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  1. 1. Format version 1.0 2008.7.7 ver.0.1 FIF - FRC-08-xx Meta-Architecture : A Common Means to Accommodate Heterogeneous Network Architectures Myung-Ki Shin (ETRI, Eun Kyoung Paik (KT, JinHyeock Choi (Samsung AIT, 1. Motivation Future Internet researches revolve around the notion “ Archite cture ”. Architecture can be defined as the set of principles and basic mechanisms that guide network engineering. It's bounded from above by requirements and from below by engineering but sometimes boundaries are fuzzy, especially the boundary between architecture and mechanism. Historically, informal architectural ideas guided design of the Internet protocols, but the architecture was formalized later [ 1 ]. The today ’s Internet architecture is under serious reconsideration and people started thinking about alternatives. Further, the concerns are drastically increasing now that shortcomings would not be resolved by the conventional incremental and backward-compatible style of current research efforts. That is the reason why “Clean - Slat e De si gn f or the New Internet’s Archite cture ” [2, 3] is required for the Future Internet research. Redefining Internet architecture requires many challenged works and a lot of new heterogeneous architectures suited to the future of the Internet would be considered. It is necessary to support a variety of the new different architectures to accommodate the heterogeneity of Future Internet. So, a common means should be provided to accommodate the new heterogeneous architectures. 2. Meta-Architecture for Future Internet In this position paper, we present Meta-Architecture to accommodate heterogeneous and diverse multiple network architecture and user services, for example, heterogeneous wireless, mobile, sensor, vehicular and/or ad-hoc architectures and services. Meta-Architecture is an engineering reflection and knowledge about architecture similar to metaphysics or metamathematics. It investigates the meaning, usage and desirability of architecture. Traditional concept of architecture may change because of virtualization. Network virtualization refers to the abstraction of network resources. With programmable network elements, we can realize virtual link, switch and servers to form virtual network over shared physical infrastructure. Network virtualization plays the key role in Future Internet research facility. It allows multiple architectures to share the same resources to realize different networks. Network virtualization brings forth a debate on the importance of traditional architecture and there appear several different opinions [4]. First there are purists who believe in a single universal architecture. There needs to be a common architecture around which network world interoperates. Currently that universal architecture is IP and Future Internet research would replace it with a new and better one. Second there are pluralists who believe in multiple architectures. Instead of single architecture which fits all, it would be better to have different architecture for different occasions and virtualization would enable multiple architectures to coexist over the same physical resources. Third there are even anarchists who don't believe in architecture at all. Architecture in traditional sense is no longer needed. Conceptually network applications or services deal with physical resources sliced as low a level of abstraction as possible. 1
  2. 2. The Meta Architecture is designed to provide narrowly defined following three design principles: a) n et w ork virtualization , b) cro s s - lay er c o m munication s , and c) div ers e en d - to - e n d argum ent s that enable co-existence of multiple, diverse heterogeneous networks within the common shared infra-structure. It defines the “ e w narrow waist ” for Future Internet hourglass. n It can be also called as a new common layer for Future Internet. The design concepts for Meta- Architecture are illustrated in Figure 1 and 2. TCP/IP – single architecture Multiple, Heterogeneous architectures Applications Application #1 Application #2 Application #N TCP/UDP Transport & Transport & Transport & IP Network #1 Network #2 ….. Network #N Link Link & Link & Link & Physical #1 Physical #2 Physical #N Physical Today’s Internet : Future Internet : •Architecture – TCP/IP •Architecture 1– Internet (TCP/IP), 2- Data-oriented Network .. •Mechanism – SNMP, IPsec … •Mechanism – SNMP, IPsec, Cognitive, Cooperative … •Application – Web, E-mail … •Application – Web, E-mail, Sensor, Vehicle/aircraft, Satellite Figure 1. Today’ Internet versus Future Internet s Heterogeneous Architecture & User Services Virtualization Cross-layer Comm. Diverse E2E Meta Architecture Heterogeneous Infrastructure & Physical Layer Figure 2. Meta Architecture : A New Narrow Waist for Future Internet Hourglass 2.1 Network virtualization The purpose of network virtualization is to de-ossify the Today Internet. It could realize ’s virtual network with programmable network elements and support the architecture of multiple architectures. Different virtual networks can provide alternate end-to-end packet delivery systems and may use different protocols and packet formats. The requirements of network virtualization implementation are a) multiple n et w ork archite cture su p p ort, b) c o m m on c ontrol and distributed mana g e m ent, c) res ourc e f ed eration, d) pro grammability su p p ort , and e) d omain f e d eration . In this principle, for example, a new future service provider who doesn ’t have its own physical infrastructure just chooses a new particular architecture and to construct an overlay supporting the architecture that the new service provider needs to do. The new future service provider then distributes softwares or codes that let anyone, anywhere, access its overlay [4]. Also, all the resources within the infrastructure could be uniquely defined and shared. The example for wireless sensor network using network virtualization is illustrated in Figure 3. For the first steps of network virtualization experiments, a) band width virtualization 2
  3. 3. with o ptical n et w orks , b) s e c urity virtualization, and c) wirele s s /m o bility virtualization are being designed for our Meta-Architecture. 2.2 Cross-layer communications Basically, layering was one of important characteristics of Today Internet technologies, but ’s recently, it is also reported that it has sometimes inevitable inefficiencies. Therefore, we choose cross-layer communication as the second design principle for the Meta-Architecture. To achieve this, first thing is to exploit the dependency between protocol layers to obtain performance gains and then create new interfaces between layers, redefine the layer boundaries, design protocol at a layer based on the details of how another layer is designed, joint tuning of parameters across layers, or create complete new abstraction. The purpose of cross-layer communications is to provide a way direct communication between protocols at nonadjacent layers or sharing variables between layers. We adopt this principle only within mobile, wireless, sensor sub-networks, since there is a tradeoff between optimization and complexity (abstraction). Thus, measurement and monitoring should be given in advanced. Also, it is designed to support at any layer (e.g., physical layer to application layer) and implemented through network virtualization to support flexibility and programmability. Our first (vertical) target areas for performance enhancement using cross-layer communications would be a) m o bility hand o v er, b) QoS, c) s e c urity , and d) s en s or routin g . 2.3 Diverse end-to-end arguments Finally, we adopt diverse end-to-end argument principle. The original model of Internet ’s end-to-end principle has been progressively eroded. While still end-to-end in many ways, connection establishment in the Internet today involves state and functionality in the middle as the form of NATs, firewalls, proxies and so on. The current Internet architecture does not reflect this resulting in a mismatch between design and practice. Therefore, diverse end-to-end argument (e.g., end-middle-end (EME) argument, intermittent connectivity, and so on) principle is provided within our Meta-Architecture. The diverse end-to-end argument principle is also implemented through network virtualization, since different virtual networks can easily provide alternate end-to-end delivery systems and use different type of connection (e.g., IP or non-IP). 3. Benefiting from Meta-Architecture Meta-Architecture provides a common means to accommodate the new heterogeneous architectures and facilitate architecture revolution. Benefits from Meta-Architecture are listed below : the conceptual benefits from Meta-Architecture are illustrated in Figure 3. (1) Building up a single shared infrastructure for Future Internet Meta-Architecture can play a central role to build up a shared common infrastructure for Future Internet. The functionalities to support the Meta-Architecture (network virtualization, cross-layer communication, and diverse end-to-end arguments) could become the architecture core functionalities, its narrow waist. So, in this assumption, a lot of different ’s networks can be built on a single shared infrastructure for future experiments. (2) Deploying unconventional network architectures New heterogeneous architectures as well as today Internet architecture can co-exist on top ’s of a shared infrastructure. Also, different virtual networks (e.g., DTN (Delay-tolerant network), I3 (Internet Indirection Infrastructure) may provide alternate end-to-end packet delivery systems and may use different protocols and packet formats. Meta-Architecture has the flexibility to support a broad range of experiments, services and users. It can support various clean slate- 3
  4. 4. based and disruptive technologies experiments. (3) Deploying new emerging technologies To deploy new emerging technologies and services such as IPv6, mobile IPTV, wireless mesh (e.g., IEEE 802.11s), etc. each networks should be isolated and distinct path for new services. Meta-Architecture can easily support these kinds of new technologies and services. (4) The Advent of New Generation Service Provider In this Meta-architecture scenario, a new generation service provider will appear for Future Internet services. A new generation service provider chooses a particular new architecture, then constructs a virtual network supporting architecture [4]. The new generation service provider could easily support new architecture natively. Disruptive Technologies for Future Internet Today’ Internet s ….. ….. Future Inte rne t Se rvice s - Web 3.0, Virtual Reality - Vehic Airplane le, He te ro g e ne o us Wire le ss - Sens G or, ame USN/RFID - 4G - WiB ro/WiMAX E volution -8 02.11 Wirele s Mes s h Use r Empo we re d / Se lf-o rg anize d Ne two rks (E e of Us as e) Em e rg ing Ne two rks - UC , IP C TV, Multic ..ast IPv6 IPIP v6v4 -DTN, Sens or -Cognitive, Cooperative, Viral Network -B Autonomic Data-oriented Netw io, , orks B N (NG c N) Ne two rk Virtualizatio n , Re so urce Fe de ratio n , Pro g rammability (Building Blo ck), Cro ss-laye r Co mmunicatio n , e tc . Shared Infrastructure fo r Future Internet Figure 3. A Shared Infrastructure and Disruptive Technologies for Future Internet 4. Conclusion and Further Works In this position paper, we introduce Meta-Architecture for Future Internet, which are provided through network virtualization, cross-layer communications, and diverse end-to-end arguments. For the further works, details on how to build up Meta-Architecture and how to integrate new research works and experiments with regard to heterogeneous networks and architectures through our Meta- Architecture will be discussed. Reference s [ 1 ] D. Clark, “The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 1998. [2] Standford Univ, “Clean Slate Designs for the Internet, “ [3] A. Feldmann, “Internet Clean-Slate Design : What and Why ?,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, Vol. 37, No. 3., pp 59-64, 2007. [4] T. Anderson et al, “ Overcoming the Internet Impasse through Virtualization,” IEEE 4
  5. 5. Computer, 2005. [5] M. Shin et al., “Future Network : Problem Statement,” in Proc. ITU-T NGN-GSI Seoul Meeting, 2008. 5