Discovered 1863, head and arms never found but hand/fingers were in 1950, commissioned for a naval victory
The oldest, simplest, and most massive of the three Greek orders is the Doric, which was applied to temples beginning in the 7th century B.C. As shown in Figure 2, columns are placed close together and are often without bases. Their shafts are sculpted with concave curves called flutes. The capitals are plain with a rounded section at the bottom, known as the echinus, and a square at the top, called the abacus. The entablature has a distinctive frieze decorated with vertical channels, or triglyphs. In between the triglyphs are spaces, called metopes, which were commonly sculpted with figures and ornamentation. The frieze is separated from the architrave by a narrow band called the regula. Together, these elements formed a rectangular structure surrounded by a double row of columns that conveyed a bold unity. The Doric order reached its pinnacle of perfection in the Parthenon. Temple to Athena
The next order to be developed by the Greeks was the Ionic (see Figure 3). It is called Ionic because it developed in the Ionian islands in the 6th century B.C. Roman historian Vitruvius compared this delicate order to a female form, in contrast to the stockier "male" Doric order.The Ionic was used for smaller buildings and interiors. It's easy to recognize because of the two scrolls, called volutes, on its capital. The volutes may have been based on nautilus shells or animal horns.Between the volutes is a curved section that is often carved with oval decorations known as egg and dart. Above the capital, the entablature is narrower than the Doric, with a frieze containing a continuous band of sculpture. One of the earliest and most striking examples of the Ionic order is the tiny Temple to Athena Nike at the entrance to the Athens Acropolis. It was designed and built by Callicrates from about 448-421 B.C.
The third order is the Corinthian, which wasn't used much by the Greeks. It is named after the city of Corinth, where sculptor Callimachus supposedly invented it by at the end of the 5th century B.C. after he spotted a goblet surrounded by leaves. As shown in Figure 4, the Corinthian is similar to the Ionic order in its base, column, and entablature, but its capital is far more ornate, carved with two tiers of curly acanthus leaves. The oldest known Corinthian column stands inside the 5th-century temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae.
They would wear their art, and display art in their homes
Marcus Aurelius (April 26, 121 - March 17, 180) was the last of the five "good" emperors of Rome and a major Stoic philosopher.Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (born Marcus AnniusVerus) reigned from from A.D. 161-180. As Roman emperor, Marcus Aurelius followed Emperor Antoninus Pius (the husband of a paternal aunt of Marcus Aurelius) who had adopted Aurelius as heir. In 145, Marcus Aurelius married his cousin Faustina, the daughter of Antoninus Pius. Marcus Aurelius originally co-ruled with Lucius Aurelius Verus who commanded the eastern campaigns and died suddenly in 169.
Tarps that shielded fans from the elements, special coverings so people couldn’t fall
Greek and Roman Art
Focuses more on the IDEAL form Skilled painters Vase painting Invented the nude in art
Vase paintings told stories about Gods, heroes and wars. The earliest vase art was referred to as GEOMETRIC style because of it’s uses of geometric shape. Black-figure olpe (wine vessel) by the Amasis Painter, depiciting Herakles and Athena, circa 540 BC, Louvre.
Late Geometric pyxis, British Interior (tondo) of a red figureMuseum. kylix, depicting Herakles and Athena, by Phoinix (potter) and Douris (painter), circa 480-470 BC, Antikensammlungen Munich.
• Ideal form • Focus on athletic and intellectual strength • No longer stiff or static • Male nudes were more commonDiscobolos (The Discus Thrower) byMyron in the Museo NazionaleRomano, Rome
The WingedVictory ofSamothrace Nike of Samothracec. 220–190 BCParian marbleLouvre, Paris
Known primarily for temples and open air theatres Usually built on higher elevations Division of style into three defined orders, DORIC ORDER, IONIC ORDER, and CORINTHIAN ORDER.
• Oldest • Simplest • ParthenonParthenon, Temple to Athena
• Female version of the Doric• Developed in Ionian Islands• Temple to Athena
• Named after cityof Corinth• Used least bythe Greeks• Apollo Epicuriusat Bassae.
Architecture Painting Sculptures Mosaics Gem and Ivory etching Metal work
Had a high regard for Greek art, many times the Romans would copy their work or take original Greek pieces with them as the conquered other areas. Roman became less idealized & intellectual and more secular & functional This practical and innovative work produced bridges, sewers, roads & aqueducts.
Strong sense of political presence.CuirassStatue ofMarcusAurelius, Louvre
Columns and arches 50,000 capacity 144 ft tall, 4 stories 76 entrances plus 4 private entrances
Luxury resort community buried under 18 ft of ash from Mt Vesuvius Simple items such as a loaf of bread were found as well as complete villas. Paintings & mosaics discovered http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/roman s/pompeii_art_gallery.shtml