RMcgeer.ppt

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RMcgeer.ppt

  1. 2. PlanetLab, DARPA Control Plane, And Collaborative Research Rick McGeer Ides of March, 2006
  2. 3. What is PlanetLab? <ul><li>A planetary-scale “overlay” network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just a bunch of Linux machines that have agreed to communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global account: account on the whole network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go beyond protocols to services and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The next internet will be created as an overlay in the current one” (NRC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s it good for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A virtual machine creation service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A platform for running planetary-scale distributed applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A platform for critical, pervasive, robust services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristic of the next generation of the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joint Academic/Government/Industry Consortium has formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formally announced in late June ‘03 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hosted by Princeton, U Washington, and UC Berkeley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google has joined HP and Intel as founding industrial members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSF funded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extension to Japanese National Research Network Fall 2006 </li></ul>
  3. 4. PlanetLab’s Growth Start of Project SOSP ’03: 2/3 submissions are on PlanetLab HP Announces support Consortium Formed Brazil RPN Joins CERN Joins JGN-II Joins
  4. 5. PlanetLab Today 718 Nodes at 345 Sites
  5. 6. Today’s Internet <ul><li>A 1973 Buick Retroffited with airbags and emission controls (Technology Review) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local services distributed across the wide area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart client, smart server, dumb pipe in between </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>To local outages, flash crowds </li></ul><ul><li>Fails when it’s needed most </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cnn.com overwhelmed on 9/11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you need it, so does everybody else! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No intelligence or adaptivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fails on weakest link </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to adapt to single </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>point of failure </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Tomorrow’s Architecture: PlanetLab <ul><li>Intelligence throughout the cloud </li></ul><ul><li>Planetary-scale distributed services </li></ul><ul><li>Service that runs everywhere , all the time </li></ul><ul><li>Means location of service virtualized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In fact, meaningless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gives attributes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical : There when it’s needed most </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pervasive: Always available, anytime, anywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robust : Can’t be stopped, killed, crashed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure : Can’t be spoofed or compromised </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Case Study: Reinventing the Internet Question: How would we reinvent the Internet today? ftp, telnet, email, im, http, mmpg, voip, iptv… <ul><li>Ftp </li></ul><ul><li>Telnet </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul>Applications ~1,000,000,000 ~1,000 Number of Nodes 300kb/s-10 Gb/s ~10 kb/s Line Speeds ~2,000,000,000 ~10,000 Number of Users Today 1980
  8. 9. Key Point <ul><li>1980 Internet model: no intelligence in the network </li></ul><ul><li>Network behavior guessed at endpoints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to complex endpoint behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor behavior under minimal degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network elements had limited communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could only communicate gross network behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Couldn’t adjust to minor changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Led to architecture where global conditions guessed from local observations </li></ul><ul><li>Suppose endpoints could talk to the network? </li></ul><ul><li>Suppose network elements could sense network conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler endpoints </li></ul><ul><li>More adaptive network </li></ul>
  9. 10. Research Model <ul><li>Two levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve core internet services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave artifacts for application services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application services on top </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by coalitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build coalitions to solve real-world problems </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Better Internet Behavior <ul><li>Problem: TCP degrades badly in presence of loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-20% packet loss common in military environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather loss, satellite tracking,… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Means most Internet apps fail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP fixed (don’t want to change every client) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can add some hardware to each side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losses are transient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate paths exist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid packet loss by rapidly switching away from lossy links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software Routing based on Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs) and overlays </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. CHART <ul><li>Comprehensive Hyperplane for Adaptive Response and Throughput </li></ul><ul><li>Set of five loosely-coupled services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PlanetLab Classic: Base VM creation service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DHT-based software router: Better IP layer on the overlay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Plane: comprehensive network sensing service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit-rate routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware Routing Service: next generation routers for high-bandwidth links </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overlay software routing service: software implementation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Service: authentication for information plane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Big idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix TCP/IP and leave artifacts for application services </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. CHART Solution Concept <ul><li>Conventional TCP: Slowly ramp up to line rate </li></ul><ul><li>CHART TCP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get line rate from routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit immediately at line rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conventional TCP: Backoff in presence of loss since congestion-free transmission rate unknown </li></ul><ul><li>CHART TCP: Keep going in presence of loss since congestion-free transmission rate known </li></ul>Click for next slide 0 60 40 20 0 60 40 20
  13. 14. Chart Routing Concept Conventional : losses in network undetected Continued transmission over poor links When combined with TCP backoff, leads to very poor performance CHART : Links constantly monitored Rapid switch away from failing links When combined with TCP explicit rate, line rate performance Backoff! Backoff! Switch Paths
  14. 15. Adaptive Routing Scenario Switch 10% link loss detected
  15. 16. Adaptive Routing Implementation Router continually queries sensor servers for loss/latency/bandwidth data Router switched routes when sensor servers report better path Switch Sensor Servers
  16. 17. Phase I accomplishments
  17. 18. Do More Than Routing <ul><li>Control Plane makes networks intelligent, adaptive </li></ul><ul><li>“ Send me the best picture you can of downtown Baghdad in the next five minutes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing of link quality, QoS can optimize request </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End-system multicast (CMU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On-the-fly multicast tree based on load, b/width, latency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intelligent, bandwidth-aware media/file distribution </li></ul>
  18. 19. Today’s Web Service
  19. 20. Tomorrow’s Web Service: CoDeeN <ul><li>Network of proxies spread across the whole net </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks in cache for page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finds it? Done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t find it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hashes URL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goes to hash proxy for page </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replicates requested pages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Load on each host manageable </li></ul><ul><li>Load on each proxy manageable </li></ul><ul><li>No flash crowds unless whole Internet overloaded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has never happened </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Running today on PlanetLab </li></ul>
  20. 21. Tomorrow’s Web Service
  21. 22. Today’s Filesystem <ul><li>One location only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is down, so are you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major security concerns on the system </li></ul></ul>X ?!@#
  22. 23. Today’s File System <ul><li>Files attached to one computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessable (easily) there only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to local disruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to back up (media expensive, hard to administer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to multiple failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>crash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>media failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>power failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>localized network disruption </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Tomorrow’s File System: OceanStore <ul><li>Spread Across the network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>n pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>m sufficient to reconstruct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pieces spread across network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File Lives everywhere! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t be destroyed unless n-m+1 destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessable everywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backed up by copy in network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasts for 1000 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Running today on PlanetLab </li></ul>X X
  24. 25. PlanetLab Grand Challenges <ul><li>Intel/HP/AT&T Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Largely driven by Mic Bowman (Intel) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help from Jack Brassil, Rick McGeer (HP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rick Schlichting, Lee Breslau (AT&T) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobilize academic/research community to solve large problems </li></ul><ul><li>Model: Work with end customer to define RFP </li></ul><ul><li>Offer opportunity to research groups </li></ul><ul><li>One initiative: PBS Content Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Coming: Large-scale multicast </li></ul>
  25. 26. Media Distribution <ul><li>Currently done through satellite or conventional Internet distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellites cheaper than conventional Internet for > 40 sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellites have a variety or problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to weather disruption (rain fade) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Conventional Internet Distribution <ul><li>Send media to each endpoint (e.g., TV station) </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>size of media x number of endpoints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More expensive than satellite for many endpoints </li></ul>
  27. 28. New Idea: Use PlanetLab distribution techniques (CoBlitz) <ul><li>Send media collaboratively from endpoint to endpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Send chunks of file to each endpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Endpoints send to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Much more efficient than conventional Internet </li></ul><ul><li>More secure, cheaper and reliable than satelite </li></ul>
  28. 29. Conclusion <ul><li>CHART </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model of new research model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition of Industrial Lab/Startup/University Research to solve large problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solve specified problem and leave artifacts for future research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grand Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use distributed infrastructure to solve real-world problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mine industrial/academic consumer community for research opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We want to do more of this! </li></ul>

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