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  1. 1. Choong Seon Hong Kyung Hee University [email_address] November 17, 2008 Manageability in Future Internet - Devisable Management Architecture for WSN -
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction to Future Internet and its Manageability </li></ul><ul><li>Future Internet and Sensor Network </li></ul><ul><li>Application Trend in Sensor Network </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of Management </li></ul><ul><li>The Separation of data plane and management plane </li></ul><ul><li>Devisable Management: Approach to manage sensor network in future internet </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Growth of Internet Usage INTERNET Usenet old search chat news social networking shopping game travel p2p library IPTV
  4. 4. Problems of Current Internet <ul><li>Lack of security </li></ul><ul><li>Very difficult to manage due to explosive growth in # of devices & network traffic amount </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of mobility support </li></ul><ul><li>No guarantee on QoS – best effort service </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why Future Internet? <ul><li>A growing and changing demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For increasing user control of contents/services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For interconnecting ‘things’-TV/PC/phone/sensor… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For convergence: networks/devices/services (video/audio/data/voice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current technologies can be, and need to be improved significantly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For scaling up and more flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For better security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For higher performance and more functionality </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What is Future Internet? [1] <ul><li>Need to resolve the challenges facing today’s Internet by rethinking the fundamental assumptions and design decisions underlying its current architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Two principal ways in which to evolve or change a system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary approach (Incremental) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A system is moved from one state to another with incremental patches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionary approach (Clean-slate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The system is redesigned from scratch to offer improved abstractions and/or performance, while providing similar functionality based on new core principles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>It is time to explore a clean-slate approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the past 30 years, the Internet has been very successful using an incremental approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaching a point where people are unwilling or unable to experiment on the current architecture </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is Future Internet? [2] <ul><li>Future Internet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Slate design of the Internet’s architecture to satisfy the growing demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management issues of Future Internet also need to be considered from the stage of design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research Goal for Future Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing research for Future Internet and designing new network architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building an experimental facility </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Research Roadmaps for Future Internet 2000 2005 2010 2015 Now 2002 2007 2013 EU (Future Network/ Future Internet) NGI FP6 FP7 Euro-NGI(€5M) FIRE Euro-FGI 2006 US (Future Internet) 2006 PlanetLab 2002 NSF GENI GENI NSF NeTS-FIND 2008-2009 JP (NeW Generation Network) KR (Future Internet) FIF 2006 2008 4WARD CASFI 2008 NWGN Promoting Forum 2007 2004 JGN II JGN2Plus AKARI project 2006 Architecture Project Network testbed JGN X Architecture Project Network testbed KOREN2 KOREN 2002
  9. 9. Requirements for Future Internet <ul><li>Seamless handoff/roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Identity/addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity, authenticity, confidentiality of communication with any given peer </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualization of Resources </li></ul><ul><li>FCAPS </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic Management </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent and programmable network nodes </li></ul>Scalability Interoperability Reliability Availability
  10. 10. Requirements for Future Internet <ul><li>Seamless handoff/roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Identity/addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity, authenticity, confidentiality of communication with any given peer </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualization of Resources </li></ul><ul><li>FCAPS </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic Management </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent and programmable network nodes </li></ul>Scalability Interoperability Reliability Availability
  11. 12. Current Network Environment INTERNET Fast Ethernet B-ISDN ATM SONET PSTN ISDN 10 Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet WANs SS#7 IN/AIN PSDN xDSL/Cable Ethernet FTTH Satellite Broadcast Networks (DAB, DVB-T) CDMA, GSM, GPRS IP-based micro-mobility Wireless LANs WiBro, HSDPA Bluetooth Zigbee 6LoWPAN
  12. 13. Current Network Management Framework Agent Agent Agent Agent Agent Agent Agent Collect, organize & interpret Operational Data Administrator Workstation Management Platform Observation & Control mgmt requests/replies event reports
  13. 14. Functional Requirements for NM <ul><li>F ault Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>detection, isolation and correction of abnormal operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C onfiguration Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify managed resources and their connectivity, discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A ccounting Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keep track of usage for charging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>P erformance Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monitor and evaluate the behavior of managed resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S ecurity Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allow only authorized access and control </li></ul></ul>FCAPS
  14. 15. Standard Management Frameworks <ul><li>OSI Network Management Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CMIP (X.700 Series) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Network Management Framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SNMPv1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNMPv2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNMPv3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TeleManagement Forum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SID, eTOM, NGOSS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributed Management Task Force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CIM, WBEM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Mobile Alliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OMA DM </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Manageability for the current Internet has been developed as an afterthought! Do we need a revolutionary approach or an evolutionary approach? FCAPS ? THINK about Manageability of Future Internet
  16. 18. Research Efforts - EU <ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>4WARD WP4: INM ( I n N etwork M anagement) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic self-management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstractions and a framework for a self-organizing management plane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheme, strategies, and protocols for collaborative monitoring, self-optimizing, and self-healing </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Research Efforts - USA <ul><li>GENI OMIS WG ( O perations, M anagement, I ntegration and S ecurity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations, management, integration and security processes in GENI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment support, monitoring, and data storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security monitoring and incident response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federation management and monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware release, maintenance and integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software release, maintenance and integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations metric collection and analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Research Efforts - Korea <ul><li>CASFI ( C ollect, A nalyze, and S hare for F uture I nternet) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manageability of Future Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data Sharing Platform for Performance Measurement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-Precision Measurement and Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human Behavior Analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KHU, KAIST, POSTECH, CNU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2008.03.01 ~ 2013.02.28 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Management Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management Information Modeling & Operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized vs. Decentralized Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-Peer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer-centric service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service portability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLA/QoS </li></ul></ul>Management for Future Internet [ 1 ]
  20. 22. <ul><li>Traffic Monitoring/Measurement and Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring for large-scale and high-speed networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network/application-level monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global traffic data access/sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast and real time monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical sampling method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storing method for large scale traffic data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement and analysis of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social networking </li></ul></ul>Management for Future Internet [2]
  21. 23. <ul><li>Autonomic Management/Self-Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-managing frameworks and architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge engineering, including information modeling and ontology design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy analysis and modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic analysis and reasoning technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtualization of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orchestration techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-managed networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context-awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive management </li></ul></ul>Management for Future Internet [ 3 ]
  22. 24. Sensor Network and Internet: Similarities and Dissimilarities Internet Wireless Sensor Network Human-built artifacts Human-built artifacts Large Distributed System Large Distributed System (When sensor network islands will be connected to each other through Internet) Initially designed for very simple applications (e.g. mail, file transfer, interoperability between different systems). Initially design view was almost similar like Internet (e.g. low rate data gathering, remote sensing). However the success of internet contributes to the enormous growth in number of users and applications (e.g. billions of users, multimedia applications) Expected to succeed as the Internet and growing into even larger-scale commercial deployments (Recently the research trend has moved towards Multimedia applications of Sensor Network) Today’s Internet is a global scale communication infrastructure with an experience of more than 30 years A new technology emerging on the horizon today The study on distributed system and their various applications evolved from the large scale expansion of the Internet and the distributed nature of its service Sensor network is going to employ the experience from Internet to design a more efficient large scale distributed system Management of current Internet is an after thought issue Sensor network is still in design phase and Manageability issues must be considered beforehand unlike the Internet (like future Internet)
  23. 25. Application Trend in Sensor Network and its Management <ul><li>Large scale data acquisition system (e.g. Environmental monitoring, Oceanography) </li></ul><ul><li>For building ubiquitous instrumentation to accomplish design manageability in future internet (e.g. Sensors attached in the routers or switches) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive monitoring of Networking Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental observation and forecasting system </li></ul><ul><li>In the implementation of intelligent, sophisticated and complicated control algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>There will be revolutionary changes (or at least a paradigm shift) for network-enabled devices in control and management algorithm using sensors </li></ul>Necessitate an Efficient Sensor Network Management Architecture
  24. 26. Classification of Sensor Network Management
  25. 27. Management Protocols in Internet and Sensor Network <ul><li>Until now research trend has shown similar architectural trend from the management point of view </li></ul>Supply Management Data Network Managers, Software Agents, Policies Management Decision and Operations <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor failure-mode operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge overhead </li></ul></ul>Internet Management Protocols SNMP WSN Management Protocols MANNA (R.B Ruiz) WSNView (J.L. Chen) sNMP (B. Nath)
  26. 28. Policy based Network Management <ul><li>It is a condition-action response mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide an automatic response to conditions in the network according to pre-defined policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is also an abstraction/translation mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define goals /not device configurations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in policy lead to changes in goals/not implementations </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. General Architecture of Policy based Management <ul><li>Policy Management Tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy Repository </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy Decision Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy Enforcement Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Policy based Management: Discussion <ul><li>Policy based architecture is truly best suited for management if the all sorts of situation can be known in advanced </li></ul><ul><li>However, due to dynamics it is impossible to predict the network behavior </li></ul><ul><li>WSNs are more unpredictable than usual networks </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore we need a management architecture composed of following three properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic: All management functionalities will be executed autonomously and possibly with minimum human intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive: Ability to cope with the unpredictable behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence: Ability to take management decisions based on rules and policies </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Devisable Management for WSN <ul><li>Devisable Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a kind of autonomous management where network manager (software manager) will detect network events and do the necessary based on network resources, predefined policies, intuition and intelligence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intuition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predefined Policies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Devisable Management for WSN (Cont’d) <ul><li>Design Goals and Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping human intervention as less as possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the gap between software managers and human managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time cautious network event detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping the network change (e.g. state change) detection time as low as possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target is like six 9 availability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing unforeseen events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes network/sensor node may experience unforeseen events due to configuration error or due to security attacks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Devisable Management for WSN (Cont’d) <ul><li>Design issues to be considered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and develop an appropriate interface to reduce the gap between human manager and software agents who performs the task of management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of high level policies and goals of the applications and its conversion to low level machine readable policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify sensor network functionalities and management functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues related to manage unforeseen events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Query Model to other sensor network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensibility of the management protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion of new module and modification of existing modules </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Devisable Management for WSN (Cont’d) <ul><li>To identify the management requirements and operation first we need WSN Functionalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic functionalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be done manually/automatically if the deployed area is accessible </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be self configured if the deployed area is inaccessible </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gather data for sensed phenomenon or periodic events </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data gathering, aggregation etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver sensed phenomenon or periodic events to appropriate destination </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other functionalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application dependent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal requirement, Spatial requirement, Reliability </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 35. Devisable Management for WSN (Cont’d) <ul><li>Management Functionalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration Management: Tasks of this operation requires direct specification from applications and of course varies application to application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Node deployment (e.g. random or deterministic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topology discovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage area determination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault Management: most critical for sensor networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fault detection, isolation and correction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data reliability, protocol scalability, throughput, goodput, sensing quality wrt environmental changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify threats, reliability, privacy, integrity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterogeneity Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do we need a Virtualization in WSN? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Devisable Management for WSN (Cont’d) <ul><li>Functional modules for designing a devisable management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TNM (Tiny Network Manager) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resides in the sensor node </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs management for known events using Policy Based Network Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs unforeseen event management using Intuition and Intelligence </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. Devisable Management Modules
  36. 38. Devisable Management Modules (Cont’d) <ul><li>Management Agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It detects changes in the network (e.g. Anomaly detection) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also executes specific management tasks (e.g. configuration management, fault management etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rules and Policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous management can be accomplished with the help of policy based management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It consists of Policy Evaluation, Policy Repository, Policy Decision Point (PDP) and Policy Enforcement Point (PEP) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. Devisable Management Modules (Cont’d) <ul><li>Unforeseen Event Management Module </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This module prepares a query to ask about specific network state change which is not possible to handle with the exiting rules and policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also notifies reply (if received) to the policy evaluation module to create new policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protocol Extensibility Module </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This module deals with inclusion, modification and removal of the existing management policies, agents and functions when necessary </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Devisable Management (Cont’d) <ul><li>Identification of unforeseen events </li></ul><ul><li>Convert the event data into a high-level query format </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the query to other sensor network through Internet for solution </li></ul>YES NO Event Detection Agent Policy Repository Policy Found Policy Decision Point (PDP) Query Agent Policy Enforcement Point (PEP) Communication Agent
  39. 41. Devisable Management (cont’d)
  40. 42. Devisable Management (Cont’d) Query Format Query ID Parameters Values Event Type Reply Format Query ID Parameters Values Type Meaning Query ID A sequence number to identify the query itself Event Type It refers to the basic management functionalities (e.g. Configuration Event, Fault Event etc.) Type Meaning Parameters A list of information to be transmitted for the event Values Corresponds to the value of each parameter (e.g. Energy level 5 joule)
  41. 43. Devisable Management (Cont’d) Sequence diagram for policy based management operation and query to other sensor node for unforeseen event management
  42. 44. Devisable Management (Cont’d) Sequence diagram for reply in response to the query for unforeseen event management
  43. 45. Conclusions <ul><li>It’s time to study on manageability for Future Networks </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of devisable management would be very effective for managing Sensor networks </li></ul><ul><li>It will reduce the gap between human managers and software agents </li></ul><ul><li>It will enhance the autonomous property of management protocols </li></ul><ul><li>However the implementation will be very complex </li></ul><ul><li>Also, identifying a application independent query model will be a huge task </li></ul>
  44. 46. Question and Discussion