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  • End users? Us and companies Various applications like video broadcasting, video streaming, video conferencing, D-Cinema, HDTV
  • Seamless integration of video coding into all current protocols In terms of the complete Home Media Ecosystem, new emerging content delivery and distribution models enable the transfer of video content among devices on the home network. As mentioned earlier, the Digital Living Network Alliance is developing guidelines to ensure seamless interoperability in the home. A codec is only one of many necessary pieces. VC-1 (WMV-9) facilitates interoperability, being part of a platform that includes: Flexible Digital Rights Management adopted by all major Studios and Music Labels (e.g., MovieLink, CinemaNow, …) Flexible, scalable Server Popular Windows Media Player and MovieMaker 1000’s of 3 rd -party SW/HW solutions supporting this platform, including chips, STBs, CE devices, etc.
  • Now I would like to focus a bit on the details of the codec itself. As you can see from this slide, VC-1 shares some of the same features as H.264. In fact, this overlap in feature sets is a major reason why many companies are currently integrating both codecs into the same chip. You’ll also notice, though, that there are many differences in features. One reason is how the codecs were designed. The coding techniques used in H.264 were originally designed for low-resolution (e.g., CIF), low-rate video with HD support added later. 4x4 Transform, “strong” loop-filter, 6-tap motion compensation, etc. result is softer video with less detail On the other hand, the coding techniques in VC-1 were designed considering both low-resolution, low-rate video and HD, high rate video. 4x4, 4x8, 8x4, 8x8 Adaptive Block Transforms (ABT), “texture-adaptive” loop-filter, 4-tap motion compensation, etc. result is sharper video with more detail One example of where the techniques make a difference is the Adaptive block transform. Independent research studies have demonstrated that the Adaptive block transform used in VC-1 gives Better reproduction of textures and film grain Fewer ringing artifacts at edges when using 4x4 blocks Key factor in improved perceptual quality, especially for HD video (Gordon, JVT-H029, May 03; Wien, IEEE CSVT, July 03) Training set has a big impact on the end result
  • Plot and tabulate. Codec complexity is another important issue critical factor. In the hardware space, lower complexity means less silicon, lower cost and fewer heat issues. Complexity was taken into account during the design process for VC-1, with careful consideration given to various alternative designs. As a result, VC-1 decoding is more than 2x faster than H.264 decoding. And full 1080p decoding is possible on today’s off the shelf PCs. Biggest difference is seen with DSP implementations. Companies can do more on a single DSP with VC-1 because it’s easier to implement. For example, Equator has been able to support both SD and HD (up to 720p) on a single DSP. Equator BP-15 : VC-1 SD and HD (up to 720p) In all of these studies, many different codecs were tested including MPEG-2 various implementations of MPEG-4 various implementations of H.264 and Real video DV magazine - ProCoder MPEG-2, Sorenson MPEG-4, Real9, VC-1 (WMV-9) C’T Magazine - Dicas MPEG-4, DivX 5.0.4, VSS H.264/AVC, On2 VP3.1, QT 6.1, Real9, Sorenson 3.1 Pro, Sorenson MPEG-4, VC-1 (WMV-9), XVid MPEG-4 DVD Forum - 9 codecs total, including several RD optimized implementations of MPEG-2, MPEG-4 and H.264/AVC EBU - Real 9, VC-1 (WMV-9), Envivio MPEG-4, Apple MPEG-4
  • proposal

    1. 1. Comparison and Performance Analysis of H.264, AVS-China, VC-1 and Dirac - by Jennie G. Abraham EE5359 – Multimedia Processing, Fall 2009 EE Dept., University of Texas at Arlington
    2. 2. Disclaimer <ul><li>This is a proposal; to be used as a roadmap toward fulfilling the objectives of the project as part of course requirement for EE5359 – Multimedia Processing, Fall 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>This powerpoint is not a comprehensive documentation on the subjects and topics mentioned. </li></ul><ul><li>- Jennie G Abraham </li></ul>
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Network </li></ul><ul><li>Home Media Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Project Detail </li></ul><ul><li>Example project elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture Comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Level Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feature Comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algorithmic Comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expected Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Project Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>Video compression standards  aiming at high quality </li></ul><ul><li>Some standards leave the implementation open and only standardize the syntax and the decoder. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization beyond the obvious </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity reduction for implementation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H.264 : ITU-T VCEG together with the ISO/IEC MPEG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AVS China : Audio Video Coding Workgroup of China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VC-1 : developed by Microsoft, released by SMPTE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirac : BBC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Different companies, different countries, different application, royalty fees, better algorithms </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Multimedia Network
    6. 6. Home Media Ecosystem <ul><ul><li>A case for seamless integration of video coding standards </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Motivation <ul><li>Possibly identify new areas of research </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit redundancies, develop cross platform applications etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Familiarize with the codecs : </li></ul><ul><li>H.264, AVS China, VC-1, Dirac </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of the codecs in MPL @ UTA </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of comprehensive documentation for these codecs </li></ul>
    8. 8. Project Detail <ul><li>Overview of each standard </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of each codec </li></ul><ul><li>Compile and tabulate the developers, timeline of release, royalty/patents </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture Analysis and Comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoder/Decoder Block Diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design Level Analysis and Comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intended applications for each of the profile/standard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feauture Analysis and Comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integer sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MB sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partition sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Algorithmic Element comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion Vector Precision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Loop filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entropy coding.. And so on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bit rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PSNR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ssim </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test Sequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different test sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different formats - QCIF/CIF/SD/HDTV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study and results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codec user manual </li></ul></ul>The project is detailed as follows:
    9. 9. Codec Architecture Comparison H.264 Codec AVS China Codec For Example :
    10. 10. Design Level Analysis <ul><li>Example of specific coding parts for H.264 profiles </li></ul>
    11. 11. Feature Comparison VC-1 H.264 For example: Overlap in feature sets is a major reason why many companies are currently integrating both codecs into the same chip. <ul><li>8x8, 4x8, 8x4, 4x4 adaptive block transform </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency-independent de-quantization scaling </li></ul><ul><li>4 tap bi-cubic filters for MC </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively-simple loop filter </li></ul><ul><li>Overlap intra filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Range reduction/expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution reduction/expansion </li></ul><ul><li>8x8 and 4x4 adaptive block transform </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency-dependent de-quantization matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Long filters for MC </li></ul><ul><li>Complex loop filter </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial intra prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-picture arbitrary-order referencing </li></ul><ul><li>Intra PCM </li></ul>Block motion 16-bit integer transforms Bit-exact spec Fading prediction Loop filter
    12. 12. Algorithmic Comparison <ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>… . and more of similar comparison </li></ul>Wavelet transform DCT integer DCT integer DCT, Hadamard Transform Arithmetic coding 2D variable length coding. Adaptive VLC CAVLC, CABAC Entropy coding Dirac AVS China Part 2 SMPTE VC-1 (WMV 9) H.264 (MPEG-4 AVC) Algorithmic Element
    13. 13. Performance Comparison <ul><li>Simulation with different test sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Bit Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PSNR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSIM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compression Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoding </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Expected Outcome <ul><li>The different facet of the project is aimed at bringing out these outcomes…. </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity with these standards </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation of the codecs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modes of Configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification of Parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input sequence specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the codec output </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify areas of research and unexplored problems </li></ul><ul><li>Document a resourceful detailed ‘how to’ manual on each reference codec </li></ul><ul><li>Create a ‘how to’ format to draw on for other softwares available in MPL and future </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of time and re-use of knowledge </li></ul>
    15. 15. Timeline <ul><li>IMPLEMENTATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Project proposal –------------------------------------------------- Oct 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AVS China Implementation-----------------by Oct 7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dirac, H.264 –---------------------------------- by Oct 14 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VC-1 Implementation ---------------------- by Oct 21 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>DOCUMENTATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Tabulation of initial results –------------------------------------ by Oct 28 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interim Report and Presentation ------------------------ Oct 29 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start documentation ---------------------------------- by Oct 31 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Submit draft of final report -------------------- Nov 19 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start user manual documentation---- Nov 20 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FINAL </li></ul><ul><li>Final project report and presentation ------------------------- Dec 3 </li></ul>
    16. 16. References <ul><li>DIRAC REFERENCES: </li></ul><ul><li>[1] T. Borer, and T. Davies, “Dirac video compression using open technology”, BBC EBU Technical Review, July 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>[2] BBC Research on Dirac: http:// </li></ul><ul><li>[3] The Dirac web page: http:// </li></ul><ul><li>[4] T. Davies, “The Dirac Algorithm”: http:// /documentation/algorithm/ , 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>[5] Dirac developer support: Overlapped block-based motion compensation: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>[6] “Dirac Pro to bolster BBC HD links”: </li></ul><ul><li>[7] Dirac software and source code: http:// -research/ </li></ul><ul><li>[8] Dirac video codec - A programmer's guide: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>[9] Daubechies wavelet: http:// </li></ul><ul><li>[10] Daubechies wavelet filter design: </li></ul><ul><li>[11] Dirac developer support: Wavelet transform: </li></ul><ul><li>[12] Dirac developer support: RDO motion estimation metric: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>H.264 REFERENCES: </li></ul><ul><li>[13] T.Wiegand, et al “Overview of the H.264/AVC video coding standard”, IEEE Trans. on Circuit and Systems for Video Technology, Vol.13, pp 560-576, July 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>[14] T. Wiegand and G. J. Sullivan, “The H.264 video coding standard”, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 24, pp. 148-153, March 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>[15] D. Marpe, T. Wiegand and G. J. Sullivan, “The H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard and its applications”, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 44, pp. 134-143, Aug. 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>[16] S.K.Kwon, A.Tamhankar and K.R.Rao, “Overview of H.264 / MPEG-4 Part 10” J. Visual Communication and Image Representation, Vol 17, pp.186-216, April 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>[17] A. Puri, X. Chen and A. Luthra, “Video coding using the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC compression standard”, Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 19, pp. 793-849, Oct. 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>[18] H.264 AVC JM software: </li></ul><ul><li>[19] H.264/MPEG-4 AVC: </li></ul><ul><li>[20] M.Fieldler, “Implementation of basic H.264/AVC Decoder”, seminar paper at Chemnitz University of Technology, June 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>[21] H.264 encoder and decoder: </li></ul><ul><li>[22] R. Schäfer, T. Wiegand and H. Schwarz, “The emerging H.264/AVC standard”, EBU Technical Review, Jan. 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>[23] H.264 reference software download : http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>[24] D. Marpe, T. Wiegand, and S. Gordon, &quot;H.264/mpeg4-avc fidelity range extensions: tools, profiles, performance, and application areas,&quot; in, IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 1, pp. I-593-6, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>[25] S. Saponara, C. Blanch, K. Denolf, and J. Bormans, &quot;The JVT advanced video coding standard: complexity and performance analysis on a tool-by-tool basis,&quot; in Packet Video Workshop, Nantes, France, April 2003. </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>VC-1 REFERENCES: </li></ul><ul><li>[26] VC-1 technical overview - </li></ul><ul><li>[27] Microsoft Windows Media: http:// </li></ul><ul><li>[28] </li></ul><ul><li>[29] Sridhar Srinivasan, et al, “Windows Media Video 9: overview and applications”, Signal Processing: Image Communication, Volume 19, Issue 9, October 2004, Pages 851-875 </li></ul><ul><li>AVS CHINA REFERENCES: </li></ul><ul><li>[31] AVS Video Expert Group, “Information technology – Advanced coding of audio and video – Part 2: Video (AVS1-P2 JQP FCD 1.0),” Audio Video Coding Standard Group of China (AVS), Doc. AVS-N1538, Sep. 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>[32] AVS Video Expert Group, “Information technology – Advanced coding of audio and video – Part 3: Audio,” Audio Video Coding Standard Group of China (AVS), Doc. AVS-N1551, Sep. 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>[33] Lu Yu et al., “Overview of AVS-Video: Tools, performance and complexity,” SPIE VCIP, vol. 5960, pp. 596021-1~ 596021-12, Beijing, China, July 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>[34] Liang Fan, Siwei Ma and Feng Wu, “Overview of AVS video standard,” IEEE Int’l Conf. on Multimedia and Expo, ICME '04, vol. 1, pp. 423–426, Taipei, Taiwan, June 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>[35] Wen Gao et al., “AVS – The Chinese next-generation video coding standard,” National Association of Broadcasters, Las Vegas, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>[36] Special issue on 'AVS and its Applications' Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 24,pp. 245-344, April 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>[37] AVS China software : </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>PERFORMANCE COMPARISON REFERENCES: </li></ul><ul><li>[38] K. Onthriar, K. K. Loo and Z. Xue, “Performance comparison of emerging Dirac video codec with H.264/AVC”, IEEE International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, Vol. 06, Page: 22, Issue: 29-31, Aug. 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>[39] X. Wang, D. Zhao &quot;Performance comparison of AVS and H.264/AVC video coding standards&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>J. of computer science and technology, May 2006, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 310-314 </li></ul><ul><li>[40] Comparison of H.264 and VC-1: </li></ul><ul><li>[41] Alejandro A. Ramirez Acosta, et al. &quot;MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 and VC-1 codecs comparison used in IPTV video streaming technology,&quot; Electronics, Robotics and Automotive Mechanics Conference, 2008, pp.122-126 </li></ul><ul><li>[42] Comparison between AVC/H.264, VC-1 and MPEG-2 - </li></ul><ul><li>[43] H. Kalva, J.B Lee, “The VC-1 and H.264 video compression standards for broadband video Services”, Springer, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>SSIM REFERENCES: </li></ul><ul><li>[44] Z. Wang, et al “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity”, IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, vol. 13, pp. 600-612, Apr. 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>[45] SSIM index for image quality assessment: </li></ul><ul><li>[46]    Z. Wang, et al“ Multi -scale structural similarity for image quality assessment ,” IEEE Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Nov. 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>[47] SSIM: http:// /wiki/SSIM </li></ul><ul><li>VIDEO TEST SEQUENCES: </li></ul><ul><li>[48] Video test sequences (YUV 4:2:0): http:// </li></ul><ul><li>[49] Video test sequences ITU601:   </li></ul>