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LEAN SIX SIGMA CANVAS: A Universal Problem Solving (UPS) Worksheet for Lean Startup, Lean Six Sigma, and Business Model ReInvention Projects


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The Lean Six Sigma methodology is one of the most effective tools for solving problems that improve customer delight as well as significantly add to the bottom line. However, Lean Six Sigma is not easy to learn and apply. Moreover, Lean Six Sigma programs are expensive. In this presentation, the Lean Six Sigma Canvas is introduced as an interface that facilitates the application of the Lean Six Sigma methodology, which is driven by the DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control) Cycle. The Lean Six Sigma Canvas also facilitates integration of the Lean Six Sigma approach, which focuses on continuous quality improvement and waste reduction, with the Lean Startup method which focuses on continuous product innovation. The result is an all-in-one tool that can be used for cost effectively solving both tame (predictable) and wicked (unpredictable) problems.

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LEAN SIX SIGMA CANVAS: A Universal Problem Solving (UPS) Worksheet for Lean Startup, Lean Six Sigma, and Business Model ReInvention Projects

  1. Lean  Six  Sigma  Canvas:  Worksheet  for  Applying  the  DMAIC  Cycle  to  Projects   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   I:  Improve   D:  Define                   M:  Measure                   A:  Analyze              (-­‐)   (+)   C:  Control       Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  2. Eliminate   Reduce  *  Defects  (Varia?ons)   *  Cost  *  Waste   *  Errors;  Mistakes;  Rework;  Accidents  *  Delays   *  Wai?ng  Time;  Delivery  Cycle   What  You  Can  Do   Using   The  Lean  Six  Sigma  Canvas   (Projects)  Increase   Create                                                                              *  Quality                                                                    *  Improved  Processes  *  Performance                                                                    *  Products  *  Efficiency;  Produc?vity;  Reliability                                                                    *  Services  *  Sales                                                                    *  Supply  Chains  *  Validated  Learning                                                                    *  Business  Models                                                                      *  Strategies      Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  3. TRADE-­‐OFF  MAP  FOR  THE  LEAN  SIX  SIGMA  CANVAS   Resolve  the  Trade-­‐off  Between  Quality  and  Cost  (Waste)       Blue  Ocean:   Luxury  Spot:       Lean  Six  Sigma   Luxury  Spot   Six  Sigma   Canvas   Methodology   DisrupKon  Spot:     Disrupon  Spot   Lean  Startup   (+):  DELIGHT:     Method   Quality     (Performance)   Strategic   Choice  Key  Valuable    Not  Valuable   (-­‐):  PAIN:  Cost  (Waste;  Complexity;  Time)   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://    
  4. INTRODUCING     THE  UNIVERSAL  PROBLEM  SOLVING  (UPS)   CANVAS  A  One-­‐Page  Template  That  Unleashes  the  Ability  of  Humans  to  Solve  Problems  
  5. Welcome  to     A  Collaborave  Modeling  Technique     That    Unleashes  the  Ability  of  Humans  to  Solve  Problems:     Present,  Organize,  Evaluate,  and  Manage  Ideas     Using     Just  One  Tool    
  6. Welcome  to     The  Collaborave  Modeling  Technique     of     “CANVASING”     Which  Involves  Use     of    The  Universal  Problem  Solving  (UPS)  Canvas  
  7. THE  UNIVERSAL  PROBLEM  SOLVING  CANVAS   IS   A  LIFECYCLE  IDEAS  MANAGEMENT  (LIM)  TOOL:     The  Universal  Problem  Solving  (UPS)  Canvas   Is     A  One-­‐Page  Template  That  Can  Be  Used  For    Collabora?vely  Presen?ng,  Organizing,    Evalua?ng,  and  Managing  Ideas   During  the  Lifecycle  of  a  Business  or  Problem-­‐solving  Project  
  8. OUR  MISSION     Is     “To  Help  Promote     A  Culture  of  Universal  Problem  Solving,     Innovaon,  and  Management     Especially  in  Local  CommuniBes”  Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  9. HOW  TO  SYSTEMATICALLY  USE  THE  UNIVERSAL  PROBLEM  SOLVING  (UPS)  CANVAS   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   •  Print  out  a  large  template  of  the  Universal  Problem  Solving   (UPS)  Canvas,  e.g.,  a  size  of  24”x36”   1   •  Put  the  UPS  Canvas  on  a  wall  or  large  table   2   •  Populate  or  complete,  for  example  using  Post-­‐it  notes,           the  5  areas  of  the  UPS  Canvas   3  Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  10. GALLERY  OF   GENERIC  CANVASES  Visually  Summarize,  Present,  and  Use  Problem  Solving  Methodologies   for  Maximizing  Customer  Delight  and  Minimizing  Customer  Pain  
  11. The  World’s  Greatest  Innovators     And     Youngest  Children     All  Solve  Problems  Using  One  Template:    The  Universal  Problem  Solving  (UPS)  Canvas  
  12. Universal  Problem  Solving  (UPS)  Canvas   Universal  Problem-­‐Solving  Cycle,  Workflow,  Language  and  PlaOorm  for  Maximizing  Customer  Delight  and  Minimizing  Customer  Pain  (-­‐)   (+)   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  13. Universal  Problem  Solving  (UPS)  Canvas:  The  5  Areas  of  Universal  Problem  Solving   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain  (-­‐)   (+)   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  14. Project  Management  Canvas:  The  5  Phases  of  a  Project  Management  Cycle   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Execu?on   Solu?on-­‐ Problem  Discovery  &  Valida?on   (ImplementaBon)   Planning                                                                            (-­‐)   (+)   Evalua?on   (Control)     Learning   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  15. Seven-­‐Ques?on  Canvas  for  Pitching,  Organizing,  EvaluaKng,  and  Managing  Ideas  in  Any  Project   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   How?   What?   Who?                             Where?                             When?                     (-­‐)   (+)   How  Much?   Why?   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  16. DNA  Canvas  for  Designing  a  System  for  Any  Product,  Service,  or  OrganizaKon   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   D:  Design   N:  Need                                                      (-­‐)   (+)   A:  AspiraKons   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  17. GALLERY  OF   METHOD-­‐SPECIFIC  CANVASES  Visually  Summarize,  Present,  and  Use  Problem  Solving  Methodologies   for  Maximizing  Customer  Delight  and  Minimizing  Customer  Pain  
  18. canvas  [kan-­‐vuhs]    Noun  q   a  piece  of  closely  woven  cloth  on  which  painKng  is  made    q   a  holisKc  problem-­‐solving  cycle,  journey,  or  dashboard  (New)    Example:  “business  model  canvas”;  “personal  development  canvas”;  “USA  canvas”        Verb  q   p.o.e.m.:  present,  organize,  evaluate,  and  model  ideas              especially  using  a  Universal  Problem  Solving  (UPS)  Canvas  (New)    Example:  “canvas  a  system,  business,  or  project”  
  19. canvaser  [kan-­‐vuhs-­‐er]    Noun  (New)  q   a  person  or  team  who  holisKcally  covers  objects    q   a  person  or  team  who  uses  the  Universal  Problem  Solving  (UPS)              Canvas    Example:  “Christo  is  a  canvaser,  an  arBst  who  canvases  the  uncanvasable”        
  20. “CANVAS”  ANY  PROBLEM  SOLVING  TOOL,  METHODOLOGY,   DOCUMENT  (PLAN),   OR   PROJECT  (TASK;  JOB  TO  BE  DONE)   Ideas   Problems   SoluKons   Products   Documents   Business   Business   Business   Plans   Models   THINGS  THAT  YOU  CAN  CANVAS   Ecosystems   Strategies   Personal   Objects/   People   Places   Projects   Development  Plans   Systems  
  21. 10  PROBLEMS  FACED  BY  EVERY  ENTREPRENEUR,  STARTUP,  AND  ESTABLISHED  ORGANIZATION   Why  Some  OrganizaKons  Fail  While  Others  Succeed  1.  Idea  Genera?on  Problems  2.  Business/Organiza?onal  Planning  Problems  3.  Value  Proposi?on  &  Strategy  Problems  4.  Business  Execu?on/Performance  Problems  5.  Product  Innova?on  and  Improvement  Problems  6.  Waste  Elimina?on/Cost  Reduc?on  Problems  7.  Business  Model  and  Ecosystem  Problems  8.  Process  Problems  9.  Supply  Chain  Problems  10.  Marke?ng  &  Sale/Customer  Problems  Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  22. ONE-­‐PAGE  PROBLEM  SOLVING  TOOLS  (CANVASES)  FOR  BUSINESS  LIFECYCLE   Overview  of  Jobs-­‐To-­‐Be-­‐Done  for  ConKnuously  Maximizing  Customer  Delight  and  Minimizing  Customer  Pain   Generate  Novel  (Product/ Create  Business/Organiza?onal   Create  Value  Proposi?on  &   Business)  Ideas   Plan   Strategy   ONE-­‐PAGE   PROBLEM  SOLVING  TOOLS   ConKnuously  Innovate/Improve   Manage  Business  Strategy  &   (CANVASES)   on  Product/Customer  Delight   Performance   FOR     BUSINESS  LIFECYCLE   ConKnuously  Reduce  Waste     Jobs-­‐To-­‐Be-­‐Done     Document  and  Analyze  Process       Plan  and  Manage  Holis?c   Document  and  ReInvent  Business     Marke?ng   Model   Document  and  Analyze  Supply     Chain      Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  23. Generate  Novel  (Product/Business)  Ideas  
  24. Brainstorming  Canvas   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Generated  Ideas   Situa?on/Context/Challenge/Ques?on                                                      (-­‐)   (+)   Evalua?on     Based  on  Alex  Osborn’s  technique  of  Brainstorming   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  25. Lean  Startup  Game  (LSG)  Canvas   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Product/Service   Generated  Ideas   Situa?on/Context/Challenge/Ques?on                                                         (Minimum  Viable  Product/       Landing  Page/     Mock-­‐up/Prototype/     Pilot  (DraX)  SoluBon/       Complete  SoluBon      (-­‐)   (+)   EvaluaKon     Based  on  Alex  Osborn’s  technique  of  Brainstorming  and  Eric  Ries’s  book,  “The  Lean  Startup”   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  26. SCAMPERR  Crea?vity  Canvas  for  GeneraKng  and  Improving  Ideas   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Generated  Ideas   Situa?on/Context/Challenge/Ques?on           Principle     q  SubsKtute     q  Combine     q  Add  (Adapt)     q  Modify     q  Put  to  other     use     q  Eliminate     q  Reverse     q  Rearrange        (-­‐)   (+)   Based  on  Bob  Eberle’s  technique  of  SCAMPER  Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  27. Lateral  Thinking  Canvas  for  Thinking  Different   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Generated  Ideas   Situa?on/Context/Challenge/Ques?on     (ExisBng;  Status  Quo;  “As  Is”)   Techniques     q  ProvocaKon     q  Random     Objects     q  Concept  Fan     q  Essence     q  PMI     q  Challenge     q  Six  Thinking     Hats     q  Parallel     Thinking    (-­‐)   (+)   Based  on  Edward  de  Bono’s  Methodology  of  Lateral  Thinking   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  28. Brand  Disrup?on  Canvas  for  CreaKng  DisrupKve  Ideas,  Products,  and  Brands   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Disrup?on   Conven?on   (“To  Be”/Future)   (“As  Is”/Present)                         Vision                          (-­‐)   (+)   Based  on  Jean-­‐Marie  Dru’s  book,  “DisrupKon”   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  29. Value  Factors  Canvas   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain  (-­‐)   Pain  Factors   Delight  Factors   q  Cost  (Price)   (+)   q  Revenue  (Sale);  Profit;  Reward   q  Complexity   q  FuncKonality;  VersaKlity   q  Inaccessibility   q  Performance   q  Unavailability   (Trade-­‐off)   q  Quality   q  Inconvenience   q  Brand  (Status;  Aura)/Novelty/Newness/DifferenKaKon   q  Time  (Delay)   q  InteracKvity   q  Risk   q  CustomizaKon   Value   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  30. Empathy  Map  Canvas:  Worksheet  for  Understanding  and  Designing  Customer  Experience   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Customer       Thinking     &   Feeling     Hearing   Seeing       Persona           Saying   &     Doing      (-­‐)   Pain   (+)   Gain   q  FrustraKons   q  AspiraKons   q  Obstacles/Constraints   q  Needs/Wants   q  Fear/Uncertainty/Doubt   q  Goals/ObjecKves/Strategies/TacKcs   q  Risks   (Trade-­‐off)   q  Success  Criteria  (Rewards)   Based  on  Xplane’s  Empathy  Map:     Adapted  by  Dr.  Rod  King.  rodkuhnhking@gmail.comt  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  31. Disadvantages-­‐Advantages  Canvas   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain  (-­‐)   Disadvantages   (+)   Advantages                   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  32. Force  Field  Canvas   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain  (-­‐)   Forces  Against   (+)   Forces  For                   Based  on  Kurt  Lewin’s  technique  of  Force_Field  Analysis   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  33. SWOT  Analysis  Canvas   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain  (-­‐)   W:  Weaknesses   (+)   S:  Strengths           T:  Threats   O:  OpportuniKes           Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  34. TRIZ  Canvas   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Generic  Solu?on   Generic  Problem     (Dilemma)                   Specific  Solu?on   Specific  Problem     (ContradicBon;  Trade-­‐off)                  (-­‐)   Harmful  Effect  (Weakness;  Disadvantage)   (+)   Useful  Effect  (Strength;  Advantage)             (ContradicKon/       Trade-­‐off)         Ideal  Final  Result  (Ideality):  Zero  Trade-­‐off   Based  on  Genrich  Altschuller’s  Methodology  of  TRIZ  (“Theory  of  InvenBve  Problem  Solving”)   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  35. Create  Business/Organiza?onal  Plan  
  36. Business  Plan  Canvas:  Worksheet   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Goals       Objec?ves       Strategies       Targets      (-­‐)   Cost   (+)   Revenue                   Mission/Vision   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  37. Triple  Borom  Line  Canvas:  Worksheet  for  Financial,  Social,  and  Environmental  Viability   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Goals       Objec?ves       Strategies       Targets      (-­‐)   Pain  (Cost;  Disadvantages)   (+)   Delight  (Benefit;  Advantages)             q  Financial       q  Social     q  Environ.   Shared  Value/Mission/Vision   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  38. Discovery-­‐Driven  Plan  Canvas:  Worksheet  for  Managing  Highly  Risky  Projects  in  Business   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Objec?ves   Consump?on   Customer  Segment   Chain   (Market)   Marke?ng       Strategy       Opera?ng       Specifica?ons         Unit  of  Business   Compe??on     No.  of  Units   (Industry     Benchmarks)     Milestones       (Deliverables)       Assump?ons            (-­‐)   Cost   (+)   Revenue             Key  Metrics         Success  Criteria  (ROI;  Profit;  Purpose;  Validated  Learning)   Based  on  Rita  McGrath  and  Ian  MacMillan’s  book,  “Discovery-­‐Driven  Growth”   Adapted  by  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  39. “Gesng  to  Plan  B”  Canvas:  Worksheet  for  Managing  “Pivots”  in  Business  Projects   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Product/Service/Organiza?on   Leaps  of  Faith   Channel/   Customer  Segment     (QuesBons/   CRM   (Market)     AssumpBons)                                     Hypotheses   Environment       (Falsifiable  Results)   (Industry)                 q  Analogs                 q  AnKlogs              (-­‐)   Pain  (Cost)   (+)   Delight  (Revenue)       q  Opera?ng  Model   q  Revenue  Model     Key  Metrics     q  Investment  Model   q  Working  Capital  Model     Success  Criteria  (Gross  Margin  Model;  Vision;  Grand  Leap  of  Faith;  IPO;  Profit;  Findings;  Insights)   Based  on  John  Mullins  &  Randy  Komisar’s  book,  “Geqng  to  Plan  B”   Adapted  by  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  40. Create  Value  Proposi?on  &  Strategy  
  41. Strategic  Organiza?onal  Development  Canvas:  Worksheet  for  Value  ProposiKon   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Product   Value  Proposi?on   Customers                                           (Minimum  Viable  Product/     Top  3  Features   Top  3  P  roblems   Landing  Page/     (Product/Service)       Mock-­‐up/Prototype/                   Pilot  (DraX)  SoluBon/           Complete  SoluBon            (-­‐)   Pain  (Cost)   (+)   Delight  (DifferenKaKon;  Revenue)                   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  42. Value  Net  Canvas:  Worksheet  for  CreaKng  CoopeKKon  Strategy   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Suppliers   Complementors   Customers                       COMPANY                                   Compe?tors       (SubsKtutors)                (-­‐)   (+)   Based  on  Adam  Brandenburger  and  Barry  Nalebuff’s  book,  “Co-­‐opeKKon”   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  43. Industry  Arrac?veness  Canvas:  Worksheet  for  CreaKng  CompeKKve  Advantage  Strategy   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Bargaining  Power   Threat  of   Bargaining  Power   Of   New  Entrants     Of   Suppliers     Customers                   INDUSTRY     RIVALRY                   Threat  of       Subs?tute       Products          (-­‐)   Cost   (+)   Differen?a?on             Trade-­‐off       (Strategy)     INDUSTRY  ATTRACTIVENESS  (Margin;  CompeKKve  Advantage)   Based  on  Michael  Porter’s  book,  “CompeKKve  Strategy”   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  44. Blue  Ocean  Strategy  Canvas:  Worksheet  for  CreaKng  Blue  Ocean  Strategy   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Blue  Ocean   Red  Ocean   (“To  Be”  Industry:   (“As  Is”  Industry:   Value  Factors)     Value  Factors/Strategy  Canvas)       Goals/Objec?ves     (Value  ProposiKon)       Strategy  (Canvas)     Value  InnovaKon         Tac?cs/4  Ac?ons     q  Eliminate     q  Reduce     q  Increase     q  Create  (-­‐)   Cost   (+)   Value  (DifferenKaKon;  Revenue)                   BLUE  OCEAN:  Uncontested  Market  Space  Where  CompeBtors  Are  Irrelevant   Based  on  W.  Chan  Kim  and  Renee  Mauborgne’s  book,  “Blue  Ocean  Strategy”   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  45. Value  Chain  Canvas:  Worksheet  for  DocumenKng  and  Analyzing  Value  Chain   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Inbound   Opera?ons   Outbound   Service   Logis?cs     Logis?cs                           Procurement   Marke?ng  &         Sales       Human  Resource         Management                 Technology         Development                 Firm  Infrastructure      (-­‐)  Cost     (+)  Revenue   PROFIT  MARGIN   Based  on  Michael  Porter’s  book,  “CompeKKve  Advantage”   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  46. Manage  Business  Strategy  &  Performance  
  47. Balanced  Scorecard  Canvas:  Worksheet  of  4  PerspecKves  for  Performance  Management   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Process   Customer                         Learning  &  Growth                            (-­‐)   (+)   Financial       Based  on  Robert  Kaplan  and  David  Norton’s  book,  “The  Balanced  Scorecard”  Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  48. ConKnuously  Innovate  on  Product  
  49. Lean  Startup  Cycle  Canvas:  Build-­‐Measure-­‐Learn  Feedback  Loop  for  ConKnuous  InnovaKon   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Product   Ideas   Customer  Problem  Discovery  &  ValidaKon       (Customer  Development:         “Get  Out  Of  the  Building”  or  “OrganizaBon”)                                                                     (-­‐)   (+)   Data       Based  on  Eric  Ries’s  book,  “The  Lean  Startup”   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://  
  50. Document  &  ReInvent  Business  Model  
  51. Four-­‐Box  Business  Model  Canvas:  Worksheet  for  Business  Model  DocumentaKon  &  InnovaKon   ConKnuously  Maximize  Customer  Delight  and  Minimize  Customer  Pain   Key  Processes   Customer       Value  Proposi?on                     Key  Resources                             (-­‐)   (+)   Profit  Formula   Based  on  Mark  Johnson’s  book,  “Seizing  the  White  Space”   Copyright  2013.  Dr.  Rod  King.  &  h=p://  &  h=p://