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A Media Frame and
Political Discourse Analysis of
the Lehman Shock in Japan
by Roddy McDougall
University of Edinburgh
Origins of the Crisis
Source: Mike Luckovich's Editorial Cartoons (2007)
The Lehman Shock
 Fallout from the US Subprime Mortgage Crisis
 Little exposure to subprime market in Japan, but
increas...
Japanese Media Coverage
 Unprecedented scale of the Lehman Shock generated a
vast amount of coverage
 Large readership /...
Questions to answer
1. What are the signifying elements of the media frames
used to represent the Lehman Shock?
2. Is ther...
Media & Power
(Fairclough 2015, Gans 2004, Gitlin 2003, Lukes 2005)
The flow of information:
Sources Journalists Audience
...
The Exercise of Power
(Lukes 2005)
 One Dimensional View
(Dahl 1957)
Observable Conflict
Decision-Making
“A has power ove...
The Exercise of Power
(Lukes 2005)
 One Dimensional View
(Dahl 1957)
 Two Dimensional View
(Bachrach & Baratz 1970)
Obse...
The Exercise of Power
(Lukes 2005)
 One Dimensional View
(Dahl 1957)
 Two Dimensional View
(Bachrach & Baratz 1970)
 Th...
Media Frames
(Entman 1993)
“Framing essentially involves selection and salience. To
frame is to select some aspects of a p...
Media Frames
(Entman 1993)
selection
salience
problem definition
causal interpretation
moral evaluation
treatment recommen...
Media Frame Analysis
(Kohring & Matthes 2002)
Kohring and Matthes’ method treats Media Frames as
clusters of subframe elem...
Fukushima Daiichi Analysis
(Masters Dissertation, McDougall 2013)
Kohring and Matthes’ method used to analyse initial
cove...
Fukushima Daiichi Analysis Results
 Doomsday Frame
highly pessimistic, risks and setbacks most salient (30%)
 Criticism ...
Political Discourse Analysis
(Fairclough & Fairclough 2012)
Explores the interaction between agency and structures and of ...
The structure of practical reasoning
(Fairclough & Fairclough 2012)
CIRCUMSTANCES (C)
Agent’s context of action.
Consists ...
The structure of practical reasoning
(Fairclough & Fairclough 2012)
GOAL (G)
Agent’s goal is a future
state of affairs whe...
Outcomes and Risks
Strengths
 Provide valuable data and analysis on
an important and contemporary issue in
Japanese socie...
A Media Frame and
Political Discourse Analysis of
the Lehman Shock in Japan
Email: s9464181@sms.ed.ac.uk
Roddy.McDougall@g...
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A Media Frame and Political Discourse Analysis of the Lehman Shock in Japan - BAJS version - no animations

  1. 1. A Media Frame and Political Discourse Analysis of the Lehman Shock in Japan by Roddy McDougall University of Edinburgh
  2. 2. Origins of the Crisis Source: Mike Luckovich's Editorial Cartoons (2007)
  3. 3. The Lehman Shock  Fallout from the US Subprime Mortgage Crisis  Little exposure to subprime market in Japan, but increased dependence upon exports  Fall in global demand and availability of credit results in drastic reduction of export sales  Ending 73-month period of growth, 5.5% fall in Real GDP1  Single largest drop in economic output since WW2 1Source: Cabinet Office of Japan (www.esri.cao.go.jp/en/sna/data/kakuhou/files/2013/27annual_report_e.html)
  4. 4. Japanese Media Coverage  Unprecedented scale of the Lehman Shock generated a vast amount of coverage  Large readership / subscription base (45m+ daily circulation)  High degree of trust in the mainstream press  Widely reported journalistic constraint through institutions such as kisha clubs (e.g. Freeman 2000)  Constraint of coverage constitutes a use of power
  5. 5. Questions to answer 1. What are the signifying elements of the media frames used to represent the Lehman Shock? 2. Is there an observable change in the use of these media frames over time? 3. What are the salient argumentative premises used within the framed articles? 4. How do these premises relate to those used within official policy discourse? 5. Is it possible to infer an ideological bias within the media from the analysis?
  6. 6. Media & Power (Fairclough 2015, Gans 2004, Gitlin 2003, Lukes 2005) The flow of information: Sources Journalists Audience “tugs of war” (Gans 2004) “implicitly contained within established media practices” (Fairclough 2015, 80) hidden power
  7. 7. The Exercise of Power (Lukes 2005)  One Dimensional View (Dahl 1957) Observable Conflict Decision-Making “A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would otherwise not do” (Dahl 1957, 201)
  8. 8. The Exercise of Power (Lukes 2005)  One Dimensional View (Dahl 1957)  Two Dimensional View (Bachrach & Baratz 1970) Observable Conflict Decision-Making Potential Conflict Nondecision-making Agenda Control
  9. 9. The Exercise of Power (Lukes 2005)  One Dimensional View (Dahl 1957)  Two Dimensional View (Bachrach & Baratz 1970)  Three Dimensional View (Lukes 1974) Observable Conflict Decision-Making Potential Conflict Nondecision-making Latent Conflict Naturalization Agenda Control Domination “power to mislead”
  10. 10. Media Frames (Entman 1993) “Framing essentially involves selection and salience. To frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation for the item described.”
  11. 11. Media Frames (Entman 1993) selection salience problem definition causal interpretation moral evaluation treatment recommendation Subframe elements
  12. 12. Media Frame Analysis (Kohring & Matthes 2002) Kohring and Matthes’ method treats Media Frames as clusters of subframe elements.  Allows Media Frames to naturally emerge from the data  Inhibits analyst subjectivity  Identified Media Frames are issue-specific and capable of evolving as the situation develops
  13. 13. Fukushima Daiichi Analysis (Masters Dissertation, McDougall 2013) Kohring and Matthes’ method used to analyse initial coverage of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.  Five distinct media frames emerge from the data  Clear evolution of their use over the sample period  Very similar frame usage by both Yomiuri and Asahi indicating homogenous coverage
  14. 14. Fukushima Daiichi Analysis Results  Doomsday Frame highly pessimistic, risks and setbacks most salient (30%)  Criticism of Nuclear Industry Frame public opinion of nuclear policy, ‘myth of safety’ criticised (23.75%)  Situation Under Control Frame repair efforts highlighted, risks and blame rarely discussed (18.75%)  Public Concern Frame health and environmental concerns, economic risks (17.5%)  Crisis Management Frame neutral frame concerned with developing events (10%)
  15. 15. Political Discourse Analysis (Fairclough & Fairclough 2012) Explores the interaction between agency and structures and of the relation between language and power.  Challenges the truth or acceptability of argumentative premises  Views premises as reasons for action  Suggests that the representation of the context of action is biased and serves a particular (power) interest
  16. 16. The structure of practical reasoning (Fairclough & Fairclough 2012) CIRCUMSTANCES (C) Agent’s context of action. Consists of natural facts and social/institutional facts. VALUES(V) Agent’s actual concerns or value commitments. MEANS-GOAL (M-G) Action A is the means that will (presumably) take the Agent from C to G in accordance with V. GOAL (G) Agent’s goal is a future state of affairs where the Agent’s value commitments are realized. CLAIM FOR ACTION Agent (presumably) ought to do Action A. The argument for Action A:
  17. 17. The structure of practical reasoning (Fairclough & Fairclough 2012) GOAL (G) Agent’s goal is a future state of affairs where the Agent’s value commitments are realized. CLAIM FOR ACTION Agent (presumably) ought to do Action A. The argument for Action A: Problem Definition Causal Interpretation Moral Evaluation Treatment Recommendation Synergy with sub-frame elements
  18. 18. Outcomes and Risks Strengths  Provide valuable data and analysis on an important and contemporary issue in Japanese society  Extend framing theory to include a critical component  Broaden the scope of communication research to include Japanese sources Weaknesses  Single analyst increases subjectivity risk  Linguistic component open to misinterpretation  Time-consuming analytical method Opportunities  Feed into conversations surrounding the role of the Japanese press  Explore an economic issue from a non- economic/social science standpoint Threats  Availability of source material  Limited timescale for analysis
  19. 19. A Media Frame and Political Discourse Analysis of the Lehman Shock in Japan Email: s9464181@sms.ed.ac.uk Roddy.McDougall@gmail.com

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