Shooting Video for the Web


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  • My name is Matt Howard, and I am director of the Chicago Media Initiatives Group. My academic training is in the humanities, and I worked as an acquisitions editor in the social sciences for a number of years before working for several educational startup companies, where I gained skills in online learning and Web production. RENEE And my name is Renee Basick, I am Senior Producer of the Chicago Media Initiatives Group. My background was in broadcast journalism and new media. I began working in Higher Education at the University of Illinois at Chicago with a group that provided multimedia and distance education services to universities and federal agencies and then came to the University of Chicago and have been a part of the development of our office here. Our office, the Chicago Media Initiatives Group, was started as an exploratory group in 2003, with the goal of contributing to the public outreach and external communications efforts of the University—such as community relations, communications that are part of sponsored research, educational projects. Our history was somewhat organic. The University had participated in Fathom, a consortium of universities and research institutions working together on distance learning, run out of Columbia University, and when Columbia pulled the plug on the program, The University decided to reallocate funds reserved for Fathom on creating value internally. We realized that there was an opportunity to focus on external communications and outreach—especially intersecting with sponsored research—and we started to organize around this. We happened to have a student working for us who was particular adept with video, and we decided to pursue audio and video production as a project. This led us to hire Renee Basick, who has deep experience in AV production and new media journalism, to round out our office. Today, our office follows an interesting model. Along with Renee and myself, we have hired 8 student filmmakers to work for us. I’ll talk a bit more about this later on in the presentation, but one thing that is key for us is that we place a high level of trust and responsibility on our student documentarians, and they in turn work very hard to deliver a high-quality production quickly. We have a very small budget from our Provost, but now bring in considerable amount of revenue from our consulting work and video production work for other campus groups. This said, on a high level, we actively seek out opportunities to integrate audio and video into traditional communications mix in order to create strategic value for different campus groups. Also, I should take a moment here to underscore that we are not part of the instructional arm of the university. Our focus is on communications, and that will be the focus of this webinar today. For those of you who do not know much about our environment, the University of Chicago is a decentralized institution, with 4 divisions, 6 professional schools, and countless departments, centers, and committees—each with its own communications office. This said, a lot of the work we do is to educate our internal clients on the possibilities and value in investing in a new media broadcast.
  • When we started our group, and even today, the phone will ring and it will be someone on campus asking to record an event or a lecture. When we ask, who is the intended audience for the recording and how do you want to reach them (e.g., Web, DVD, part of a podcast series) we are often met with confusion: "Oh, we just thought it would be good to record." Folks typically don't think that far ahead. And, as is the case at the university, tapes of events sit in shoeboxes under desks for years until the value they originally had—as a communications tool--has decreased. This is why, today, we are going to walk through a marketing / communications approach to audio and video communications. For some of you, who already do marketing work, this may seem basic. Just stick with us, and we will get to the more meaty technical aspects of shooting video. For those of you who have backgrounds in shooting video, however, this might give you a different framework for how and when to shoot. Regardless, our goal is to help you make decisions about when and why and how to integrate audio and video communications into your larger communications program. On the slide you can see the areas we intend to cover and I need not read them for you. On a broad sense, I want to emphasize that my goal for this webinar is to also cover how to: Align communications to constituent needs and to enable behavioral change Produce audio and video programming to create strategic value (on a limited budget) Establish distribution vehicles and networks Develop measurable communication strategies to achieve organizational goals These are goals we have for our office, ongoing goals, and we hope that our experience experimenting in these areas will provide you with some ideas and best practices when you begin your own productions.
  • In this section, I am going to cover some of the different audio and video communications approaches you can take. The first two are my favorite ones, as they require the most attention to crafting a message and telling a good story. Our Research at Chicago videos are examples of both promotional videos and video news releases, and I’ll talk a little bit about them. I mentioned that my office hires students to do a lot of recording on campus, and this has allowed us to begin to offer event recordings to a host of university clients. I’ll talk about when and how to podcast and to video podcast—or vodcast—in this section and also later on in the presentation. Finally, we’ll cover how to strategically cover our bases and to recover some costs by multi-purposing content.
  • Early on in our group’s history, our VP for Research came to us and asked whether we could help tell the story of the University of Chicago’s history of research. Instead of shooting a single video that shows a general history, we decided to tell smaller stories of research programs—across all of our divisions and schools—using a documentary short subject approach. Some of you have already watched our video of Neil Shubin’s discovery of Tiktaalik—the fish that evolved to crawl out of the sea. This tells a specific story about a discovery, but also contributes to tell a story of a research institution writ large. For the sake of this webinar, I will place our research videos under this category of promotional video—though they are really more of a public relations vehicle. At any rate, here are some guidelines in producing these: READ FROM SCREEN. For general promotional videos: MIT Sloan produced a video called “A Day in the Life of a Sloanie” that is really quite wonderful. The promotional video captured a particular essence of student life, and was not your typical promo with lots of shots of buildings and trees and a older voice over. This said, your promotion video will require significant shooting and editing talent. The better ones reveal something unique about the institution--a set of values that differentiates this institution from the rest. Increasingly, having stakeholders--in this case students--produce their own videos has the effect of providing you with a final product that may better speak to prospective students (who better to communicate about student life than students) as well as may reveal aspects about your “brand” that you did not see perhaps as clearly. Your stakeholders—after all—are the ones in control of your brand reputation (not yourself). Further, it involves your own stakeholders in the process of telling the story of their institution--they are, in many respects, the makers of your brand. BUDGET… we estimate that it costs us anywhere from $2000 to $5000 for each of our Research at Chicago videos—the majority of that time is spent in scripting and editing the video. The Power of Participation video that we sent you probably cost us about $500 to create. Renee would you agree with that? However, if you are planning on having an external group come in and shoot your University’s promotion
  • There is Tiktaalik! He’s adorable. We love him around here. Video News Releases are typically 90 seconds in length. The target audience is the general public through the medium of local television news (e.g., ABC affiliaes). Groups, such as ScienCentral, often work with Universities to create and distribute such news releases. In the case of Tiktaalik--Neil Shubin’s discover of the first tetrapod to walk out of water--we had six months to consider and plan our media strategy before the discovery was made public. This allowed us to interview Shubin and to shoot much b-roll that could be used by the media as well--these were provided during our press conference to members of the media on DV tape, as well as on a password protected area of a Web site. We provided both clips around specific questions, b-roll sequences, as well as our own edited 90 second spot. ITV in the UK, for example, used several of our clips in producing their own news story when the model of Tiktaalik travelled to a London Natural History Museum. Shooting for this took two hours in total, 1 hour of scripting, 30 minutes of voice over, and 1-2 hours editing. This are typically done quickly, following the inverted pyramid structure (telling the most important information first).
  • Event recordings, if we consider the communications stages--awareness, credibility, interest, preference, selection, loyalty--fit well into several categories. Primarily, though, you can see how they would build credibility and interest, as well as have the ability to provide additional value through loyalty. I will talk more about this at the end of the presentation, but event recordings provide an opportunity to reach out more broadly from your institution through multiple venues--such as video on demand on the originating Web site, public access or public television / radio, as well as any other distribution networks that you can negotiate as part of your institutional reach. I see event recordings often as broad communications with less measurable outcomes (e.g., these are not persuasive pieces intended to change perceptions or behaviors of your stakeholders). However, as is often the case in competitive spaces, the service you are providing your communities (local, regional, alumni, students), and the company you keep in the media, will help to strengthen your brand recognition. For example, we often repurpose our audio and video recordings from our International Studies program, and our poetry series, in audio form on our public radio station. As well, we provide them on campus television, public access stations, and online. Doing so is a low-cost opportunity, as these types of content relationships are free. For a budget for recording, at Chicago we can handle a simple event recording and turn it over to our clients for posting to the Web for about $250….this includes our overhead, equipment costs, time to do a basic edit. The longer editing takes, the more it will cost you. Editing, by far, is the most time consuming part of the job and thus is the most expensive.
  • Another method of delivering value to a particular audience is through podcasting. I will talk specifically about this later in the presentation. However the key thing to consider is that this vehicle is for regular communications and is focussed on a particular stakeholder group (e.g., around a topic, such as scientific research). READ from screen. We offer our Research at Chicago videos and a poetry series called Poem Present as podcasts.
  • Renee will be talking with you in a few minutes about how to establish an audio / video recording office--on a very limited budget. To that end, I want to reiterate that one way we are able to keep our costs very low is to shoot with an eye toward multiple end products--tailored for different strategic audience groups. For example, while we shoot our Research at Chicago videos--we often use that opportunity to sit with a researcher to ask him about other topics for which we are currently working (e.g., teaching, quality of students). A good example is the Tiktaalik project. We shot a video news release, and during the b-roll session—shooting background footage—we met and talked with the fossil preparator. Knowing that we have a relationship through the Chicago Public Schools through another group on campus, we decided to interview him as well about the process of making models--this time for a middle-high school audience. The resulting video product took longer to edit--but we did not have to shoot this subject twice. We sent out Building Tiktaalik to you as well, and this should give you an example of how you might be able to create value on the fly—or at least to think strategically when you are shooting. One thing we do with our students, especially when we have a lull in work and when the weather is amazing, is set up a B-Roll day. We sent out our teams to go out and shoot campus scenes—following some guidance, such as busy campus shots, students studying, shots of the architecture, lab activity, the quads—and then when we are in a pitch (especially in the deep midwinter) we have great footage available that we are able to use. The students love it, and we benefit by having terrific material to draw from in the future. Here I am going to stop talking for awhile and hand the presentation over to Renee Basick. As I mentioned, Renee is our resident expert on audio and video production. Renee…
  • Thanks Matt. One of the ways we have managed to produce very high-quality video under such extreme budget and staffing restraints is through planning. We make very good use of resources by anticipating using media for multiple delivery methods, as you have already mentioned. I’m going to outline some of the things that have streamlined our operation: Multi-purposing media: You can save time and money by anticipating all the modes of delivery ahead of time. There are significant differences between online and broadcast delivery and this can influence how you shoot, edit and definitely how you compress. For web delivery, you will most likely compress for screen sizes between 320x240 and 480x360. This is pretty small. There are some techniques for shooting that will help video translate well for such a small screen. To get professional-looking video that can be easily multi-purposed, every aspect of the shooting, editing and compression process should be handled with care. A little extra effort at the beginning will have huge payout later on. So, let’s start at the beginning. multi-purposing your content.
  • Online distribution is probably the most prevalent mode, however, as your audience increases and perhaps changes, you will need to think about how to best re-purpose media you have already created for these new constituents. The biggest factor will always be quality—what resolution do you need to deliver based on how your audience will receive and view your media. Online video can stream (albeit poorly) at 100kbps. HD video requires something like 25mbps. The max data transfer on a DVD is only 10mbps, but with advent of Blu-ray disc and HD DVD formats (with a max data rate of 36mbps), there is the opportunity to realistically deliver beautiful, HD content to users. While you may not be ready for that quite yet, there is an entire spectrum between online streaming and HD that are feasible in the short term. The important thing to remember is that we are close to widespread adoption of HD and when this happens, anything shot in SD is going to look like VHS did when we started shooting DV. This is why I push the “scale-down, not up” mantra. If you start with as high-quality media as possible, it’s easy to compress lower. But you can’t ever make media better than what you start with. We’ll talk debate SD vs. HD a bit later on, for now, I want to address the primary differences between web delivery and broadcast.
  • Broadcast video is uncompressed before it hits the airwaves, which means there aren’t concerns as to potential quality degradation, except in terms of broadcast-safe levels, but that’s a technical issue unrelated to compression. For the most part, what you put in, is what you get out. Not so with web compression…as you probably know. Because compression software works by applying an algorithm to pixels to determine changes between frames, the less movement on camera, the cleaner the video output. Bandwidth can then be focused on areas of the screen that are moving, say like a person’s face while they talk and not on unimportant elements like backgrounds. This has usually meant that in order to achieve clean compression you: Shoot differently: Static, framed closely Edit differently: Clean cuts, no graphic wipes Think differently: Plain backgrounds, no extraneous movement However, as bandwidth increases, there is more room to play. This is not to say, that following some of the old guidelines won’t still produce lighter weight, cleaner video. But there is far more room for compromise than there used to be.
  • Better codecs + increased bandwidth = More people can see higher quality video. A codec is the compression algorithm used by compression software—more on this later. So now, it is possible to create high-quality, visually compelling content that most people can access on their home connections. Furthermore, it is also possible to deliver multiple data rates for slower connections. This really is the perfect opportunity to create one video that can be used for a wide range of applications.
  • There are still some things to think about though, when shooting for both broadcast and web. In most cases, there less restrictions on web video than on broadcast, which means you still have to hedge creatively. Aspect ratio Solution: Center cut video Broadcast safe levels: This is crucial…you know those badly produced, low budget commercials you see on local stations late at night? Often there is a strange buzz? That’s because when colors and brightness exceed “safe-levels” it bleeds into the audio channel, creating noise. This doesn’t happen with web video so you can really play around with both chroma and luminance. In most editing programs, like Final Cut Pro, there is a simple filter you can apply to footage that restricts luminance and chrominance to levels appropriate for tv. (Just be sure it’s the last filter you apply because effects are cumulative and hence, order makes a difference.) Title and action safe areas: Because TVs are not standard, parts of the frame can be truncated, especially on older models. In order to prevent losing important visual information, use action-safe and title-safe guides when editing. This ensures that no matter what, important movement and graphics, titling doesn’t fall off the edge of the screen. The guides for action are 15% from the edge and for graphics, 30%. These are standards created by various video/tv associations globally. Most editing and graphics software allows you to turn on title and action-safe overlays to use as guidelines. Again, following this rule, even when editing with the intent to deliver only via the web, will ensure that if you decide in the future to broadcast the piece, you won’t have to re-edit.
  • So back to quality again. The golden rule of video production: You have to shoot good video to deliver good video. In theory, shooting HD will provide you with the widest range of output possibilities. For almost all modes of distribution (except broadcast), you will need to compress video at varying degrees. Good video in = good video out and vice versa. This will save money in the long run since you won’t have to reshoot for different applications. This leads us to the big question...should you be shooting HD?
  • The short answer is yes. And the case I am going to make for it, to use popular jargon, is to “future-proof” your media. The analog “switch-off” of broadcast signals in the U.S. will be February 17, 2009, as mandated by legislation passed by Congress earlier this year. Pure digital signals open the door for HD to become the new standard definition, with Ultra-High Def becoming the new HD. And while you may only have web ambitions right now, limiting yourself to one distribution method drastically limits your potential return on investment. If you are going to spend the money to produce it, you should want to get the most bang for your buck. (Source: With 61-68% of US internet users connecting via broadband, most users expect high quality and no wait. (Source: HDTV requires bandwidth of 18-20Mbps using conventional mpeg-2 compression. This is obviously a problem considering DSL putters along at about 1.5-3Mbps and cable and 5Mbps. New codecs (Mp4/H.264) coupled with advanced player software (Matrixstream, for example) can deliver DVD-quality video at 1.5Mbps and HD at 2.5Mbps. (Source: Of course, mpeg-2 is a lossy compression, meaning that by nature some data is tossed. Whether or not the loss is perceptible remains to be seen.
  • That extra $2,000 will quickly earn itself back in savings. Not needing tapes is small factor—the real savings are two-fold: Hours of additional productive time gained because your editing station will no longer be occupied for real-time capture. Your media instantly becomes viable for a variety of additional modes of delivery (now and in the future). AND…HD cameras can also shoot SD and on miniDV—so if you really want to shoot standard-def on tape, you can. PLUS…A slew of consumer-level HD cameras are being released this fall/winter. So get ready, everyone will be shooting HD. Just to be competitive, you will have to join the crowd.
  • Just to get started, there are some basic equipment necessities. Camera, tripod, microphone, etc. On the left, this list represents the bare minimum you will need to operate a functional video production unit. This is how we started out. One camera, one tripod, a basic wireless microphone set-up, a cheap 3-stand light kit, headphones, a mac, Final Cut Pro, and while you may not think it a necessity, a neat little thing called WarmCards that can make a HUGE difference in how your video looks and how much time you will spend in post color-correcting. WarmCards are used to white-balance your camera. Since fluorescent light tends to add green to the visual spectrum, WarmCards come with a very light green card that, when you tell the camera that it is white, will optically subtract some green, leaving you with a warmer image. There is also a range of blue cards for various other lighting situations. Now, what tends to happen is that the items that you consider luxury at the beginning, eventually become necessities. As the complexity of shoots and you production values increase, you will find it hard to live without a field mixer that can accommodate multiple mics, a deck for capturing and printing to tape (which alleviates wear and tear on your very sensitive camera-heads), external drives for the abundance of dv footage you will need to store, and perhaps a dolly for following movement. But like I said, at least in the beginning, these are things you can live without.
  • How much money do you need to get started? Well, you can do it for around $8,500. BUT, there are reasons why you may want to pick and choose between the two lists. Especially, when it comes to the camera you choose. For example, it’s worth putting the extra $ into an HD camera and then skimping on some other things. For about $13,500, you can get the higher end of just about everything you need, and have plenty of room to grow into it. Also, keep in mind: Almost all software and equipment distributors offer academic discounts. For software, the savings are CONSIDERABLE. Panasonic DVX100 Cartoni Action-Pro Tripod (AP11 Fluid Head with ball leveler, 75mm) Audio-Technica wireless mic ( ATWU101899 Camera Mountable UHF Diversity Lavalier System with ATWT101 Transmitter, ATWR100 Receiver and AT899cT5 Microphone ) Sony studio headphones ( MDR-7502 Supra-Aural Closed-Back Professional Monitor Headphone ) Smith-Victor Light kit ( K6RC Home Portrait Tungsten Lighting Kit - consists of: 2 910UL 10" Adapta Lights 500W, 1 A5 5" Adapta Light 250W, 3 Lamps, 3 Stands and Light Cart on Wheels - 1250 Total Watts ) Vortex Media WarmCards Original pack & optional +PlusPack cards (inlcudes warm ½ and minus green) Apple Mac pro Two 2.66GHz Dual-Core Intel Xeon "Woodcrest" processors 4MB shared L2 cache per processor 1.33GHz dual independent frontside buses 1GB memory (667MHz DDR2 fully-buffered DIMM ECC) NVIDIA GeForce 7300 GT graphics with 256MB memory 250GB Serial ATA 3Gb/s 7200-rpm hard drive1 16x double-layer SuperDrive (DVD+R DL/DVD±RW/CD-RW) 20” flat panel display Final Cut Studio: Inlcudes Motion, DVD Studio pro, and Soundtrack Pro, and Final Cut Pro. Sorenson Squeeze Panasonic HVX200 Bogen/Manfrotto Tripod & dolly $875. Bogen/Manfrotto leveling head $61.10 Audio-Technica wireless mic $560.75 Sony studio headphones ( MDR-7505 Supra-Aural Closed-Back Professional Monitor Headphone with Swivel Cups for Off-Ear Monitoring ) Arri light kit (3) ( Softbank D1 Tungsten 3 Light Kit - consists of: 1 Fresnel 150, 1 Fresnel 300, 1 Fresnel 650 Lights, Barndoors , Scrims, Filter Frames, Scissor Clamp, 16x22" Softbox , Light Stands, Bulbs, Compact Case - 1100 Total Watts (120V AC) Vortex Media WarmCards Original pack & optional +PlusPack cards (inlcudes warm ½ and minus green) Apple Mac Pro: Two 2.66GHz Dual-Core Intel Xeon "Woodcrest" processors 4MB shared L2 cache per processor 1.33GHz dual independent frontside buses 2GB memory (667MHz DDR2 fully-buffered DIMM ECC) 2 x NVIDIA GeForce 7300 GT graphics with 256MB memory 500GB Serial ATA 3Gb/s 7200-rpm hard drive1 16x double-layer SuperDrive (DVD+R DL/DVD±RW/CD-RW) 23” flat panel display Final Cut Express HD 3.5: Inlcudes LiveType2 and Soundtrack 1.5 Sorenson Squeeze (Far greater control over output options, data rates, more advanced codecs = higher quality video), non-academic/govt. pricing = $699 Also: Windows Media codec for Sorenson Squeeze = $179, Flash codec = $149 Now that I have given you a sense of what it takes to get started, I want to talk a little about how to shoot for the very small screen to get the highest possible quality when you compress, while maintaining production value suitable for broadcast.
  • When shooting for the web, where often video is compressed to 320x240, or viewing on an iPod, where the screen size is even smaller, there are some things you can do to improve the clarity of your video. There are choices to make when producing and shooting, editing and compressing. The boxes on the left are not to scale, but show you the relative difference in resolution among the different format sizes. The large red box, 1920x1080, is the highest resolution HD format. The green box, 720x486 is standard definition and the blue box represents the most common compressed size of web video, 320x240. This is also the native resolution of ipods, even though the screen only displays at approximately 200x150. At the ipod screen size, which is approximately 2 inches by one and a half inches, use of space has to be fairly deliberate in order to give the audience the best possible viewing experience. For example, you may want to use more close-ups than wide-shots, or you may want to frame interviews tighter than you usually would. In any case, minimizing visual complexity will help on small screens.
  • Like I explained before, compression software applies an algorithm that analyzes the pixels that change from frame to frame. Unchanging pixels remain static for as long as possible and don’t require recompressing. More data can then be focused on areas of a frame that are moving, like a face or hands. Overall file size is smaller and requires less bandwidth to deliver a higher quality file. A few things to avoid: Glare (especially on glasses or other reflective objects in the screen—this can move and be very distracting.) Tight Patterns will “dance” and compress badly. Bright white and pure black can give you exposure problems when shooting and result in “hot whites” and skin tone that isn’t exposed correctly. Busy backgrounds waste bandwidth and can be very distracting on tiny screens. Because compression simplifies, if a subject is wearing a color close to the color of the background, the colors may appear the same and will result in a “floating head” effect. One of the easiest ways to avoid many of these issues is to light your subject correctly, which is why a light kit appears on both the necessity and luxury lists. And, it’s easier than you think. When done correctly, lighting should be nearly transparent.
  • Lighting correctly minimizing harsh shadows and glare, which contribute to exposure problems and generally poor compression. Plus, ideal lighting flatters the subject and will result in a far more positive reaction to your product. You will need three sources, either two lights and a reflector or three lights. We also recommend using a large softbox that fits over the light and acts as a diffuser, creating soft, even light. The basic set-up consists of a key light which is your primary light source and will provide most of the light. The fill light is softer and serves to lighten the harsh shadow that is created by the key light. The third light is the “hair” or “rim” light and shines softly onto the hair and shoulders of the subject, from behind. This provides depth by offering separation from the background. You can also add a 4 th light and cast a light across the background, which further increases depth and separation.
  • This example includes a backlight that illuminates the background as well. This is optional and that light can instead be used in place of a bounce card (or reflector) as the fill light. Wattage is not necessarily ideal—this is actually quite high. DV is very sensitive to light and you can usually use lower wattage than what is reflected here. Most often, use a 650 (with softbox or lightbank—a diffuser), a 300w fill (diffused) or a bounce card, and 150w light for hair/rim. The diagram shows fresnel lights but this set-up is applicable for any type. These images come from Arri’s lighting handbook which is great resource. You can download their manual from the URL at the bottom of the screen. Download the Arri lighting handbook here:
  • Much of this is intuitive but worth mentioning anyway. With higher data rates, you can get away with a lot more—wipes, graphics, etc. But at low data rates, you can end up with ugly pixelation and visual “noise.” If you are delivering at higher bandwidths, this may not be an issue. Camera movement is equally problematic and should be avoided unless you are following movement. The most important thing to remember is that cuts should be invisible in the sense that they happen seamlessly and aren’t jarring. When cuts are apparent, they take the viewer out of the experience. Of course, depending on the content, this may be the effect you are trying to achieve. For the most part, if you are editing lectures, panels, interviews, and documentary-style video, you probably want smooth transitions. This means no jump-cuts. A jump-cut is when you edit from one clip to another of the same person, framed the same way, at the same distance and what you end up with is a jerky robot-like jump. Graphics and animations should be simple and clear and font sizes should be relatively large. We will talk about this more later.
  • Overall length is most often determined by content type. Lectures/discussions range from 20 mintues – 2 hours and can be tolerable if the content is interesting. But for promotional pieces, documentary-style video, interviews, etc. we try to keep it under 5 minutes. In our experience, this is usually the limit of user’s interest. In terms of viewer attention span for lectures we can look at WGBH/Boston Forum Network . This web site includes many on-demand videos of lectures, plus an archive of taped radio broadcasts. In the About Us page, Forum Network updates on a monthly basis selected usage statistics. On August 2006, the page's "Forum Facts" stated that: You've streamed 313,383 lectures so far You've downloaded 154,596 lectures so far You've podcast 84,707 lectures so far We have about 1,500 unique visitors every day *Saturday at 11pm is your most popular streaming time *Wednesday at midnight is your favorite time to download *40% of you are from lands outside of the United States *34% of you listen to than rather view the lectures *70% of you listen to the entire lecture From the August 2005 statistics, we know that the average length of viewing is 20 minutes. In an online article called, “The Future of Online Video Ads,” published September 18 on, Bruce Clay reports that viewer attention span for online ads is about 21 seconds. ( Another consideration is available hard drive space to store all this media. While storage is relatively cheap, anywhere from fifty cents to a dollar per gig, DV and especially HD take up a lot of space. For standard definition, you can count on needing about 1 gig per 3 minutes of video. For HD the ration is closer to 1 to 1. And you may want to buy drives that have built in redundancy so that your media is backed up. Unfortunately drives do fail and if your source media was not shot on tape, but on firestore, you don’t have a physical back-up. To prevent loss, you might want to purchase a drive that you can format as RAID 1, which allows half the drive to mirror the other half—all data is duplicated just in case one half fails. The downside is that you halve your usable disk space. For example. We use a Maxtor one-touch, 1 terabyte drive that provides 500 gigabytes of usable space. (Just an aside: the maxtors are optimized for video-editing and have a ton of great features aside from this.) Ok. On to graphics…
  • Graphics can be a blessing and a curse all at once. We use them to supplement information that was missed or not stated clearly during interviews. We use them to illustrate opaque concepts. We use them to retain interest when all we have to work with is a talking head. (Interviews with economists don’t lend themselves to natural b-roll). However, poorly constructed graphics will rapidly degrade your overall product. So the best advice is to keep it simple. Remember, you may be displaying on a screen as small as an inch x 2 inches. And if you are developing mobile content for phones, it’s even smaller! I’ve heard one designer say that when creating on-screen graphics, he checks fonts sizes from 20 feet away. I think this distance may be unrealistic, but the idea is right. At 20 feet away, we could probably only fit a couple words on an ipod screen. We’ll get more into specifics in a minute. For now, keep phrasing short and succinct, use color to focus attention, repeat information being stated by the speaker and avoid introducing new information while a speaker is talking. Most people will grasp what they see or what they hear, but not both.
  • If you often import still images and photos into your video, you probably have noticed that your people look fat. The common misconception is that the image was a different aspect ration than the video, but this isn’t quite right. It’s actually due to a difference in shape between computer pixels and DV pixels. DV pixels are not perfectly square, while computer pixels are. This wreaks havoc on graphics imported into DV and DV still exported to graphics software. To solve this problem, Abobe included support for DV in CS2 through “video actions.” This is especially helpful if you are importing entire PowerPoint presentations into a lecture because it will not only convert the graphics to non-square pixels, but it will honor title-safe guides and batch process entire folders. Whew. Here is quick step-by-step:
  • This is for a single image: Open Photoshop CS Open a new project and select a DV format Open your image Copy your image into the new DV project Flatten it Save Import into FCP Now, some more specific tips for title bars, which really add quite a bit of polish to a production, even if it wasn’t shot particularly well.
  • One of the biggest challenges is ensuring text shows up and is readable against video, which is generally moving. That’s why we use a bar, but you don’t have to if you have a relatively simple background that is pretty dark or light. The important thing is to add a contrasting edge if the text is against motion. We create title bar templates in Apple Motion and then re-use and re-use. This helps us retain consistency and speeds up production—we like to have our graphics ready ahead of time and waiting for the video. One last tip—contrast is key—make sure the text is very light on a very dark background or vice versa. Even if a viewer is colorblind, they will be able to perceive tonal differences.
  • We get this question a lot. Should we include the question and answer? Sometimes the client will dictate this. Most often, the quality of the recording will be the determining factor. If you want the question and answer period to be usable, an ounce of forethought will go a long way. Ask the speaker to repeat every question or, ideally, provide a handheld mic that can be passed through the audience or a stand mic that audience members can approach to ask their question. This last option usually starts out well but by the end of a discussion, especially a fairly informal one, everyone is shouting out their questions. Include the Q&A if it is audible and interesting. Cut it if it doesn’t add much to the talk or is poorly recorded.
  • Compression is one of the most debated and quickly changing aspects of video production. Luckily, since you retain your original media, you can just keep recompressing for new modes of delivery, user preferences, audience demographics, and technological advances. Right now, one of the biggest fights is between Flash video and Mp4/Quicktime. We’ll get into this in a minute. The important thing is to choose compression software that allows flexibility to compress in as many formats as you think you will need or that offers add-on codecs as new formats emerge. Our favorite has been Sorenson Squeeze for it’s ease-of-use, comprehensive list of presets and codecs, and the quality of output. It often produces higher quality at lower data rates. Cleaner is better for inclusion of metadata, however. If you own Final Cut Studio, it comes with Compressor, which after a recent revamping of code, is pretty good and won’t cost you any extra since it’s packaged with Studio. It offers less codecs and options though. The plus is that is does compress to dolby AC-3 audio, which is a great way to save space on DVD projects.
  • Choosing a format is tricky. Due to flash’s huge penetration, many content-producers are choosing to deliver flash video. It looks great and with new functionalities delivered with Flash-8, it’s a great choice. HOWEVER, if you are podcasting through itunes and/or want your videos veiwable on ipods, you are going to have to go with mp4/quicktime. But there’s no reason why you can’t have both. Another advantage of QuickTime and Flash over Windows Media is the possibility of progressive download, which plays immediately as if it were streaming, but is actually a temporary download and—this is the kicker—doesn’t require hosting on a streaming server.
  • So to run through the options, Quicktime offers progressive download and ipod compatibility, as does Mp4. Windows media is not compatible with itunes or ipods and does not offer progressive download. But it is does offer nice quality and robust metadata. Lately, there have been reports of buggy players with the last release. CNN uses Windows Media and the biggest problem is that people, me included, keep getting an error that they do not have the appropriate Windows Media player installed, even though they do and have installed it repeatedly. Because it’s microsoft produced, it does have a large market share. Real? Hmmm…in our office, we gave up on that a loooong time ago. And from what we can see, it’s losing the battle. Flash is the big contender as I have already mentioned. If Adobe/macromedia hold course, Flash video will become the preferred format due to it’s saturation and quality. Currently, according to adobe, ubiquity of flashplayer 6 is 97% in the us.
  • Codecs have come a very long way in the last few years and you can deliver pretty decent video at low data rates, but compromise will always be in order. You will always sacrifice quality for size and speed. It’s the nature of the beast. You can, however, offer multiple data rates and use code to “sniff” connection speed and automatically play the appropriate video for the connection.
  • Now that content-producers are churning out video, it’s crucial that it can be found. This is really how you get a return on investment—by making it findable by the largest audience. Search engines are indeed indexing video content and they are doing it in two ways—through metadata and by transcript searches. Obviously, a transcript search offers the most robust index of the content of a video. Metadata can be very powerful as well and most formats allow you to add comprehensive keywords, movie information and copyrights.
  • Now on to audio. To get the most distribution possibilities out of your video, making sure your audio is high enough quality to stand on its own is important. You may choose to edit your audio differently in order to remove extended pauses that would not be apparent when there is video to compensate. Obviously, if a lecturer refers to slides heavily, audio is not going to be a very powerful mode of delivery. The biggest reason you should think this way is because more and more public broadcasting organizations, especially radio, are looking for content to add to their programming. Academic institutions offer a wealth of socially relevant topics and people willing to discuss them intelligently.
  • Recording audio-only is less complicated and much faster to produce. You really only need three things. A recorder, mics and editing software. We use a Marantz professional solid-state recorder, which is commonly used by broadcast professionals and an Audio-Technica wireless microphone set-up. If you are concerned with interference, you can also choose to use a wired table mic.
  • Some things to consider when recording audio—Should you use a wired or wireless mic? This depends on the number of speakers and whether they are going to move around a lot when speaking. You can ask this ahead of time. One down side of wireless is that it is more vulnerable to interference. Will the event or lecture have house amplification and is it possible to tap into it? This is helpful when you have large panels and each speaker needs to be mic’d individually. The danger then is that you are dependent on the expertise of the audio engineer running the board. They can easily destroy your sound quality by over-amplification, bad equipment or through interference. Omnidirectional Indiscriminately pickup sounds from throughout a defined area. They are popularly used in group situations. Bi-directional picking up sound from two distinct, oppositely sited sound sources and excluding all other sounds. Unidirectional microphones pickup sound from only one direction. They are good for recording single voices. This makes them good for interviews in loud places. Shotgun quite sensitive and focused and excel at capturing sound at a distance.
  • Recording good audio outdoors is always tricky. Finding a sheltered location away from streets and crowds is helpful but won’t solve all the problems. Using the appropriate equipment is key. A wind screen (or woolly) can cut wind noise considerably. Also, having an extra person around to keep people from being noisy can prevent having to re-record things. A good rule of thumb for mic placement when attaching a clip-on lav mic is to place it at the sternum. And just don’t forget to keep testing! And always monitor the audio—many sounds that seem soft are amplified on a recording.
  • Here are few tips and tricks that help us in the recording and editing process. One that will save you MUCH frustration later on is getting room tone. Just record silence for a while. The truth is, not room is truly silent and if you need to edit in pauses, you must fill that gap with the natural sound of the room or you will have abrupt and noticeable edits.
  • My mantra in the office has been Create it once, Distribute it infinitely. Another way to think about this is Media Immersion… that is, surrounding your audience with similar communications through different media (e.g., television, spot radio ads, YouTube, emails, print campaign). While this does not make sense for all communications, with audio and video, you can extend the value you have created by finding new markets, or new ways to reach your constituents. In this section I will touch upon viral marketing (or Word of Mouth), podcasting and RSS feeds, creating a distribution network—outside of and within your own university, and how to do so that gives you a sense of cohesion in your mission and messaging as well as immersion.
  • Viral, Word of Mouth, or Buzz Marketing is the sharing of information quickly through informal sources--from a trusted source (e.g., friend, colleague, family member) and tends to build credibility. While I am not recommending that you engage in stealth practices to spread the word about your University, you can enable your stakeholders with the ability to do this work for you… by investing in the portability of your media. We typically create our media file once, then compress and distribute in as many formats as makes the most sense to us… setting it up on a podcast, or vodcast, ensuring that our video downloads are iPod compatible, listing our podcasts in iTunes and other online directories, etc. In our new version of Research at Chicago, we have included the ability to “grab the link” or to “embed this” – in the model of YouTube or iFilm. We want to encourage folks to TAKE the media file and to share it with friends and family. This is not always the case with all types of content—but for PR or promotional videos—you want distribution far and wide. You do open yourself up to public critique, so be wary. However, if you are doing the good work in creating valuable communications, then you should be fine.
  • Allows users to experience research at the University Profiles leading University of Chicago faculty and researchers talking about their work and why it matters Extends the University’s commitment to public outreach Promotes the interdisciplinary culture of the University
  • Once you have created your video or audio communication--let’s say, for argument’s sake it is a 4 minute promotional video for your college--you can certain find other ways to expand its reach. Example: upload a copy to YouTube, Google Video, iFilm and add appropriate search terms…”college, admissions, best, university, rankings, teaching” Remember, you WANT to give it away. YouTube and iFilm, for example, are just the places where prospective students are lurking. Thinking of your distribution network more broadly--especially for event recordings--you might consider joining some distribution channel partners. Such as, Annenberg, ResearchChannel, University Channel… The ResearchChannel, for example, is a consortium of research institutions whose public lectures are distributed via satellite globally to over 70 countries, and 420,000 homes in the U.S. (as well as being available online on demand). Many cable companies are required to host a handful of public access / information channels--contact your local public access television network to see about airing your programming (typically they will do so for free). Public radio stations, as well, may be interested in distributing high-quality audio recordings in your region as well--we’ve been able to do so in chicago. We’ve negotiated relationships with a handful of organizations—including Chicago Public Radio, Research Channel, The University Channel…. For us, to be able to extend the reach of a branded video—say for our Harris School of Public Policy—to have global reach through the ResearchChannel via satellite delivery makes a lot of sense and—folllowing our multipurposing model—does not require us to do a lot of extra work.
  • As I mentioned, the University of Chicago is a decentralized institution. In order to create opportunities for our stakeholders to find material of interest to them, we've worked on several campus-wide technology initiatives to do so. First, we created a Feeds site for the university. This contains all news, blog, publication, and podcast feeds coming forth from the University and is located at a simple to remember location: As well, it will be linked to from our home page. We're working with our student union currently to show video recordings of interest to our students—events or talks they might have missed—to rotate on flat screen television sets that hang in various locations (e.g., the lobby where students wait for the bus). Finally, we're created a university-wide repository for audio and video materials (as well as other formats, such as pdfs or docs). This is an alumni offering and so houses event and lecture materials recorded on campus, for which alumni might have interest. Note this is not a communication to alumni, but is an offering—so alums can subscribe to the site's RSS feed or just visit it when they are reminded to (in a monthly or quarterly alumni magazine, for example).
  • Shooting Video for the Web

    1. 1. Effective Online Video Production and Distribution Renee Basick Matt Howard
    2. 2. Introductions <ul><li>Matt Howard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Director, Chicago Media Initiatives Group, University of Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background in academic publishing, online learning, web production, blogging, podcasting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renee Basick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior Producer, Chicago Media Initiatives Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background in broadcast and new media journalism; design, web development, video production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMIG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative of our Provost’s Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consult on new media and communications strategy </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Producing Video for the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Recording Audio for the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Distributing Your Content </li></ul>
    4. 4. I. Producing Video for the Web
    5. 5. Producing Video for the Web <ul><li>Promotional videos </li></ul><ul><li>Video news releases </li></ul><ul><li>Event recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-purposing content </li></ul>
    6. 6. Promotional Videos <ul><li>3-10 minutes in length </li></ul><ul><li>Creative brief and script </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target audience: prospective students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lively, energetic, young </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music drops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast edits, handheld camera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>High-level skills for shooting and editing </li></ul><ul><li>Lot of b-roll </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution: Web, DVD, iPod </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: MIT Sloan (shot by students), Ithaca College (shot by students) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Video News Releases <ul><li>90 second spot </li></ul><ul><li>Scripted with voice-over talent </li></ul><ul><li>Inverted pyramid structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., following press release </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lots of b-roll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution on local news affiliates (e.g., ABC) </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Event Recordings <ul><li>1-2 hours in length </li></ul><ul><li>Low-level skills for shooting and editing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single camera, basic lighting, simple edit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution: Web, DVD, public radio, public access television, podcast (for series) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: lecture series such as Poem Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Podcasts <ul><li>Regular, scheduled communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once per week, per month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set and meet your stakeholder expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focused communication </li></ul><ul><li>Audio or Video </li></ul><ul><li>Low to mid level skills </li></ul><ul><li>Example: lecture series, class discussions, student audio journals (e.g., peer-to-peer outreach for prospective students) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Multi-purposing Media <ul><li>Find opportunities to shoot for multiple audiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Research at Chicago videos primarily for alumni, news media, industry, and secondarily prospective students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoot enough footage to edit for different purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Tiktaalik video news release (for media) and fossil preparator video (for students) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tailor your edits and messages for stakeholder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions of subject for multiple purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Nobel Prize winner talking about research (for industry) can also answer questions about teaching (for prospective students) in same sitting </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Shooting Video for Multiple Uses <ul><li>Multi-purposing Media </li></ul><ul><li>DV: Online vs. Broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Shooting Video for the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Shooting for the (Very) Small Screen </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting, Editing, Graphics, Compression </li></ul>
    12. 12. Multi-purposing media Scale-down, not up. <ul><li>Some delivery options are: </li></ul><ul><li>Web (streaming or download) </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast (probably SD) </li></ul><ul><li>Projection (SD or HD) </li></ul><ul><li>DVD (home player or computer) </li></ul><ul><li>Video iPod or other handheld player </li></ul>
    13. 13. DV: online vs. broadcast <ul><li>The biggest difference is </li></ul><ul><li>COMPRESSION. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, this meant, you should: </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot differently </li></ul><ul><li>Edit differently </li></ul><ul><li>Think differently </li></ul><ul><li>(That is, until bandwidth caught up with your ambition.) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Web = Broadcast? <ul><li>Advanced codecs </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>increased bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>Higher quality video </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>You can shoot once for both </li></ul><ul><li>Online and broadcast output </li></ul><ul><li>(and everything in between). </li></ul>
    15. 15. Shooting video for the web <ul><li>Online video </li></ul><ul><li>16:9 is sexy </li></ul><ul><li>Over-saturate color! </li></ul><ul><li>What? Make it louder </li></ul><ul><li>Make whites whiter </li></ul><ul><li>Fun with titles </li></ul><ul><li>Use the entire screen </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>4:3 is standard </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast-safe chroma </li></ul><ul><li>DV = -12dB </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast-safe levels </li></ul><ul><li>Title-safe </li></ul><ul><li>Action-safe </li></ul>
    16. 16. Quality is key <ul><ul><li>High quality video will compress cleanly and broadcast well so always start with the best possible source video. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So, should you shoot HD or SD? </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. The future of resolution… <ul><li>… is high definition. </li></ul><ul><li>Analog “switch-off” of broadcast signals in the U.S. will be February 17, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>61.3 - 68% of &quot;active U.S. Internet users” connect at home using broadband (2006 Nielsen/NetRatings) </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of IPTV: 1,300 free channels (as of 06/06) and…HD IPTV. </li></ul>
    18. 18. SHOOT HD. (Don’t be afraid of equipment costs.) <ul><li>SD set-up: </li></ul><ul><li>Panasonic DVX100B </li></ul><ul><li>$3995.00 </li></ul><ul><li>MiniDV tapes </li></ul><ul><li>$10/ea </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time capture </li></ul><ul><li>$/hour </li></ul><ul><li>HD set-up: </li></ul><ul><li>Panasonic HVX200 </li></ul><ul><li>$5199.00 </li></ul><ul><li>P2 card (incl. w/ camera) </li></ul><ul><li>$0 </li></ul><ul><li>Drag-and-drop </li></ul><ul><li>Priceless </li></ul>
    19. 19. So…what do you need? <ul><li>Necessities </li></ul><ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Tripod </li></ul><ul><li>Microphone set-up </li></ul><ul><li>Lights </li></ul><ul><li>WarmCards </li></ul><ul><li>Headphones </li></ul><ul><li>Editing work-station </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>Luxuries </li></ul><ul><li>Field mixer </li></ul><ul><li>CRT Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Deck (if using tape) </li></ul><ul><li>Lights </li></ul><ul><li>Dolly </li></ul><ul><li>Gels/window patterns/back drops </li></ul><ul><li>External hard drive(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics software </li></ul><ul><li>DVD duplicator/printer </li></ul>
    20. 20. Recommendations: <ul><li>On a (tight) budget </li></ul><ul><li>Panasonic DVX100 $3999.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Cartoni Action-Pro Tripod $699.95 </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-Technica wireless mic $560.75 </li></ul><ul><li>Sony studio headphones $46.50 </li></ul><ul><li>Smith-Victor Light kit (3) $211.95 </li></ul><ul><li>Vortex Media WarmCards $91.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Mac Pro $2,948.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Final Cut Express HD 3.5 $149.00 </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL = $8,706.15 </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal set-up </li></ul><ul><li>Panasonic HVX200 $5199.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Bogen/Manfrotto Tripod & dolly $875. </li></ul><ul><li>Bogen/Manfrotto leveling head $61.10 </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-Technica wireless mic $560.75 </li></ul><ul><li>Sony studio headphones $78.50 </li></ul><ul><li>Arri light kit (3) $1,789.95 </li></ul><ul><li>Vortex Media WarmCards $91.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Mac Pro $3,783.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Final Cut Studio $699.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Sorenson Squeeze $239.00 </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL = $13,376.30 </li></ul>
    21. 21. Shooting for the (very) small screen
    22. 22. Minimize visual complexity <ul><li>Pay attention to color, pattern, light and </li></ul><ul><li>arrangement of subjects for the cleanest </li></ul><ul><li>possible compression. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid: </li></ul><ul><li>Glare </li></ul><ul><li>Tight patterns on clothing (i.e. houndstooth, plaid, stripes) </li></ul><ul><li>Bright white, pure black </li></ul><ul><li>Busy or moving background </li></ul><ul><li>Wearing same color as the background </li></ul><ul><li>Gratuitous camera movement </li></ul>
    23. 23. Lighting to make your subject look good (and you!) <ul><li>Light evenly. Harsh shadows do not compress well. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a 3 light set-up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key – Primary light source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill – Secondary light source used to fill shadows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair/rim – Backlight used to separate subject from the background </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Lighting set-up example:
    25. 25. Editing <ul><li>Here are some simple suggestions if your primary delivery is via web or other small-screen format: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t use graphical wipes—they do not compress particularly well at low data rates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edit out camera movement as much as possible (without creating jump-cuts). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid complicated animations and graphics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use a lot of text at small font sizes. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Overall length <ul><li>Factors to keep in mind: </li></ul><ul><li>Type of content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viewer attention span </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture: 20 minutes average, 70% listened to entire lecture (WGBH/Boston Forum Network, August 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online ads: 21 seconds (Online Publishers Association study, February 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other content: About 2-5 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard drive space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HD 1g per 1 minute of video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SD 1g per 3 minutes of video </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Great graphics <ul><li>General tips for title bars (lower third keys), informational graphics, titling </li></ul><ul><li>Short, succinct phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, colorful </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat information being stated </li></ul><ul><li>Do not offer new info while speaker is talking about another topic </li></ul><ul><li>Watch title-safe guides! </li></ul>
    28. 28. Importing Graphics <ul><li>Photoshop CS offers support for DV graphics. This important because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixel shape/aspect ratio DV = non-square, Computer = square </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This causes distortion when importing to FCP </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. How to avoid distortion… <ul><li>Open Photoshop CS </li></ul><ul><li>Open a new project and select a DV format </li></ul><ul><li>Open your image </li></ul><ul><li>Copy your image into the new DV project </li></ul><ul><li>Flatten it </li></ul><ul><li>Save </li></ul><ul><li>Import into FCP </li></ul>
    30. 30. Title bars <ul><li>No small caps </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-alias type </li></ul><ul><li>Apple Motion--great lower third keys </li></ul><ul><li>San-serif usually easier to read </li></ul><ul><li>Use whole numbers for font size </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate information instead of trying to squeeze too much on one slide </li></ul><ul><li>Leave on screen for 10 seconds </li></ul>
    31. 31. FAQ: include Q&A? <ul><li>YES </li></ul><ul><li>Audience amplified </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker repeats Q </li></ul><ul><li>As substantial as the lecture in length or content </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion format </li></ul><ul><li>Important audience members </li></ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t hear Q </li></ul><ul><li>Off topic </li></ul><ul><li>Not interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Need to limit overall length </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery method = broadcast </li></ul>
    32. 32. Compression (A fine art) <ul><li>Software packages: </li></ul><ul><li>Sorenson Squeeze $239 </li></ul><ul><li>Fast, high-quality results </li></ul><ul><li>$ extra for Windows Media & Flash </li></ul><ul><li>Inlcudes iPod presets </li></ul><ul><li>Autodesk Cleaner (formally Discreet) $175 </li></ul><ul><li>Inlcudes WM and Flash </li></ul><ul><li>Robust metadata fields </li></ul><ul><li>Compressor 2 (Final Cut Pro) $0 </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer options </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with DVD Studio Pro (Dolby AC-3 audio) </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer compression at lower data rates </li></ul>
    33. 33. Which formats? <ul><li>It depends on your mode of delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming vs. progressive download vs. download </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast </li></ul><ul><li>iPod compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded in website vs. player </li></ul><ul><li>What about Flash? </li></ul>
    34. 34. The skinny on codecs <ul><li>QuickTime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive Download </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iPod </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mpeg-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No progressive download </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Real </li></ul><ul><li>Flash </li></ul>
    35. 35. Compromise <ul><li>How do you determine the ideal balance? </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative data rates </li></ul>
    36. 36. Making your video findable <ul><li>Searchable video is key to getting the most value out of your content. </li></ul><ul><li>Search engines are indexing video content. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcript </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which standards, format, software? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>QuickTime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash 8 </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. II. Recording Audio for the Web
    38. 38. Recording audio (The ear does not forgive!) <ul><li>Record audio that can stand alone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there slides? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it discussion-based or lecture format? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there demonstrations? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Record broadcast-quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More and more public broadcasting outlets are looking for academic content to include in regular programming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound bites for news </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. What you will need: <ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Recorder </li></ul><ul><li>Microphone(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Marantz professional solid-state recorder </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-Technica wireless microphone </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Forge, Adobe Audition, Apple Soundtrack, Audacity etc… </li></ul>
    40. 40. Some options… <ul><li>Wireless vs. Wired </li></ul><ul><li>House sound? </li></ul><ul><li>Microphone types – Pick-up patterns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omnidirectional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-directional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unidirectional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shotgun </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. The outdoor audio challenge <ul><li>Obstacle: BACKGROUND NOISE! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cars/trucks/traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People (and their pets) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothes rustling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>Use a “woolly” </li></ul><ul><li>Have someone “run interference” </li></ul><ul><li>Mic placement: sternum </li></ul><ul><li>Test, test, test, test </li></ul>
    42. 42. Tips & Tricks <ul><li>Recording </li></ul><ul><li>Get room tone </li></ul><ul><li>Record 3x closer to subject than any “reflective” surface </li></ul><ul><li>Use good headphones </li></ul><ul><li>Do not peak—keep monitor at -12dB </li></ul><ul><li>Editing </li></ul><ul><li>Edit out coughs, hic-ups and noise (even when there’s video!) </li></ul><ul><li>Use waveforms </li></ul><ul><li>Crossfade </li></ul><ul><li>Extend abrupt edits with roomtone </li></ul><ul><li>911 filters </li></ul>
    43. 43. III. Distributing Your Content
    44. 44. Distributing Your Content <ul><li>Viral Marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Study: Research at Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content Sharing Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching Public Audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching Professional Audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Pulling together a cohesive communication whole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Study: Mind Online </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Viral Marketing (WOM) <ul><li>Word of Mouth (WOM) Marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable access across connected devices: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RSS feeds (podcast, vodcast) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>iPod compatible video </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social bookmarks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop and launch marketing campaigns that are “immersive” (print, email, web, iPod, mobile). </li></ul>
    46. 46. Case Study: Research at Chicago <ul><li>Collaborated with our VP for Research to create “Research at Chicago” Web site in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewed over 30 faculty; video interviews and post-production </li></ul><ul><li>Offer podcast and vodcast feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated with other campus projects (News Office, Mind Online alumni project) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>In process of adding social bookmarks </li></ul>
    47. 48. Content Sharing Relationships <ul><li>How to extend the life of your content? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create once, distribute infinitely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viral marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YouTube, Google Video, iFilm, Ziddio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadcast distribution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annenberg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ResearchChannel ( http:// ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University Channel ( http:// /main ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public/cable Access television, PBS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public radio </li></ul></ul>
    48. 49. Reaching Public Audiences <ul><li>Public access television </li></ul><ul><li>Museum kiosks </li></ul><ul><li>Television news </li></ul><ul><li>K-12 Classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Community centers </li></ul><ul><li>Web, podcasts, vodcasts </li></ul>
    49. 50. Reaching Professional Audiences <ul><li>State and Municipal Forums </li></ul><ul><li>NSF / NIH program officers </li></ul><ul><li>National / regional association meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers </li></ul><ul><li>Web, podcasts, vodcasts </li></ul>
    50. 52. Building Tools for Campus-wide Use <ul><li>Central feeds site </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central video repository </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Links from homepage </li></ul>
    51. 53. Case Study: Mind Online <ul><li>Collaboration with Alumni Association http:// </li></ul><ul><li>a Web portal of samples (audio, video, writings) from the University's intellectual life </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically produces RSS feed </li></ul>
    52. 54. Thanks! <ul><li>Matt Howard </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>773-702-5071 </li></ul><ul><li>Renee Basick </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>773-834-7955 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>