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Lowered Biodiversity in Central Asia
Marsel Nurbolotov
Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network
11/01/2021
CRUCIAL PROBLEMS OF BIODIVERSITY IN CENTRAL ASIA
 The species diversity of flora and fauna of the countries of
Central Asia and their abundance are directly dependent on
the state of the environment.
 The active exploitation of biological objects for several decades
has already exceeded the reproductive capabilities of nature,
which has led to the degradation of the ecosystem and a
significant reduction in the species composition. In some
cases, these processes have become irreversible.
Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 2
Key Ecosystem Communities 2019
Source: The Regional Environmental
Centre for Central Asia (CAREC)
CENTRAL ASIA AS A LARGELY ARID REGION
Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 3
Source: World Development Indicators,
data for 2010
Region consisting mainly of steppes, deserts
and mountains
Rural population of Central Asia
%, total cover, 2010
ISSUES OF ENDANGERED SPECIES AND LAND AREAS
 The number of endangered species of animals and
plants is growing. The uncontrolled procurement of
medicinal and food raw materials has greatly reduced
the stocks of such plant species as licorice,
elecampane, ephedra and others.
 The impoverishment of rural residents and the increase
in the number of refugees are forcing them to cut down
desert (saxaul) and floodplain forests (tugai) for fuel.
Only in the floodplain of the Amu Darya river their area
decreased from 150 thousand hectares (in 1928) to
22-23 thousand hectares (in 1993)
Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 4
Water quality: Amu Darya River in Central Asia
Source: Latest National State of the
Environment reports and statistics (2010-2014)
THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY OF CENTRAL ASIA
Loss of biodiversity in the region continues,
mainly due to:
• habitat destruction
• over-exploitation of agricultural resources,
environmental pollution (mining and energy
development)
• unregulated introduction of alien plants and animals
Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 5
Relative importance of impacts on ecosystems and
trends 2019
Source: The latest UNECE environmental
performance reviews and expert interviews. This
table was distributed at the Istanbul regional
workshop on biodiversity (17-20 October 2011,
Turkey)
NATURAL AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA
 Currently, there are 34 state reserves and 10 state national
parks with a total area of 6.3 million hectares on the territory of
the countries of Central Asia. In general, about 2.8% of the
territory of these countries is classified as specially protected
natural areas with various protection regimes.
 In accordance with international recommendations, the share of
intact natural landscapes required to ensure sustainable
conservation of biodiversity and support vital ecological
processes should be about 10% of the entire territory of the
country.
Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 6
Source: FAOSTAT (faostat.fao.org), data
for 2010
BIODIVERSITY LOSS PROCESS
Despite the measures taken by the Governments of the Central
Asian countries to preserve biological diversity, the process of its
loss continues.
• 221 species of animals and 287 higher plants are included in the
Red Book of Kazakhstan;
• Kyrgyzstan, on whose territory about 1% of the world's
biodiversity lives, respectively, 68 and 65 species of animals and
plants were introduced;
• Tajikistan: 162 and 222 species;
• Uzbekistan: 161 species and Turkmenistan 152 and 109 species
that are also included in the CITES and Red lists IUCN Book.
Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 7
Snow leopard
It is listed as Vulnerable on the
IUCN Red List because the
global population is to decline
about 10% by 2040
Saiga antelope
Critically endangered antelope
which during antiquity
inhabited a vast area of the
Eurasian steppe spanning the
foothills of the Carpathian
Mountains
Source: The Regional Environmental
Centre for Central Asia (CAREC)
METHODS FOR SOLVING ISSUE
Identify territories and biodiversity objects in the CA region that are subject to protection,
develop and implement common strategies.
Develop eco-networks of specially protected natural areas;
Organize resource and ecological monitoring of forests and protected areas;
Develop ecotourism and traditional crafts that contribute to the protection of biodiversity.
Contribute to the implementation of the Asia-Pacific Strategy for the Conservation of
Migratory Species and the Pan-European Strategy for the Conservation of Biological and
Landscape Diversity.
Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 8
Identification
Development
Conservation
info@gwcnweb.org | http://gwcnweb.org
Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network

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GWCN - Lowered Biodiversity in Central Asia

  • 1. Lowered Biodiversity in Central Asia Marsel Nurbolotov Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 11/01/2021
  • 2. CRUCIAL PROBLEMS OF BIODIVERSITY IN CENTRAL ASIA  The species diversity of flora and fauna of the countries of Central Asia and their abundance are directly dependent on the state of the environment.  The active exploitation of biological objects for several decades has already exceeded the reproductive capabilities of nature, which has led to the degradation of the ecosystem and a significant reduction in the species composition. In some cases, these processes have become irreversible. Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 2 Key Ecosystem Communities 2019 Source: The Regional Environmental Centre for Central Asia (CAREC)
  • 3. CENTRAL ASIA AS A LARGELY ARID REGION Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 3 Source: World Development Indicators, data for 2010 Region consisting mainly of steppes, deserts and mountains Rural population of Central Asia %, total cover, 2010
  • 4. ISSUES OF ENDANGERED SPECIES AND LAND AREAS  The number of endangered species of animals and plants is growing. The uncontrolled procurement of medicinal and food raw materials has greatly reduced the stocks of such plant species as licorice, elecampane, ephedra and others.  The impoverishment of rural residents and the increase in the number of refugees are forcing them to cut down desert (saxaul) and floodplain forests (tugai) for fuel. Only in the floodplain of the Amu Darya river their area decreased from 150 thousand hectares (in 1928) to 22-23 thousand hectares (in 1993) Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 4 Water quality: Amu Darya River in Central Asia Source: Latest National State of the Environment reports and statistics (2010-2014)
  • 5. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY OF CENTRAL ASIA Loss of biodiversity in the region continues, mainly due to: • habitat destruction • over-exploitation of agricultural resources, environmental pollution (mining and energy development) • unregulated introduction of alien plants and animals Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 5 Relative importance of impacts on ecosystems and trends 2019 Source: The latest UNECE environmental performance reviews and expert interviews. This table was distributed at the Istanbul regional workshop on biodiversity (17-20 October 2011, Turkey)
  • 6. NATURAL AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA  Currently, there are 34 state reserves and 10 state national parks with a total area of 6.3 million hectares on the territory of the countries of Central Asia. In general, about 2.8% of the territory of these countries is classified as specially protected natural areas with various protection regimes.  In accordance with international recommendations, the share of intact natural landscapes required to ensure sustainable conservation of biodiversity and support vital ecological processes should be about 10% of the entire territory of the country. Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 6 Source: FAOSTAT (faostat.fao.org), data for 2010
  • 7. BIODIVERSITY LOSS PROCESS Despite the measures taken by the Governments of the Central Asian countries to preserve biological diversity, the process of its loss continues. • 221 species of animals and 287 higher plants are included in the Red Book of Kazakhstan; • Kyrgyzstan, on whose territory about 1% of the world's biodiversity lives, respectively, 68 and 65 species of animals and plants were introduced; • Tajikistan: 162 and 222 species; • Uzbekistan: 161 species and Turkmenistan 152 and 109 species that are also included in the CITES and Red lists IUCN Book. Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 7 Snow leopard It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because the global population is to decline about 10% by 2040 Saiga antelope Critically endangered antelope which during antiquity inhabited a vast area of the Eurasian steppe spanning the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains Source: The Regional Environmental Centre for Central Asia (CAREC)
  • 8. METHODS FOR SOLVING ISSUE Identify territories and biodiversity objects in the CA region that are subject to protection, develop and implement common strategies. Develop eco-networks of specially protected natural areas; Organize resource and ecological monitoring of forests and protected areas; Develop ecotourism and traditional crafts that contribute to the protection of biodiversity. Contribute to the implementation of the Asia-Pacific Strategy for the Conservation of Migratory Species and the Pan-European Strategy for the Conservation of Biological and Landscape Diversity. Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 8 Identification Development Conservation
  • 9. info@gwcnweb.org | http://gwcnweb.org Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network