Introduction to IPTV
The last mile (or first mile, depending garage door is closed from your cell Table of Contents
on your perspective) of the telco network phone; and you can display photos IPTV Subscriber Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
is instrumental in determining what stored on your PC on your parent’s tele-
IPTV Business Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
services can be offered. Initially, limita- vision set. These are a few ways you will
tions in this portion of the network have greater access and more control. IPTV Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . 5
restricted service to standard telephony. IPTV Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
This document provides an introduction
More recently, technology enhancements
to IPTV services, revenue opportunities, IPTV Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
enable support of revenue-producing,
network topologies and design consider-
bandwidth-hungry applications such as Nortel’s IPTV Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
These enhancements are changing how
the network can be used to simplify
subscribers’ lives and generate revenue
for service providers. Digital video
recorders (DVRs) and video on demand
(VoD) are incremental services already
being deployed today by consumers
who desire to take advantage of time-
shifting technologies. In the future you
may no longer need a standalone DVD
or CD player because you will have
access to every movie and song ever
produced through your broadband
connection; you can check whether your
IPTV subscriber services High definition television (HDTV) Time-shifted viewing
Imagine using a single device to watch High definition television provides an The first enhancements to television
television, surf the Web and make video additional revenue opportunity. Available service allow content to be viewed at a
telephone calls. Once the stuff of science high definition content includes: time which is more convenient to the
fiction, this capability is now available > Local channels which broadcast high subscriber.
on your PC. But PCs have their own definition content
challenges: boot time, picture quality, Digital Video Recorder (DVR)
> Networks and premium channels
cost and the ability to sit comfortably Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) provide
showing only digital programming,
on your couch while using it! the ability to “time-shift” television
such as Bravo HD and HBO HD
viewing. Similar to a VCR, it records
There are numerous services which can > Channels dedicated to showing only
programs which you can view later.
be offered across an IPTV network. high definition content, such as
However, DVRs differ in several ways:
Some of these are no different than Universal HD and HD Net
those offered by traditional cable TV > DVRs use a hard disk to record the
service. Others build on the power of These channels are more aptly described content. As such, they can record
the packet network to provide addi- as digital television. While all content is hundreds of hours of content, and
tional functionality. digital, not all programming is neces- subscribers can directly access any
sarily high definition. recording without “fast forwarding”
Broadcast television through other programs.
Pay Per View (PPV)
As a starting point, an IPTV network > DVRs are integrated into the IPTV
must provide the same service and Pay Per View (PPV) programming system. From the operator’s electronic
content as cable networks, including requires that the subscriber pay an addi- program guide (EPG), the subscriber
broadcast television, premium channels, tional fee to view specific content. Like simply scrolls to the content to be
pay per view and music — anything standard television service, PPV content recorded and hits a “record” button.
which can be sent from a single source is broadcast at a set time. Unlike tradi-
tional television, service is very dynamic Initially developed as standalone boxes,
to many subscribers. These basic services
— the subscriber must request service, DVR capability is being integrated into
are described below.
the service provider must verify eligi- the set-top box. An alternative model,
bility (such as whether the account is called network DVR, allows the user to
Basic and premium television
current) and the subscriber must be store recorded programs using storage
The most basic IPTV service is “basic located in the telco network rather than
authorized to view the content — all
service”, which delivers programming to in the set-top box.
within a few minutes.
multiple subscribers concurrently. This
is similar to the service offered by cable DVRs are also called Personal Video
Near Video on Demand (nVoD)
operators, and includes the access to one Recorders (PVRs).
or more of the following: Near Video on Demand (nVoD) is
similar to PPV. While PPV service starts Video on Demand (VoD)
> National channels, such as ESPN
the movie every two hours, nVoD service Video on Demand (VoD) allows the
> Premium channels, such as HBO shows the same movie on several chan- subscriber to view content whenever
> Local channels, such as the local nels, each starting as little as 15 minutes he/she wants, from a library of stored
ABC affiliate apart. Hence the subscriber has a short content. VoD supports a complete set of
wait time until the movie begins. VCR-like “trick” functions including
> Music channels
rewind, pause and fast forward.
Imagine using a single device to watch television, surf the Web
and make video telephone calls.
Unlike near VoD, true VoD allows the
subscriber to immediately begin viewing
the content. VoD content can include:
> Educational videos, ranging from
school material to etiquette
> Movies and television shows
> DVD content, including access to all
of the “extras” like trailers, subtitles
and alternate endings.
Integrating television and telephony
call or forward the call to voice mail. In TV data
enables a cadre of new services. Some of
addition, Call Routing actions described Allowing Web access from your televi-
these are listed below.
above can be enabled or disabled. sion is the first step to more advanced
Caller ID on TV data services. IPTV enables you to
As the name implies, Caller ID on TV provide totally new services, either
Click-to-Call allows the subscriber to directly or by providing access to a
allows a viewer to see information about
initiate a call from an on-screen list. third-party content provider. In the
an incoming call. At a minimum, this is
This list can be a call log which is auto- latter case, revenue is shared between
the phone number or caller name
matically maintained by the system, or a you and the content provider.
provided by the Caller ID service. This
user-created address book.
can be customized to display customized
Web and e-mail on TV
information (“Dad” instead of “John
Video calling and conferencing
Smith”) or a picture of the caller. Adding a wireless keyboard allows your
Initially displayed at the 1964 World’s subscribers to easily surf the Web, on a
Call Routing Fair, network technology has finally large screen, without the need to own a
matured to enable video calling. As the computer.
Call Routing allows the subscriber to
name implies, video calling allows face-
predefine actions. Examples include: This service can include e-mail. Of
to-face conversations across the
> Selective Do Not Disturb automati- network. Video calling appeals to both course, this includes the ability to view
cally forwarding calls to voice mail. consumer and business customers — and respond, using the television as a
This can apply to all calls, selected grandparents can see their grandchil- monitor.
callers or general categories such as dren, and business can be conducted
calls from 800 numbers. Music on Demand
more effectively. Video conferencing
> Allow Caller permits only specified extends this by allowing three or more Music on Demand (MoD) service offers
calls to ring through. This option may parties to communicate. access to an extensive library of music
be desirable while watching a favorite via the network. For a low monthly fee
Video calling can be done using any of — typically less than the cost of a single
TV show, for example.
three devices to view the other parties: CD — subscribers can enjoy unlimited
> Call Reject automatically “hangs up” a personal computer, dedicated video- access to a vast library of music which
on calls from undesirable callers, such phone or television set with camera. The can be played through the audio/video
as “blocked” calls. television is an excellent platform choice system. Extended capabilities include
because of its large screen and low incre- storing playlists of music to be played,
mental cost (you already have it). and downloading tracks to an MP3
Call Disposition is similar to Call
player or “buying” the music by allowing
Routing, although decisions are made DVR integration
the subscriber to burn it to a CD.
dynamically using the remote control DVR integration automatically begins
rather than ahead of time. At the click recording the viewed program when you
of a button, the TV viewer can reject a pick up the telephone.
Gaming on Demand > Allow the screen to show a graphic However, the business model for VoD
Gaming on Demand provides similar instead of the speaker or to “white- varies widely. Variations include:
capabilities as the equivalent video and board” an idea > Free on Demand — VoD access and
music services. Contrary to popular > Send a private IM or e-mail to anyone content is free, as stimulus to buy the
conception, the largest segment of the on the call overall service.
gaming market is older women who > A la carte VoD — Pay for each item
play simpler games. This service offers a IPTV business model viewed (similar to Pay Per View).
variety of simple game titles, which Typically the subscriber has one day to
The sources of revenue and expenses for
could be sponsored by advertisers, for view the content.
IPTV operators are fairly straightforward.
the user to access on demand.
> Subscription VoD — Pay a monthly fee
Enhancements to this service could
Revenue sources for access to all content in the stan-
include multiplayer capability and
Although new services can generate dard library.
messaging during game play.
substantial revenue, the basic revenue > Premium VoD — Pay an additional
Customizations such as emoticons could
sources remain the same: subscribers monthly fee for premium content
be sold to the subscriber, similar to
and advertisers. such as recent movies.
selling of ring tones to cellular tele-
phone users. VoD also provides advertising and
promotional opportunities. A warehouse
IM and advanced presence Each subscriber pays a monthly service
home center may pay to sponsor an
charge. This service charge can include
TV-based presence builds on current instructional home improvement video
broadcast television, including national,
capabilities. In addition to sending with a promotion code to get discounted
local and/or premium channels; and
instant messages (IM) and knowing product. You can provide promo pack-
incremental charges for advanced serv-
whether buddies are online, it allows ages to increase revenue, such as “buy
ices such as “non-premium” VoD or
you to monitor what your friend is two, get one free” or “if you liked this
videoconferencing. Set-top box rentals
watching and automatically call the movie, you may want to also view these
also generate some revenue.
friend when the recipient’s phone is free. other movies.”
The subscriber may also pay a one-time
Additional TV data services fee to watch content such as recent IPTV costs
Additional revenue opportunities are movies, which may be available via Pay In addition to the cost of operating the
limited only by the imagination. Some Per View or VoD. network, there are several costs unique
of the services available today include: to offering television service.
> Local dating services
Advertisers can pay operators to have Content acquisition and distribution
> View TV on your PC
their commercials shown. Some national The operator must sign an agreement
Integrated communications channels allow this local ad insertion, and with each content provider. Dozens of
the operator gets to keep this revenue. agreements1 are required to cover the
Integrating telephony, video and data
For the cable industry in 2003, ad inser- myriad of available channels and VoD
enables a multitude of new services.
tion added $5 billion to the top line. content. This agreement covers what the
Some of these are illustrated below.
operator can offer, but does not cover
> Automatically receive an Instant Video on Demand revenue where the operator gets the content.
Message (IM) when someone joins or
VoD often generates additional revenue
leaves the call A separate agreement must be reached
for the operator by customizing television
with one or more content aggregators.
> Easily send a document to everyone to meet the preferences and schedule of
Aggregators provide the content to the
on the call the subscriber.
operator, typically by allowing the oper-
ator to receive a satellite signal.
Multiple networks may be owned by a common parent company, so a unique contract is not required for each channel. For example, Viacom owns CBS, UPN,
Comedy Central, MTV, Nickelodeon, TV Land, Spike, BET, CMT, VH1 and others.
Video equipment > Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) is used by > Passive Optical Networks (PON)
The video head-end contains equipment cable operators. Fiber is used for the technology is used to deliver service
to receive, protect and distribute first leg of the journey, from the head- using end-to-end fiber. A single fiber
content to authorized viewers. A typical end to the subscriber’s neighborhood. leaves the CO, and a passive splitter in
head-end includes dozens of different This is then converted to coax for the the outside plant splits the signal to
video components. In addition, each remainder of the connection, termi- support multiple subscribers.
subscriber requires a network interface nating at the subscriber premises. Broadband PON (BPON) supports
device (DSL modem or ONU/ONT) Coax cable supports higher bandwidth up to 32 subscribers per port, while
and one or more set-top boxes (STBs). than telephone twisted pair, giving Gigabit PON (GPON) supports up
cable operators an advantage in this to 128 subscribers per port.
Trenching area. However, often the cable plant > Ethernet, sometimes called “active
Running fiber or copper can be the must be upgraded to support HDTV Ethernet” to differentiate from PON.
single largest expense. As a result, service. Active Ethernet is used for point-to-
existing copper should be re-used when- point connection to subscribers.
> Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) delivers
ever possible. Running fiber to every
service across a copper connection, These technologies can also be
subscriber can require twice the invest-
typically using the existing local loop. combined. Ethernet is commonly used
ment as running fiber to the neighbor-
There are multiple DSL variants, with to deliver the signal to a DSLAM
hood and using DSL for the last few
the ADSL family (including ADSL2, located in the outside plant.
ADSL2+) being the most prevalent.
VDSL2 provides reach and speed Private wireless IPTV networks
IPTV network architecture beyond that of ADSL2+.
In addition, fixed wireless and mobile
IPTV is transmitted using the operator’s DSL is distance-sensitive, and 20 wireless providers are looking to offer
private “business-grade” IP network. Mbps is often considered a require- triple-play service.
Unlike the Internet, this IP network is ment for offering triple-play service.
controlled by the operator and provides > Satellite is an excellent medium for
As a result, DSL often cannot be used
the reliability and robustness to ensure delivering television service to a large
alone to reach every subscriber.
that the subscriber is satisfied with the customer base cost-effectively.
Instead, fiber must be deployed to
IPTV service. However, the 120 millisecond delay
connect to a DSLAM located in an
introduced by satellite makes this
There are several types of networks used outside plant cabinet. In the U.S.,
medium a poor choice for real-time or
for delivering triple-play service to the long local loop lengths (up to 18,000
bi-directional traffic. Telephone service
subscriber. From an OSI networking feet) force the telcos to deploy fiber at
is not offered, and data service is typi-
perspective, IPTV is delivered using IP least part of the way to the subscriber
cally viable only for customers in
(Layer 3) packets with an Ethernet premises. In many other countries,
remote areas that cannot be serviced
(Layer 2) header. The difference is in local loops are shorter and DSL can
by cable modem, DSL or PON.
the physical (Layer 1) medium. be used successfully.
There are three basic ways to deliver
IP-based television service: using a
(private) wired network which is owned
and operated by the operator, using a
(private) wireless network or using the
Private wired IPTV networks
IPTV networks are built by wireline
carriers in any of four ways:
Large telcos often have tactical part- As noted earlier, fiber must often be ment complexes. PON is more preva-
nerships with satellite providers. This extended to a DSLAM located in the lent in North America, while Ethernet is
allows them to provide a single bill to outside plant. This is commonly used extensively in Asia. The shorter
the customer, reducing the number of referred to as “Fiber To The X”, where local loop lengths used in Europe often
subscribers defecting to triple-play “X” is the fiber endpoint. FTTx termi- make DSL the preferred option.
cable offerings. nology can be used to refer to DSL,
PON or Ethernet. Common terms One size doesn’t fit all
> Fixed wireless techniques such as
include: The major U.S. telcos provide an
WiMax are being evaluated. However,
WiMax supports only 17 Mbps of > Fiber to the Exchange (FTTE): This is excellent example of how one type of
shared bandwidth over a 2.5-mile a fancy way of saying that there is a customer can select different solutions.
radius (and less at higher distances). DSLAM in the central office. Verizon has elected to implement Fiber
At 4 Mbps per channel, this supports > Fiber to the Cabinet (FTTCab): Fiber to the Premises (FTTP), delivering fiber
only four television channels. is extended to an outside cabinet to the subscriber’s doorstep. This yields
which typically supports hundreds of the highest bandwidth but requires the
> Most recently, Digital Multimedia largest investment. AT&T implements
subscribers. This cabinet is the tradi-
Broadcast (DMB) and DVB-H Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) in some
tional aggregation point for traditional
(Direct Video Broadcast—Handset) markets, using existing copper for only
telephone local loops. A large DSLAM
standards have emerged to send televi- the last 500 feet. In other markets, AT&T
resides in this cabinet.
sion to mobile handsets. These deploys Fiber to the Node (FTTN),
provide low-definition transmission to > Fiber to the Neighborhood (FTTN):
terminating the fiber run within a few
small screen devices such as PDAs and Fiber is extended to each neighbor-
thousand feet of the subscriber. This
cellphones, and lack the bandwidth to hood. In this scenario, fiber extends
lowers the up-front cost but limits the
support transmission to home-sized closer to the subscriber site. A small
televisions. DSLAM in each neighborhood
supports dozens of subscribers.
Public (Internet) wired IPTV > Fiber to the Curb (FTTC): Fiber is
IPTV is a complex technology. Before
Another business model uses the extended to within (typically) less
you can fully understand the challenges
Internet, rather than a private IP than 1000 feet/300 meters from the
to offering services, it is useful to under-
network, to deliver television service (in subscriber site. Each fiber typically
stand a bit about how IPTV networks
addition to voice and data). The most supports one to three subscribers.
operate. This section overviews the
common use is Internet-based Video on (Note: In the United States, FTTC is
various systems required for a complete
Demand (iVoD). Upon paying to view under 500 feet to conform to FCC
the selected material, the content is sent regulations.)
to the subscriber’s PC or similar device. > Fiber to the Premises/Home/Subscriber/ Middleware
After downloading the first several Business (FTTP, FTTH, FTTS,
Middleware controls what the electronic
minutes of content, the playback begins. FTTB): Fiber reaches the subscriber
program guide (EPG) displays, thereby
This downloading ensures that jitter and site. Each subscriber is connected
controlling access to content and serv-
packet loss in the Internet will not affect using PON or Ethernet, not DSL.
ices. It logs new VoD content and adds
this information into its directory. It
Which to deploy?
controls the encryption process, telling
FTTx: PON, Ethernet and DSL The trade-off between PON and the Conditional Access (CA) system
Depending upon distance to the Ethernet is relatively straightforward. when to encrypt information and when
subscriber, telcos may deploy either PON provides less bandwidth per to send the key to a subscriber. It also
DSL or fiber (PON or Ethernet) to the subscriber, but at a lower cost. As a interacts with the back-end systems. For
customer premises. Some telcos also result, PON is most often used when it example, it checks whether a subscriber’s
own the local cable company. can provide the needed bandwidth. account is up to date before allowing
Ethernet can be used to connect to the subscriber to view VoD or PPV
dense, high-bandwidth sites such as content.
large businesses, office parks and apart-
Signal acquisition > Rate limiting — All common encoding This function may be integrated into
The first step is to acquire the content. methods intrinsically produce variable the ad splicer.
Content acquisition equipment receives bit rate (VBR) signals, in which “fast > The billing interface tracks that the
the channel content and processes it motion” requires more bandwidth. ads were inserted. This verifies to the
into a useable video format. Received With bandwidth at a premium, the advertiser that the commercial was
content may come in many forms — in operator may choose to limit that shown as planned.
digital or analog format, standard defi- amount of bandwidth that a channel
nition or high definition (or music), can consume. Often the operator Video on Demand
encrypted or unencrypted, from a satel- converts the signal into a constant bit
There are three primary components to
lite or an antenna. A typical head-end rate (CBR) packet stream.
a VoD system:
will require six unique types of systems, > Cross-conversion — Also called up-
> VoD server — This device stores the
and multiples of each are often required. conversion or down-conversion, this
content. Some VoD servers are propri-
The equipment required for signal acqui- changes the resolution of the displayed
etary hardware; others are software,
sition is an Integrated Receiver/Decoder picture. For example, a signal received
that works with commercial server
(IRD) for digital signals or a demodu- in 720p (screen size of 1280 x 720)
and storage equipment.
lator for analog signals. format may be converted to 1080i
> VoD catcher — This equipment
(screen size of 1920 x 1080) before
Encoding and grooming receives new content from the content
distributing the signal to subscribers.
provider (such as a movie studio) via
Once the signal is “downlinked” or The latter two functions are sometimes satellite. The brand/model of VoD
“downconverted”, it may need to be collectively called “transrating”. Some catcher is specified by the content
altered. If an analog signal is received, an encoders perform transcoding and tran- provider to work with the “VoD
encoder is required to digitize, compress srating, or a separate device can be used. pitcher” used by the content provider,
and packetize the signal. Compression is
since there are no industry standards. An
very important as TV channels require a Ad insertion operator may need several VoD catchers
lot of bandwidth to transport and given
Ad insertion is triggered by a command to receive content from multiple sources.
the bandwidth constraints associated
signal embedded in the received televi- > VoD cache — The VoD cache is a
with xDSL, maximizing the bandwidth
sion signal. This “cue tone” signal distributed VoD server. Frequently
utilization is a primary consideration.
provides information to the operator accessed content may be pushed to
If the signal is received in digital format, about when ads can be inserted. Ad caching equipment located closer to
it may still need to be converted into insertion requires three components: the user.
the format used by the operator. There > The ad splicer forwards cue tone
are three changes that may be required: information to the scheduler and Emergency Alert System
> Transcoding — Most digital signals replaces the received signal with the In the United States, the government
use pre-standard or MPEG-2 encoding. desired advertisement. mandates that operators support the
Operators are beginning to use > An ad server stores the local advertise- Emergency Alert System (EAS). Each
MPEG-4 or Microsoft’s VC-1 to ments which are to be inserted. operator must listen for any alerts and
reduce the required bandwidth by up translate these encoded messages for
> The ad scheduler tells the splicer when
to 50 percent. presenting to viewers. An EAS receiver
to insert ads, and tells the server
provides this function.
which ad to forward to the splicer.
In the future you may no longer need a standalone DVD or CD player
because you will have access to every movie and song ever produced
through your broadband connection.
Conditional access > Content acquisition — Offering televi- (each requiring 4 Mbps) to 3,000
This system encrypts the content so that sion service requires that you decide subscribers.
it can only be viewed by those subscribers which channels you should offer, > Without Video on Demand, the oper-
who pay for the content. Encrypting the reaching agreement with the content ator requires 600 Mbps (150 channels
signal also protects against piracy. The provider, and deciding which content @ 4 Mbps) on the network backbone
conditional access (CA) system supports aggregator best meets your needs. It to deliver television service to all
two types of traffic: costs you money for each channel subscribers. The required bandwidth is
you offer. determined by the number of channels.
> Broadcast TV — Broadcast television
traffic must be encrypted “on the fly” > Investment — Significant investment > If every subscriber is watching Video
to protect against piracy and service is required to purchase all of the on Demand programming, the operator
theft. required equipment. requires 12 Gbps (3000 subscribers @
> Video on Demand — Content > Expertise — Since few standards exist, 4 Mbps) on the network backbone.
providers require that VoD content be and equipment often comes from The required bandwidth is determined
encrypted before it is stored on the multiple vendors, there is also a by the number of subscribers.
VoD Server. Stored content must be substantial training cost involved.
Because of the bandwidth impact of
periodically re-encrypted as a further VoD, understanding the expected pene-
preventive measure. Broadcast considerations
tration rate of VoD service is critical
> Access bandwidth required — High when designing the network.2
Encrypting of broadcast television traffic
definition television (HDTV) chan-
is typically done using hardware
nels require 20 Mbps, while standard Control plane scalability
designed for this task. In contrast, VoD
definition channels require 4 Mbps.
encryption is not done in “real-time” so Another concern is the number of users
Providing even one HDTV channel
this can be supported using specialized which can be supported by the system.
requires more bandwidth than
software running on a standard hard- Any equipment has limits on the number
provided by most access networks.
ware platform. of sessions, as well as a maximum aggre-
> IP Multicast — Delivering IPTV gate bandwidth. Server load balancing
Set-top box requires that the network support one capabilities allow the system to duplicate
IP multicast stream for each channel. and distribute the content to other
The set-top box (STB) is the subscriber’s
This is more complex than standard servers on the fly.
interface into the network. Of course, it
“unicast” IP forwarding, and most
interprets the incoming signal into a Understanding the number of users that
network equipment does not provide
format that the television can understand. must be supported by the VoD system is
the scalability required to support IPTV.
It also converts remote control buttons critical to ensuring service availability.
into IP commands for forwarding,
decrypts the television signal and Content caching
combines the EAS information with the Supporting Video on Demand funda-
mentally changes the network. Instead Thousands of hours of content can be
incoming stream for presenting to the
of broadcasting a signal to everyone, stored cost-effectively. A 2,000 hour
each subscriber now has a personalized VoD library fits into a six-inch high,
channel. This has significant effect on 4 terabyte rack mount unit that costs a
IPTV considerations few thousand dollars. However, the cost
many pieces of the network.
There are several challenges to offering of content caches, which provide for
IPTV service. Bandwidth requirements faster access, remains an important
consideration. Deciding which content
Perhaps the greatest challenge to VoD is
Financial considerations to cache — and when to remove
the amount of bandwidth required.
There are several things to consider when content from the cache — is critical to
Consider a rural network providing 150
planning for a basic IPTV network. building a cost-effective solution.
standard definition television channels
This is a simplified example using a fixed set of assumptions. High definition television requires three to four times more bandwidth for each channel, while
using the newest compression standards cuts the bandwidth required in half. This also assumes that a “pull” VoD model is used. Each subscriber may also have
more than one television.
VoD implementation Nortel’s IPTV solution IPTV services
The need to reduce VoD bandwidth has Addressing the IPTV opportunity This reference architecture is combined
led to alternate methods of providing requires significant investment and with Nortel services to further speed
VoD service. expertise. Nortel’s IPTV offering is your market entry. Nortel saves you the
designed to enable telcos to quickly and expense of developing in-house expertise
Pull VoD stores content within the oper-
cost-effectively offer IPTV service in and allows you to more quickly offer
ator network. Upon request, the content
addition to the existing telephone and IPTV service. Nortel can be your single
is streamed to the subscriber. The
data services. The solution consists of point of contact for designing and
advantage is that the user can select
IPTV products and related services. installing your broadband network.
from a large, centrally stored content
Alternatively, you can use Nortel services
library. The disadvantage is that band-
IPTV ecosystem to complement your own in-house skills.
width must be allocated to each
subscriber viewing VoD content. Since there are few IPTV standards,
Nortel has worked with IPTV equipment The next step
In contrast, the Push VoD model auto- providers to develop an integrated IPTV Wondering what to do next? Often, the
matically downloads the VoD content to reference architecture. By combining first step is to assess the existing network
the subscriber’s DVR. This download is IPTV products from industry leaders and operations to determine how ready
done during off-peak times or at low with Nortel’s carrier-grade backbone you are to offer IPTV service. Nortel
priority, eliminating the need for addi- into a single offering, we provide a provides a suite of IPTV Readiness
tional bandwidth. The downside is that tested, robust network which meets the Services that assess the existing copper
this makes some of the DVR disk most stringent requirements. loop, network backbone and operational
unavailable to the subscriber. As such, procedures and then provides recom-
this approach is practical only for the Nortel’s IPTV solution is based on
mendations to enhance a telco’s readi-
latest content, which will be viewed by a alliances with IPTV component providers.
ness to offer IPTV service.
relatively large number of subscribers. The integration and pre-testing at
Nortel’s IPTV interoperability lab
The push model for VoD is becoming ensures that operators have a deployable
less common and is most suitable for a IPTV solution.
subscription VoD service whereby
subscribers pay a monthly fee to have
access to some amount of locally stored System Alliances
Middleware Minerva, NDS
Usage tracking Conditional access Widevine
VoD servers Sun Microsystems, Edgeware
VoD revenues are often shared between
the operator and the content owner. Encoders Harmonic
Tracking VoD viewership for each piece Emergency Alert System Trilithic
of content is required to ensure that the Set-top box Scientific Atlanta, others
content owner gets paid. Tracking viewer-
ship by subscriber enables targeted
marketing, such as notifying the
subscriber when new content is added
that the subscriber is likely to view. Of
course, information about what kinds of
titles are popular assists in deciding
which content to add to the library.