JMSC0101: Principles of Journalism and the News Media


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JMSC0101: Principles of Journalism and the News Media

  1. 1. JMSC0101: Principles of Journalism and the News Media Professor Ying Chan Journalism and Media Studies Centre JMSC0101 Lecture Four, 2007
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Why ownership matters </li></ul><ul><li>Types of media ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Global ownership trends </li></ul><ul><li>Media ownership in Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Public broadcasting: current state and controversies </li></ul><ul><li>The seven sins of commercialized media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case study: the Donald saga </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The future of media ownership: paradigm change? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Study Media Ownership? <ul><li>Who controls the message? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the “gatekeepers”? The publisher? The editor? The producer? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the conditions under which reporters do their job? What are the constraints? </li></ul><ul><li>Are reporters free to write about important issues? (and exercise their conscience?) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Media: Kinds of Ownership <ul><li>State ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Private ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Public ownership – listed companies </li></ul><ul><li>Public ownership with private control </li></ul><ul><li>Non-profit ownership </li></ul><ul><li>“Independent” ownership </li></ul>
  5. 5. Trends in Concentration of Ownership <ul><li>Concentration of ownership within one industry </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-media ownership - owning more than one type of medium </li></ul><ul><li>Conglomerate ownership - owning businesses other than the media </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical integration - controlling several aspects of a single media industry (e.g. production and distribution) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Media Concentration <ul><li>Increasing Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Most people unaware </li></ul><ul><li>Media ownership increasingly trans-national </li></ul>
  7. 7. U.S. Media Ownership <ul><li>Top 10 chains own 1/5 of the dailies </li></ul><ul><li>20 corporations control more than half of annual magazine revenue </li></ul><ul><li>ONE broadcast company own more than 500 radio stations </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of the TV stations are network affiliates </li></ul><ul><li>The top six book publishing companies account for 40% of total annual publishing revenue </li></ul><ul><li>98% of cities are “one-paper” towns 24 media giants own over half the television, newspaper, magazine, movies and radio in the US. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the remaining independently owned stations and news outlets are dependent on the media giants for all but purely local news coverage. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Media Ownership <ul><li>19th Century Press “Industrialization” </li></ul><ul><li>1837 start up cost: under 1,000 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>1867 start up cost: over 50,000 pound </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Scene <ul><li>14 daily Chinese language newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Three English language dailies </li></ul><ul><li>Two commercial radio stations (4 channels) </li></ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four free-to-air terrestrial channels, TVB the market leader; ATV the distant second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HK cable (HK cable ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite TV: Star, Phoenix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web TV: NOW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>??? Internet portals and sites </li></ul>
  10. 11. Internationals <ul><li>AOL/Time Warner: CNN </li></ul><ul><li>News Corp/Star TV and Phoenix </li></ul><ul><li>CNBC </li></ul><ul><li>Bloomberg News </li></ul>
  11. 12. Internationals <ul><li>Dow Jones: AWSJ, Dow Jones Wire, International Herald Tribune </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Times </li></ul><ul><li>Reuters </li></ul>
  12. 14. Who owns the SCMP ? <ul><li>South China Morning Post (Holdings) </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysian tycoon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ranked 104 on Forbes 2007 list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>net worth of US$7 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>business empire in more than a dozen Asian countries - hotels, shipping. real estate, media, plantations, commodities and more. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Owns major shares of the Bangkok Post and the Siam Post in Thailand </li></ul>
  13. 15. The Man Behind Ming Pao <ul><ul><li>Tiong Hiew King, timber baron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranked 840 on Forbes 2007 list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net worth US$1.2 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owns extensive forest in Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Siberia, Brazil, Central Africa and New Zealand. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. The Man Behind Ming Pao <ul><li>Sin Chew Jit Poh, the largest-circulating Chinese newspaper in Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>45% interest in Ming Pao Group of 10 publications </li></ul><ul><li>Launched The National in Papua New Guinea and a Chinese newspaper in Cambodia. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Who Owns Sing Tao ? <ul><li>Charles Ho, China Global Technology Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sing Tao Daily - Hong Kong, United States (NYC, SF, LA, Chicago,) Canada ( Vancouver, Toronto) Australia, New Zealand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HK Standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastweek </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Framing Studies
  17. 19. Case Study: The Donald Saga <ul><li>Donald Tsang, Chief Executive, HKSAR since July 1, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>No. 2 in gov’t as Chief Secretary under Tung Chee-hwa; 38-year in civil service </li></ul><ul><li>Took office after the unpopular Tung stepped down March 1, 2005 </li></ul>
  18. 20. Danold’s Dateline <ul><li>3/1, Tung resigned </li></ul><ul><li>3/2, Tsang became acting CE </li></ul><ul><li>3/12, Tsang resigned to prepare for campaign </li></ul><ul><li>6/16, was declared winner with 716 of 800 vote in ‘small-circle’ election </li></ul><ul><li>7/1, sworn in as new CE </li></ul>
  19. 21. Tsang the CE-in-Waiting <ul><li>3/2 to 6/30, offers unique window to examine the coverage of Tsang </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive Tsang-watch by the news media </li></ul><ul><li>Expect intense scrutiny of his records, pledges, positions on critical issues and plans </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to examine split between hard news vs soft news; and tendencies towards infotainment & tabloidization </li></ul>
  20. 22. Methodology <ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oriental News , top selling mass market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple Daily , second selling mass market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ming Pao : ‘quality paper’ targeting intellectuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Select all articles focused on Tsang(913) </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for trigger, frame and narrative style </li></ul>
  21. 23. Identifying the Trigger <ul><li>What &quot;triggered&quot; the story to become news in the first place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was a poll released? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A statement from a news maker? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event organized by Tsang? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An official announcement? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise story by news organization? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Framing the News <ul><li>Campaign news, poll ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Review of policies </li></ul><ul><li>previous records </li></ul><ul><li>Future political moves </li></ul><ul><li>Personal and trivia </li></ul><ul><li>Post-election plans </li></ul><ul><li>Activities as CE </li></ul><ul><li>Trivia/personal stories </li></ul><ul><li>(Ref: Project for Excellence in Journalism, ) </li></ul>
  23. 25. Findings <ul><li>Nearly one in three stories are horse-racing stories, the up and down of polls </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly one in four stories are trivia and personal snapshots </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly half of the total stories were triggered by Tsang, the newsmaker, reflecting successes in his aggressive PR campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Only 17.8% of the stories resulted from enterprise by news organizations </li></ul>
  24. 26. Ming Pao coverage trivia 21% campaign 32% policies 9% record 9% CE plans 13% CE activities 4% personal 12%
  25. 27. Trigger of Personal Stories Government/ others 2 4 % Enterprise 18% Tsang 58 %
  26. 28. HK Newspapers On Tsang Triggered by Government/ others 49.9% Enterprise 21.1 % Triggered by Tsang 34 %
  27. 29. Typical Tabloid Coverage <ul><li>Flashy presentation, bold pix and graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on personal background </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance of rumor and hearsay </li></ul><ul><li>Use of sources with low or uncertain credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Paying sources for stories </li></ul><ul><li>Use of dramatic enactments </li></ul><ul><li>(Howard Kurtz, “Fit to Print, 2001) </li></ul>
  28. 30. Private Life/Trivia <ul><li>What he wears, notably his bow-tie </li></ul><ul><li>Family dinner </li></ul><ul><li>His wife </li></ul><ul><li>His pet fishes, feeding pattern and unfortunate death </li></ul><ul><li>Overtures to reporters, greeting, group pictures, giving them flowers </li></ul><ul><li>His daily movements, going to church, his plane delayed, </li></ul>
  29. 33. Policies and Politics Sidelined <ul><li>The West Kowloon Project 40 hectare prime water front public property, US$400 m investment </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Suffrage and outlook for political reform </li></ul><ul><li>Medical and public health services reform </li></ul><ul><li>Educational reform, Chinese vs. English as teaching languages </li></ul>
  30. 34. The Future of Media Ownership
  31. 35. <ul><li>Convergence </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence </li></ul>The Future
  32. 36. Technology is revolutionizing the media systemfrom news gathering, management, production, distribution and ownership
  33. 37. Future Trends in Media <ul><li>Digital based media (convergence) </li></ul><ul><li>High definition screens (quality/plasma) </li></ul><ul><li>Portable (wireless) palm sized computers </li></ul><ul><li>Direct broadcasting (satellite) </li></ul><ul><li>Miniature appliances (weight and size) </li></ul><ul><li>Memory (greater/faster/storage) </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber optics/laser </li></ul>
  34. 38. <ul><li>Convergent Media : Print, video, audio, Web, wireless, e-mail, mobile devices </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent Newsrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent Journalists </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the implications for training journalists for the 21st century </li></ul>Convergence the New World
  35. 39. Ownership Converging <ul><li>Integration with Mainland China in ownership, market, and production </li></ul><ul><li>Non-media companies launch or acquire media properties </li></ul><ul><li>PRC media expanding in Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive competition leading to sensationalism and …….. </li></ul>
  36. 40. TV: paradigm Change <ul><li>Television on demand, anytime, anywhere – TV, mobile phone, back of your car </li></ul><ul><li>TV delivered by traditional broadcasters, cable or satellite operators, telecoms, ISPs and portals, IPTV </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion in the number of TV channels </li></ul><ul><li>Niche programming and Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>User-created networks - QQ, Bittorrent </li></ul><ul><li>Personal media - MP3 players </li></ul>
  37. 41. <ul><li>Top 20 US websites </li></ul><ul><li>Top sites World </li></ul><ul><li>Top sites China </li></ul><ul><li>Looking back at 2004 </li></ul>
  38. 42. Other than the “Mainstream” <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  39. 43. DIY-Journalism in Asia <ul><li>Ohmynews </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  40. 44. Global Voices <ul><li>Global </li></ul><ul><li>Voices </li></ul>
  41. 45. An Enabling Environment for a Free & Responsible Media <ul><li>Build civil society: media monitors, active citizen groups, citizen and collaborative journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Create and promote professional culture </li></ul><ul><li>Empower journalists: unions, continuing education </li></ul><ul><li>Funding: support for non-commercial, and citizen and public media </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct research that inform media reform and policy changes </li></ul>