €/Year
  22. 22. Economics Additional costs: Batteries – battery cost is currently around 0.06 €/kWh/cycle(0.12 €/km) (Litarion NMC-9k cycles) Extra Tractors – more tractors are needed, though each tractor will last longer since it runs fewer km/year Chargers, additional parking, and electrical infrastructure
  23. 23. Possible “Fatal Flaws” • What about traffic jams? (accidents, construction etc) • Will the drivers want to do it? (No idea) • What if all the chargers are occupied? or, what if there are no charged tractors ready? (Logistics software) • Will this work with driverless trucks? (Yes!) • Swapping time is considered driving time, so this may eat into driver’s allowable time. (True) • Too difficult to implement (Incentive likely depends on direct and indirect financial benefits)
  24. 24. If electrifying is doable, we must do it now. Global warming is a real and present danger, and we need to stop burning fossil fuels. Contact: Roger Bedell, Product Director Opbrid Charging Systems Furrer+Frey AG, Bern, CH rbedell@furrerfrey.ch +41 (0) 79 609 5120

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