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  • MAN Network 75Mbps 7 to 10KM Max range 50km 微波存取全球互通
  • TDM mode
  • ※ Downlink subframe & uplink subframe ※ BS send DL&UL MAP ※ DL MAP ※ UL MAP
  • 在 BS 中 spec 提供了 2 種 分配頻寬 的模式
  • 一個 service flow 至少要有一個 SFID 和相關聯的方向,主要當作 BS 與 SS 間中眾多 service flow 的識別號碼 只有 service flow 在 admitted or active 狀態時才會有 CID 存在 由網路管理系統提供的 QoS 參數,不在 802.16-2004 標準規範內 , A set of external QoS parameters provided to the MAC, For example by the nerwork management system. BS 也可能是 SS 會根據此參數來做頻寬的保留 根據此 QoS 參數集,來真正提供 Service Flow 傳輸服務,只有 Active Service Flow 可以傳送封包 是一個在 BS 內部的邏輯功能模組,主要用來判斷是否同意或是拒絕 QoS 參數的改變,也負責規定 Admitted QoS Parameter Set 與 Active QoS Parameter Set 可能的值。
  • ppt

    1. 1. IEEE 802.16 WiMAX 中頻寬 資源管理架構之研究 A Study of the Bandwidth Management Architecture over IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Student : Sih-Han Chen Advisor : Ho-Ting Wu Date : 2008.5.6
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction of IEEE802.16 and QoS </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed QoS System Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairing Call Admission Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory Packet Scheduling Algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and Future Work </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    3. 3. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access(WiMAX) Wi-Fi 802.11a/b/g 802.15.1 Bluetooth 802.15.3 High Speed Wireless PAN Wi-Fi 802.11n 5/6/2008 Page Bandwidth 1 Gbps 100 Mbps 10 Mbps 1 Mbps PAN LAN MAN WAN <1m 10m 100m Up to 50Km Up to 80Km WiMAX 802.16 (802.16-2004 & 802.16e) 4G 3G 2.5G IEEE 802.15 IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.16 3GPP PAN: Personal area networks MAN: Metropolitan area networks LAN: Local area networks Wide area networks
    4. 4. IEEE 802.16 Operation Mode 5/6/2008 Page
    5. 5. MAC Common Part Sublayer <ul><li>Defines multiple-access mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Functions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connection establishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connection maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call admission control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bandwidth request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bandwidth allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet shceduling </li></ul></ul>5/6/2008 Page MAC Common Part Sublayer (MPC)
    6. 6. IEEE 802.16 TDD frame structure 5/6/2008 Page
    7. 7. DL-MAP and UL-MAP 5/6/2008 Page
    8. 8. Media Acces Control (MAC) <ul><li>Connection orienteded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Flow(SF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection ID (CID) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Channel access: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UL-MAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defines uplink channel access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defines uplink data burst profiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DL-MAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defines downlink data burst profiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL-MAP and DL-MAP are both transmitted in the beginning of each downlink subframe (FDD and TDD). </li></ul></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    9. 9. Bandwidth Request <ul><li>SSs may request bandwidth in 3 ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contention-based bandwidth requests (Broadcast Polling or Multicast Group Pollng) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contention-free bandwidth requests (Unicast Polling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piggyback a BW request message on a data packet </li></ul></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    10. 10. Bandwidth Allocation <ul><li>BS grants/allocates bandwidth in one of two modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant Per Subscriber Station ( GPSS ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant Per Connection ( GPC ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision based on requested BW , QoS parameters and available resources </li></ul><ul><li>Grants are realized through the UL-MAP </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    11. 11. Service Classes 5/6/2008 Page Feature Application UGS (Unsolicited Grant Service) <ul><li>Real Time </li></ul><ul><li>Constant Bit Rate </li></ul><ul><li>T1/E1 </li></ul><ul><li>VoIP </li></ul>rtPS (Real-Time Polling Service) <ul><li>Real Time </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Bite Rate </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG video </li></ul>nrtPS (Non-Real-Time Polling Service) <ul><li>Non-Real Time </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Bite Rate </li></ul><ul><li>FTP </li></ul>BE (Best Effort) <ul><li>Non-Real Time </li></ul><ul><li>No QoS guarantee </li></ul><ul><li>HTTP </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul>
    12. 12. Service Flow <ul><li>The central concept of the MAC protocol </li></ul><ul><li>A service flow is a unidirectional flow of packets that is provided a particular QoS . </li></ul><ul><li>SS and BS provide this QoS according to the QoS parameter set . </li></ul><ul><li>Existing in both uplink and downlink and may exist without being activated. </li></ul><ul><li>Must have a 32bit SFID , besides admitted and active status also have a 16-bit CID </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    13. 13. Attributes of a Service Flow <ul><li>Service Flow ID </li></ul><ul><li>CID </li></ul><ul><li>ProvisionedQoSParamSet </li></ul><ul><li>AdmittedQoSParamSet </li></ul><ul><li>ActiveQoSParamSet </li></ul><ul><li>Authorization Module </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page ProvisionedQoSParamSet (SFID) AdmittedQoSParamSet (SFID & CID) ActiveQoSParamSet (SFID & CID) Relationship of QoS Parameter Set
    14. 14. Dynamic Service Management <ul><li>Dynamic Service Add (DSA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add a service flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Service Change (DSC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change an existing service flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Service Delete (DSD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delete a service flow </li></ul></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    15. 15. Dynamic Service Establishment 5/6/2008 Page
    16. 16. Outline <ul><li>Introduction of IEEE802.16 QoS </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed QoS System Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairing Call Admission Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory Packet Scheduling Algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and Future Work </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    17. 17. Proposed QoS Architecture 5/6/2008 Page Core Network Applications Uplink Packet Scheduler Downlink Data Traffic Connection Request Connection Response Uplink Data Traffic Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation Down Stream (DL/UL MAP) Up Stream (Bandwidth Request) BS SS Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation Downlink Packet Scheduler Pair Call Admission Control Bandwidth Borrowing Agent
    18. 18. Outline <ul><li>Introduction of IEEE802.16 QoS </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed QoS System Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairing Call Admission Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory Packet Scheduling Algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and Future Work </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    19. 19. Pairing Call Admission Control 5/6/2008 Page Symbol Definition Total System Bandwidth Resource Remaining Available System Bandwidth Resource Connection Request Peak Traffic Rate of Connection Request, ( X = DL or UL) Average Traffic Rate of Connection Request, ( X = DL or UL) Min Traffic Rate of Connection Request, ( X = DL or UL) Reserved Bw for Connection , ( X = DL or UL)
    20. 20. Pairing Call Admission Control Each Pair Connection Request Y Y Y Y N N N Y N N Y 5/6/2008 Page Is UGS? Is rtPS? Is nrtPS? Is BE? B availabl e >= Enable Bandwidth Borrowing ? Accept Pair Call Reject Call Go Bandwidth Borrowing Agent
    21. 21. Outline <ul><li>Introduction of IEEE802.16 QoS </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed QoS System Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairing Call Admission Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory Packet Scheduling Algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and Future Work </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    22. 22. Bandwidth Borrowing Flow Chart 5/6/2008 Page Pair Connection Request from CAC Module Y Y N N N Reject Reject Fail Fail Fail Fail Fail Fail Success Success Success Success Success Y Y Success Is UGS? Is rtPS? Is nrtPS? Is BE? Borrow from existing BE Cons Borrow from existing nrtPS Cons Borrow from existing rtPS Cons Borrow from existing BE Cons Borrow from existing nrtPS Cons Reject Accept Reject Accept Borrow from existing BE Cons
    23. 23. Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC Level 5/6/2008 Page Symbol Definition Total numbers of rtPS , nrtPS or BE connection in system (X = rtPS , nrtPS or BE) The current reserved bandwidth for connection i The low bound of reserved bandwidth for connection i. Amount of bandwidth are needed to be borrowed from system. In system, How many bandwidth can be borrowed from rtPS, nrtPS and BE individually. (X = rtPS , nrtPS or BE )
    24. 24. Range of Bandwidth Reservation 5/6/2008 Page Peak Rate 0 (Peak+Average) /2 (Average+Min) /2 Min/2 Rsv-BE Rsv-rtPS Low Bound Average Rate Rsv-nrtPS Low Bound Min Rate Rsv-BE Low Bound Rsv-nrtPS Rsv-rtPS Rsv-UGS
    25. 25. Operation of Bandwidth Borrowing <ul><li>Amount of bandwidth are needed to be borrowed from system </li></ul><ul><li>In system, the bandwidth can be borrowed from rtPS, nrtPS and BE individually </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    26. 26. Operation of Bandwidth Borrowing <ul><li>If , the bandwidth borrowing from each exiting BE connection : </li></ul><ul><li>Else, try to borrow bandwidth from nrtPS. </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    27. 27. Operation of Bandwidth Borrowing <ul><li>If , the bandwidth borrowing from each exiting nrtPS connecion, after borrow from all : </li></ul><ul><li>Else, try to borrow bandwidth from rtPS. </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    28. 28. Operation of Bandwidth Borrowing <ul><li>If , the bandwidth borrowing from each exiting rtPS connecion, after borrow from all and and : </li></ul><ul><li>Else, Bandwidth Borrowing Fail ! Reject the connection request. </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    29. 29. Outline <ul><li>Introduction of IEEE802.16 QoS </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed QoS System Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairing Call Admission Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory Packet Scheduling Algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and Future Work </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    30. 30. Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation <ul><li>Stage One : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give the guarantee reserved bandwidth at most. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain fairness, guarantee each connection shares the bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage Two : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocate the remaining bandwidth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial fairness. Use weighting ( i.e. rtPS:nrtPS:BE = 2:1:1 ) to share the bandwidth. </li></ul></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    31. 31. Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation Page 5/6/2008
    32. 32. Outline <ul><li>Introduction of IEEE802.16 QoS </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed QoS System Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairing Call Admission Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory Packet Scheduling Algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluatioin </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and Future Work </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    33. 33. Mandatory Packet Scheduling Algorithm 5/6/2008 Page Scheduling Service Mandatory Algorithm UGS First In First Out (FIFO) rtPS Earliest Deadline First (EDF) nrtPS Weighted Fair Queue (WFQ) BE Round Robin (RR)
    34. 34. Outline <ul><li>Introduction of IEEE802.16 QoS </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed QoS System Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairing Call Admission Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory Packet Scheduling Algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and Future Work </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    35. 35. Traffic Generation and Simulation Environment 5/6/2008 Page Simulation Environment Values Number of BS 1 Number of SS 10 - 100 Total Bandwidth 64 Mbps Each SS Data Source 4 (UGS/rtPS/nrtPS/BE) Total Simulation Time 1000 Seconds Frame Duration 10 ms
    36. 36. System Model of Simulation Experiment <ul><li>Note : We assume that only SS can send </li></ul><ul><li>the connection request to BS actively </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    37. 37. Traffic Generation and Simulation Environment Page 5/6/2008 UGS rtPS nrtPS BE Application VoIP Video Stream FTP Email Average Data Rate 64 Kbps DL : 387Kbps UL : 38.7Kbps DL : 320Kbps UL : 32Kbps 192 Kbps Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate 64 Kbps DL : 464.4Kbps UL : 46.44Kbps DL : 384Kbps UL : 38.4Kbps 230.4Kbps Minimum Reserve Traffic Rate 64 Kbps DL : 309.6Kbps UL : 30.96Kbps DL : 256Kbps UL : 25.6Kbps 153.6Kbps Accept Call Criteria Max Rate 64Kbps (Max+Avg)/2 DL : 425.7Kbps UL : 42.57Kbps (Avg+Min)/2 DL : 288Kbps UL : 28.8Kbps Min / 2 76.8Kbps Low Bound of Guarantee Bw Max Rate Avg Rate Min Rate 0 Call Inter Arrival Time 9 Seconds Exponential 37.5 Seconds Exponential 30 Seconds Exponential 4.5 Seconds Exponential Call Duration 240 seconds Exponential 240 seconds Exponential 60 seconds Exponential 30 seconds Exponential
    38. 38. Traffic Generation and Simulation Environment Page 5/6/2008 UGS rtPS nrtPS BE Maximum Latency 20 ms 40 ms 100 ms 200 ms Schedule Scheme FIFO EDF WFQ RR Packet Size 160 Bytes Fixed-Size 64-1518 Bytes Uniform 64-1518 Bytes Uniform 64-1518 Bytes Uniform Packet Fragment 80 Bytes 240 Bytes 120 Bytes 120 Bytes Packet Inter Arrival Time 20 ms Fixed Period DL : 16.35 ms UL : 163.5ms Fixed Period DL : 20 ms UL : 200ms Fixed Period 33ms Fixed Period Reserve Bw Per frame (Non Bandwidth Borrowing) 80 Bytes DL : 532.125 B UL : 53.2125 B DL : 360 B UL : 36 B 96 Bytes
    39. 39. Performance Metric <ul><li>Call Blocking Probability : </li></ul><ul><li>Packet Drop Rate : </li></ul><ul><li>Packet Delay : </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    40. 40. NonPairing CAC vs Pairing CAC 5/6/2008 Page
    41. 41. Definition of Pairing CAC <ul><li>Accepted : </li></ul><ul><li>Reject : </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    42. 42. Definition of NonPairing CAC Accept Call <ul><li>Round Trip Time of Downlink Connection Request (RTT) </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    43. 43. Definition of NonPairing CAC Reject Call 5/6/2008 Page
    44. 44. Definition of NonPairing CAC <ul><li>Default RTT of DL connection request </li></ul><ul><li>: 0.5 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted : </li></ul><ul><li>First Type of Connection Fail : </li></ul><ul><li>Second Type of Connection Fail : </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    45. 45. Call Blocking Probability NonPairing CAC vs Pairing CAC 5/6/2008 Page
    46. 46. Call Blocking Probability- Pair vs NonPair (RTT=0.5) 5/6/2008 Page
    47. 47. 5/6/2008 Page Accept Calls - Pairing vs NonPairing (RTT= 5s, 10s)
    48. 48. In Pairing CAC Mode Non Bandwidth Borrowing (NonBB) vs Bandwidth Borrowing (BB) 5/6/2008 Page
    49. 49. Bandwidth Borrowing Scheme 5/6/2008 Page Service Type Bandwidth Borrowing Scheme UGS BE rtPS BE  nrtPS  rtPS nrtPS BE  nrtPS BE Non
    50. 50. Call Blocking Probability NonBB vs BB 5/6/2008 Page
    51. 51. Call Blocking Probability- BB vs NonBB Page 5/6/2008
    52. 52. Overall Packet Drop Rate NonBB vs BB 5/6/2008 Page
    53. 53. NonBB Mode DL and UL Packet Drop Rate 5/6/2008 Page
    54. 54. BB Mode DL and UL Packet Drop Rate 5/6/2008 Page
    55. 55. Overall Packet Delay NonBB vs BB 5/6/2008 Page
    56. 56. NonBB Mode DL and UL Packet Delay 5/6/2008 Page
    57. 57. BB Mode DL and UL Delay 5/6/2008 Page
    58. 58. Conclusion <ul><li>Proposed a novel QoS architecture over Wimax, including : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pairing Call Admission Control (CAC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Borrowing on CAC level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Stage Bandwidth Allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both Downlink and Uplink dynamic bandwidth allocation. </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    59. 59. Thanks for your attention Q&A 5/6/2008 Page
    60. 60. Pairing Call Admission Control 5/6/2008 Page
    61. 61. Future Works <ul><li>Design a dynamic packet fragment scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a queuing algorithm for non-real time service (nrtPS and BE). </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-layer design for specific popular application (i.e. adjust VoIP or IPTV codex) . </li></ul><ul><li>Extend to Mobil WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page
    62. 62. Bandwidth Reservation Scheme 5/6/2008 Page Basic Bandwidth Reserved Scheme Analysis Maximum Sustained Traffic Rate ( = Peak Rate) <ul><li>每條被允入的連線都能達到 100 % 服務品質保證。 </li></ul><ul><li>系統所允入的連線數目最少,且頻寬的使用率也是最低。 </li></ul><ul><li>對於 Variable Bit Rate 類型的連線,有較嚴重的頻寬浪費。 </li></ul><ul><li>適合用於 Constant Bit Rate 類型的連線。 </li></ul>Average Traffic Rate <ul><li>定義上,長期 (Long term) 時間內能滿足各連線的需求,但短期內無法達到 100 % 的服務品質保證。 </li></ul><ul><li>被允入的連線數目提高,且能提供一定品質的服務。 </li></ul><ul><li>對於有時效性的連線封包,在突爆量時封包的丟棄率 (Drop rate) 會稍高。 </li></ul>Minimum Reserved Traffic Rate ( = Min Rate) <ul><li>只能提供每條連線最小保留頻寬的服務。 </li></ul><ul><li>被允入的連線數目最多,但每條連線都只享有最低的服務品質,可能造成過長的時間延遲問題。 </li></ul><ul><li>較適合沒有時效性的連線。 </li></ul>
    63. 63. IEEE 802.16 QoS Provisioning <ul><li>Service Flow QoS Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Service Establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Two-phase Activation </li></ul>5/6/2008 Page

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