Dissertation Defense Presentation Topic:   A study of functional architecture of the   Internet Protocol-Television (IPTV)...
Module Outline <ul><li>Research Problem  </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>IPTV Architecture </li></ul><ul><...
Research Problem <ul><li>IPTV is fast competing with the broadcast television, and not much information is available; as s...
Research Problem Contd.. <ul><li>To study and investigate different ways of hosting a web server  which models the SSC </l...
Research Tasks Performed <ul><li>Investigated the IPTV configurations in Europe, Asia, and United States, and formulated t...
Research Tasks Performed Contd.. <ul><li>Investigated the Windows, Linux, and UNIX platforms, with specific requirements o...
IPTV Architecture
IPTV competitive landscape Successful Industry:  Multi vendor participation, multi organizational development, wide end us...
Internet Protocol Suite
TCP/IP Suite <ul><li>16-bit unsigned Port Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>(1-65535 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Well known </li></ul><ul>...
User Datagram Protocol  DNS SNMP DHCP RIP <ul><li>Small transport layer designed on top of IP </li></ul><ul><li>Time-sensi...
UDP in IPV4  Vs  IPV6 IPV4 IPV6
TV Content <ul><li>Live Video </li></ul><ul><li>Stored Video (VOD) </li></ul><ul><li>Video Broadcast </li></ul>
Analog Broadcast <ul><li>NTSC - 1941 – 30 Frames/Sec, 525 scan  lines per frame, odd (upper) fields drawn first, even (low...
Need for Digital Broadcast <ul><li>US television stations are scheduled to switch to digital output </li></ul><ul><li>In 1...
Digital Broadcast <ul><li>ATSC –  Zenith developed 8-VSB (8 way QAM), Digital data stream of about 19.2 Mbit/s,  </li></ul...
Digital Broadcast Contd.. <ul><li>DVB-C -  Cable, DVB European Standard for digital television over cable, transmits an MP...
DTV Advantages <ul><li>Digital channels take up less bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Digital broadcasters can provide more dig...
DTV Disadvantages <ul><li>DTV picture technology is still in its early stages. </li></ul><ul><li>DTV images have some pict...
Need for Compression <ul><li>IP is a digital platform </li></ul><ul><li>Analog television when converted into digital form...
Color depths and Image sizes 11.2 billion (11 GB) 24 bits 16:9 3.7 billion 1080x 30x60 1920x 30x60 One minute of HDTV 24 m...
Standard Video Compression Formats <ul><li>AVI – FourCC, M-JPEG, DivX, RIFF, MS </li></ul><ul><li>WMV – MS, SMPTE, WMV-9, ...
IP Content Viewing <ul><li>Downloading </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP Streaming </li></ul></ul><ul...
Streaming Media Platforms <ul><li>Of the several platforms studied and investigated, the following standout: </li></ul><ul...
Live video streaming
Streaming Multicast Streaming Live Video IGMP Unicast Streaming Video On Demand RTSP
UDP streaming Vs TCP/IP streaming <ul><li>TCP/IP streaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AVI/ASF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliab...
Client Server module
Need for Streaming Server <ul><li>Extended Storage, Video Compression, Digital Encoders </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer Memory </...
Streaming Server Capabilities <ul><li>MPEG-2 with DVD level video encoding at 6 Mbps, MPEG-4 with HDV encoding at 10 MBPS ...
<ul><li>Streaming server Controller </li></ul><ul><li>  Determine requirements </li></ul><ul><li>  Write Specifications </...
VLSI Design Flow Padding Design Code Floor Planning IC Layout Functional  Simulation IC Design Synthesis Simulation Scalin...
Simulation and Synthesis tools <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aldec </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altera </li></ul...
Simulation and Synthesis Tools Picture Courtesy: Mentor Graphics
Xilinx – Virtex II Pro  Picture Courtesy:  Xilinx Corp.
Xilinx - Virtex II Pro board Picture Courtesy:  Xilinx Corp.
Virtex II Pro Features <ul><li>In a single device, we get, </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced logic </li></ul><ul><li>Performance ...
Virtex II Pro Features Contd.. <ul><li>Superior Programmable Logic Architecture   </li></ul><ul><li>Built on a 130 nm, 9-l...
VHDL……? <ul><li>VHDL is a language for describing digital electronic systems.  </li></ul><ul><li>It arose out of the Unite...
VHDL Programming
System-on-a-chip (SOC) Controller Transmission  Medium DATA  Terminal Mixed-Signal Codec Interface-Logic RAM ROM DSP  Core
Block Diagram of webserver system
PowerPC Processor connected to JTAG <ul><li>Embedded 400 MHz, RISC core  </li></ul><ul><li>(32-bit Harvard architecture)  ...
JTAG Connectors <ul><li>Depending on the debugging tools, different designs are required in RTL  </li></ul><ul><li>Using G...
Memory Unit <ul><li>64KB DATA </li></ul><ul><li>64KB INSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>512MB EXTERNAL RAM </li></ul>
Ethernet MAC and Peripheral Blocks <ul><li>On-Chip Peripheral Bus </li></ul><ul><li>Processor Local bus </li></ul><ul><li>...
PowerPC Architecture
Implementation:  Configuring PowerPC
Implementation:  Configuring Data Path
Implementation:  Xilinx Platform Studio
Implementation:  Configuring IP Address
Results: Peripheral Software Project output <ul><li>-- Entering main() – </li></ul><ul><li>Running XEmacPolledExample() fo...
Results: Hyper Terminal Messages <ul><li>Starting Up!! </li></ul><ul><li>ETH_HW_ADDR:  00:00:0A:F0:D2:CE </li></ul><ul><li...
Webserver page opened in a Browser
Results: Another HTML file
VLSI Implementation Results <ul><li>Synthesis Options Summary:  (Optimization Goal :  speed ) </li></ul><ul><li>Design Sta...
Results:  Device utilization summary <ul><li>Selected Device :  2vp30ff896-7   </li></ul><ul><li>Number of errors  :  0  (...
Results: Design statistics <ul><li>Minimum period:   9.358ns  </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum frequency:  106.860MHz </li></ul><...
<ul><li>HTTP Streaming pics </li></ul><ul><li>Kajra </li></ul>
Conclusions: IP Statistics <ul><li>COST TO INSTALL TV SERVICE OVER A PHONE LINE </li></ul><ul><li>1998 - $3,000+ per home ...
Conclusions: Statistics <ul><li>Triple-play subscriptions to grow by 52% in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Global triple-play subs...
Top Broadband Nations Source: ITIF (Information Technology and Innovation Foundation), April.2007 3.33 4.8 0.51 United Sta...
The largest operators in IPTV today <ul><li>nowTV, Broadband TV in Hong Kong, Q4 2003  </li></ul><ul><li>Fastweb in Italy ...
Advantages <ul><li>Interactivity between and service provider </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Play   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
Contributions <ul><li>Functional configurations   of  the IPTV among different countries have been studied and a common ar...
Contributions Contd.. <ul><li>High speed Ethernet Connectivity has been performed for web-server with further enhancements...
Issues <ul><li>Encoding and Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Jitter </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Limitation </li></ul><ul><li>...
Discussions <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put laws in place ...
Telcos in USA <ul><li>Major telecom operators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AT&T Corporation, BellSouth Corporation, SBC Communic...
Telcos in USA Contd.. <ul><li>ATT broke up in 1984 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US had 8 regional telcos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
IPTV elsewhere.. Sources: http://www.rediff.com/money/2007/oct/29mukesh1.htm http://www.technewsworld.com/rsstory/60148.html
Module Summary <ul><li>IP/TV & Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Video Encoding Formats </li></ul><ul><li>VLSI Implementation <...
Publications <ul><li>S.V. Wunnava, V. Jayaram, “IPTV Has Become a Global Reality and Has improved Quality of Service”, Int...
Bibliography <ul><li>S.V. Wunnava, V. Jayaram, “IPTV Has Become a Global Reality and Has improved Quality of Service”, Int...
Questions  and  Comments <ul><li>? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Thanks   </li></ul><ul><li>for the Attention </li></ul>
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  • DNS: Domain Name System SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol RIP: Routing Information Protocol A stateless server is a server that treats each request as an independent transaction that is unrelated to any previous request.
  • ISDB: Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting
  • AVI: Audio Video Interleave RIFF: Resource Interchange File Format WMV: Windows Media Video SMPTE: Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
  • However, it has been found that none of these would fulfill the IPTV streaming requirements and appropriate linkage software needs to be designed and implemented for the present SSC
  • Final_Presentation_1..

    1. 1. Dissertation Defense Presentation Topic: A study of functional architecture of the Internet Protocol-Television (IPTV) and VLSI realization of streaming server controller Committee Members: Presented by: Dr. Subbarao V. Wunnava (Major Advisor) Vivekananda Jayaram Dr. Jean Andrian Date: Nov 13, 2007 Dr. Tadeusz Babij Dr. Shih-Ming Lee
    2. 2. Module Outline <ul><li>Research Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>IPTV Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Audio and Video Compressions </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitters and Receivers </li></ul><ul><li>VLSI Realization </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
    3. 3. Research Problem <ul><li>IPTV is fast competing with the broadcast television, and not much information is available; as such to study the scope and maturity of the IPTV in the present times </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate the functional architecture of the IPTV system </li></ul><ul><li>To design, simulate, and implement a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) based system for Streaming Server Controller (SSC), an integral part of the IPTV system </li></ul>
    4. 4. Research Problem Contd.. <ul><li>To study and investigate different ways of hosting a web server which models the SSC </li></ul><ul><li>To implement a functional SSC model on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) module, which can generate the needed timing and control signals for the IPTV functioning </li></ul><ul><li>To scale the VLSI designs for applicability into an ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) Micro Chip </li></ul>
    5. 5. Research Tasks Performed <ul><li>Investigated the IPTV configurations in Europe, Asia, and United States, and formulated the common platform for the IPTV architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Investigated the appropriate protocols suites which can be used with the IPTV transmission and identified the pros and cons regarding the reliability and security of transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Investigated the Computer Communication networking schemes with specific reference to the IPTV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP platform Acknowledgement, security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UDP platform Open end, fast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investigated the VLSI design platforms from the Mentor Graphics and Xilinx corporations, for possible implementation of the IPTV controllers </li></ul>
    6. 6. Research Tasks Performed Contd.. <ul><li>Investigated the Windows, Linux, and UNIX platforms, with specific requirements of developing the VLSI IPTV –SSC functional system </li></ul><ul><li>Investigated different streaming media platforms available and identified the limitations which need to be addressed in the present controller development </li></ul><ul><li>Xilinx University Program FPGA board Virtex II Pro XCV2VP30 is used as a target board to implement the streaming server controller module </li></ul><ul><li>Web server is hosted on a PowerPC processor embedded in the XCV2VP30 FPGA. </li></ul>
    7. 7. IPTV Architecture
    8. 8. IPTV competitive landscape Successful Industry: Multi vendor participation, multi organizational development, wide end user acceptance
    9. 9. Internet Protocol Suite
    10. 10. TCP/IP Suite <ul><li>16-bit unsigned Port Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>(1-65535 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Well known </li></ul><ul><li>Registered </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic/Private </li></ul><ul><li>FTP: 21 </li></ul><ul><li>SSH: 23 </li></ul><ul><li>TELNET: 23 </li></ul><ul><li>SMTP: 25 </li></ul><ul><li>HTTP : 80 </li></ul>Operates at Layer-4 of OSI model
    11. 11. User Datagram Protocol DNS SNMP DHCP RIP <ul><li>Small transport layer designed on top of IP </li></ul><ul><li>Time-sensitive applications often use UDP </li></ul><ul><li>It’s stateless nature is also useful for servers that answer small queries from huge numbers of clients. </li></ul><ul><li>It supports packet broadcast (sending to all on local network) and multicasting (send to all subscribers). </li></ul>
    12. 12. UDP in IPV4 Vs IPV6 IPV4 IPV6
    13. 13. TV Content <ul><li>Live Video </li></ul><ul><li>Stored Video (VOD) </li></ul><ul><li>Video Broadcast </li></ul>
    14. 14. Analog Broadcast <ul><li>NTSC - 1941 – 30 Frames/Sec, 525 scan lines per frame, odd (upper) fields drawn first, even (lower) fields later </li></ul><ul><li>PAL – 25 Frames/Sec, 625 scan lines per frame </li></ul>
    15. 15. Need for Digital Broadcast <ul><li>US television stations are scheduled to switch to digital output </li></ul><ul><li>In 1996, US Congress had declared December 2006 to be the switchover date </li></ul><ul><li>Later extended to February 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>From March 2007, all TV’s have Digital or HDTV Tuner </li></ul>
    16. 16. Digital Broadcast <ul><li>ATSC – Zenith developed 8-VSB (8 way QAM), Digital data stream of about 19.2 Mbit/s, </li></ul><ul><li>DVB-T – Coded OFDM, 8000 independent carriers, immunity from multipath interference, data rates from 4 MBit/s up to 24 MBit/s </li></ul><ul><li>DVB-S – 1995, MPEG-2, F orward error coding and modulation standard for satellite television , serves every continent, used in direct broadcast satellite services like sky Digital (UK), Astra (Europe), Dish Network (U.S), and Bell ExpressVu (Canada) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Digital Broadcast Contd.. <ul><li>DVB-C - Cable, DVB European Standard for digital television over cable, transmits an MPEG-2 family digital audio/video stream, using a QAM with channel coding. </li></ul><ul><li>ISDB – Japan, Differs mainly in the modulations used, due to the requirements of different frequency bands. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 GHz band ISDB-S - PSK modulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.6 GHz band digital sound broadcasting – CDM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDB-T (in VHF and/or UHF band) uses COFDM with PSK/QAM. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. DTV Advantages <ul><li>Digital channels take up less bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Digital broadcasters can provide more digital channels in the same space </li></ul><ul><li>Provide High-definition television service, or provide other non-television services such as multimedia or interactivity. </li></ul><ul><li>DTV also permits special services such as multiplexing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more than one program on the same channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electronic program guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>additional languages ( spoken or subtitled ) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. DTV Disadvantages <ul><li>DTV picture technology is still in its early stages. </li></ul><ul><li>DTV images have some picture defects that are not present on analog television or motion picture cinema, due to present-day limitations of bandwidth and compression algorithms such as MPEG-2. </li></ul><ul><li>When a compressed digital image is compared with the original program source, some hard-to-compress image sequences may have digital distortion or degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantization noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blurred, shimmering haze </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Need for Compression <ul><li>IP is a digital platform </li></ul><ul><li>Analog television when converted into digital format produces continuous stream of digital bits </li></ul><ul><li>IPTV service involves heavy amount of transmission of television signals </li></ul><ul><li>LAN is capable of 10 to 100 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>HDTV frame of 1920x1080 pixels, computer takes over 2 million operations to read from memory and transfer to video output buffer </li></ul><ul><li>Storage, transmission and processing problem </li></ul>
    21. 21. Color depths and Image sizes 11.2 billion (11 GB) 24 bits 16:9 3.7 billion 1080x 30x60 1920x 30x60 One minute of HDTV 24 million 24 bits 4:3 8 million 2448 3264 8-M.pixel Camera 9 million 24 bits 4:3 3 million 1500 2000 3-M.Pixel Camera 6.2 million 24 bits 16:9 2 million 1080 1920 One HDTV frame 518,000 12 bits 4:3 346,000 480 720 One Standard definitions television frame Vertical Horizontal Image Size (in Bytes) Color Depth Aspect Ratio Number of Pixels Resolution Digital Image
    22. 22. Standard Video Compression Formats <ul><li>AVI – FourCC, M-JPEG, DivX, RIFF, MS </li></ul><ul><li>WMV – MS, SMPTE, WMV-9, VC-1, ASF </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG-1 – Sampling dimensions (4095 x 4095 x 60) FPS </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG-2 – Bit stream, Multiplexed, DVB, FCC Compliant </li></ul><ul><li>MEG-4 – Interactive, Virtual Reality, Simulations, Multi viewpoint Training </li></ul><ul><li>H.264 – MPEG-4 Part-10, AVC, RTP, 4 hrs Video DVD </li></ul>
    23. 23. IP Content Viewing <ul><li>Downloading </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP Streaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming Server </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Streaming Media Platforms <ul><li>Of the several platforms studied and investigated, the following standout: </li></ul><ul><li>Helix Universal Server from Real Networks </li></ul><ul><li>QuickTime Streaming Server from Apple </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Media Server 2 from Macromedia </li></ul>
    25. 25. Live video streaming
    26. 26. Streaming Multicast Streaming Live Video IGMP Unicast Streaming Video On Demand RTSP
    27. 27. UDP streaming Vs TCP/IP streaming <ul><li>TCP/IP streaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AVI/ASF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable connection, guarantees packet delivery, Resend packet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not efficient for live streaming, congested networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-way communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(streaming device  client and client  streaming device). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UDP streaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stream live data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No guarantee of packet delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less overhead and better throughput than TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly used to send MPEG2 transport data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-way communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (streaming device  client). </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Client Server module
    29. 29. Need for Streaming Server <ul><li>Extended Storage, Video Compression, Digital Encoders </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange Servers </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics for bit coding </li></ul><ul><li>Error Detection & Correction for Video frames </li></ul>
    30. 30. Streaming Server Capabilities <ul><li>MPEG-2 with DVD level video encoding at 6 Mbps, MPEG-4 with HDV encoding at 10 MBPS </li></ul><ul><li>QOS depends on efficiency and fault tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>To store 10 sec video = 100Mbps = 12.5MB ; For 100 Channels, buffer size = 1.25 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Capability to add the channel numbers and sequence numbers for the packets, fault correction schemes. </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Streaming server Controller </li></ul><ul><li> Determine requirements </li></ul><ul><li> Write Specifications </li></ul><ul><li> Synthesis and Verification </li></ul><ul><li> FPGA Implementation </li></ul><ul><li> Test development </li></ul><ul><li> ASIC Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>MOSIS Fabrication </li></ul><ul><li> Manufacturing Test </li></ul><ul><li> ASIC Chips </li></ul>VLSI Realization Process
    32. 32. VLSI Design Flow Padding Design Code Floor Planning IC Layout Functional Simulation IC Design Synthesis Simulation Scaling to MOSIS Layout Simulation Design Rule Check
    33. 33. Simulation and Synthesis tools <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aldec </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Altera </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cadence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mentor Graphics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quick Logic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symphony </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synopsis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synplicity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xilinx </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Simulation and Synthesis Tools Picture Courtesy: Mentor Graphics
    35. 35. Xilinx – Virtex II Pro Picture Courtesy: Xilinx Corp.
    36. 36. Xilinx - Virtex II Pro board Picture Courtesy: Xilinx Corp.
    37. 37. Virtex II Pro Features <ul><li>In a single device, we get, </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced logic </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>IBM 400 MHz PowerPC™ processors </li></ul><ul><li>622 Mbps to 6.25 Gbps full duplex serial transceivers. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Virtex II Pro Features Contd.. <ul><li>Superior Programmable Logic Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Built on a 130 nm, 9-layer copper process technology </li></ul><ul><li>3K to 99K logic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 444 18X18 embedded multipliers </li></ul><ul><li>400+ MHz clock rates </li></ul><ul><li>Higher performance and lower power consumption than earlier generation technologies </li></ul>
    39. 39. VHDL……? <ul><li>VHDL is a language for describing digital electronic systems. </li></ul><ul><li>It arose out of the United States Government’s Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program, initiated in 1980. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware Description Language (VHDL) was developed, and subsequently adopted as a standard by the IEEE in the US. </li></ul>
    40. 40. VHDL Programming
    41. 41. System-on-a-chip (SOC) Controller Transmission Medium DATA Terminal Mixed-Signal Codec Interface-Logic RAM ROM DSP Core
    42. 42. Block Diagram of webserver system
    43. 43. PowerPC Processor connected to JTAG <ul><li>Embedded 400 MHz, RISC core </li></ul><ul><li>(32-bit Harvard architecture) </li></ul><ul><li>5-stage data path pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware multiply and divide </li></ul><ul><li>32 x 32-bit general-purpose registers </li></ul><ul><li>16 KB 2-way set-associative instruction and data caches </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Management Unit (MMU) enables RTOS implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Debug and trace support </li></ul><ul><li>Timer facilities </li></ul>
    44. 44. JTAG Connectors <ul><li>Depending on the debugging tools, different designs are required in RTL </li></ul><ul><li>Using Generic I/O pins to access PowerPC JTAG Debug Ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each PowerPC has dedicated I/O pins and a JTAG chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select &quot;Single Device&quot; in the SingleStep JTAG and Register settings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sharing FPGA JTAG Pins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect all PPC JTAG pins into one chain </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Memory Unit <ul><li>64KB DATA </li></ul><ul><li>64KB INSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>512MB EXTERNAL RAM </li></ul>
    46. 46. Ethernet MAC and Peripheral Blocks <ul><li>On-Chip Peripheral Bus </li></ul><ul><li>Processor Local bus </li></ul><ul><li>10/100 Ethernet MAC </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Std. 802.3 specification </li></ul><ul><li>64-bit PLB master and </li></ul><ul><li>slave interfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>DMA capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low processor and bus utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media Independent Interface (MII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For connection to external 10/100 Mbps PHY transceivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independent internal TX and RX FIFOs (2K - 32K) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation version available in EDK </li></ul>
    47. 47. PowerPC Architecture
    48. 48. Implementation: Configuring PowerPC
    49. 49. Implementation: Configuring Data Path
    50. 50. Implementation: Xilinx Platform Studio
    51. 51. Implementation: Configuring IP Address
    52. 52. Results: Peripheral Software Project output <ul><li>-- Entering main() – </li></ul><ul><li>Running XEmacPolledExample() for Ethernet_MAC... </li></ul><ul><li>XEmacPolledExample PASSED </li></ul><ul><li>Exiting main() – </li></ul>
    53. 53. Results: Hyper Terminal Messages <ul><li>Starting Up!! </li></ul><ul><li>ETH_HW_ADDR: 00:00:0A:F0:D2:CE </li></ul><ul><li>Input your IP address(such as 192.168.0.3), hit enter to finish: 131.94.119.44 </li></ul><ul><li>Are you sure this IP address is correct?(y/n) y </li></ul><ul><li>Reseting PHY </li></ul><ul><li>ip: 131.94.119.44 </li></ul><ul><li>Socket created, bound, and listening. Accepting connections </li></ul><ul><li>Add Web Conn, socket: 1 </li></ul><ul><li>XILSOCK_TCP_DATA </li></ul><ul><li>Processing Request... </li></ul><ul><li>File name given </li></ul><ul><li>Send on socket: 1 </li></ul><ul><li>done.. </li></ul><ul><li>XILSOCK_TCP_ACK </li></ul>
    54. 54. Webserver page opened in a Browser
    55. 55. Results: Another HTML file
    56. 56. VLSI Implementation Results <ul><li>Synthesis Options Summary: (Optimization Goal : speed ) </li></ul><ul><li>Design Statistics </li></ul><ul><li># IOs : 36 </li></ul><ul><li># GND : 16 </li></ul><ul><li># INV : 146 </li></ul><ul><li># LUT : 3567 </li></ul><ul><li># MUXCY : 681 </li></ul><ul><li># MUXF5 : 225 </li></ul><ul><li># XORCY : 509 </li></ul><ul><li># FlipFlops/Latches : 3779 </li></ul><ul><li># RAMS : 164 </li></ul><ul><li># RAM16X1D : 128 </li></ul><ul><li># RAMB16_S2_S2 : 32 </li></ul><ul><li># RAMB16_S36_S36 : 4 </li></ul><ul><li># Shift Registers : 274 </li></ul><ul><li># Clock Buffers : 5 </li></ul><ul><li># IO Buffers : 34 </li></ul><ul><li># DCMs : 1 </li></ul><ul><li># JTAGPPC : 1 </li></ul><ul><li># PPC405 : 2 </li></ul>
    57. 57. Results: Device utilization summary <ul><li>Selected Device : 2vp30ff896-7 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of errors : 0 ( 0 filtered) </li></ul><ul><li>Number of warnings : 10 ( 0 filtered) </li></ul><ul><li>Number of infos : 31 ( 0 filtered) </li></ul><ul><li>Number of occupied Slices: 3,463 out of 13,696 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Slices containing only related logic: 3,463 out of 3,463 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Slices containing unrelated logic: 0 out of 3,463 0% </li></ul><ul><li>Total Number 4 input LUTs: 4,417 out of 27,392 16% </li></ul><ul><li>Number used as logic: 3,664 </li></ul><ul><li>Number used as a route-thru: 235 </li></ul><ul><li>Number used for Dual Port RAMs: 246 </li></ul><ul><li>(Two LUTs used per Dual Port RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Number used as Shift registers: 272 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of bonded IOBs: 36 out of 556 6% </li></ul><ul><li>Additional JTAG gate count for IOBs: 1,728 </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Memory Usage: 283 MB </li></ul><ul><li>Total memory usage is 239732 kilobytes </li></ul><ul><li>Total equivalent gate count for design: 2,469,744 </li></ul>
    58. 58. Results: Design statistics <ul><li>Minimum period: 9.358ns </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum frequency: 106.860MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum path delay from/to any node: 5.372ns </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum net skew: 0.794ns </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Memory Usage: 283 MB </li></ul><ul><li>Total equivalent gate count for design: 2,469,744 </li></ul>
    59. 59. <ul><li>HTTP Streaming pics </li></ul><ul><li>Kajra </li></ul>
    60. 60. Conclusions: IP Statistics <ul><li>COST TO INSTALL TV SERVICE OVER A PHONE LINE </li></ul><ul><li>1998 - $3,000+ per home 2003 - $800+ per home </li></ul><ul><li>2007 - $150+ per home </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. TELCOS OFFERING TV OVER PHONE LINE </li></ul><ul><li>2000 - under 10 2002 - 45 </li></ul><ul><li>2007 - 230 </li></ul><ul><li>AMERICANS GETTING PHONE SERVICE OVER CABLE LINES </li></ul><ul><li>1999 - Under 200,000 2002 - 2.5 million </li></ul><ul><li>2007 - 9.6 million </li></ul>
    61. 61. Conclusions: Statistics <ul><li>Triple-play subscriptions to grow by 52% in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Global triple-play subscriptions are projected to grow by a whopping 52% in 2007, to over 34 million </li></ul><ul><li>84% of UK Internet users have broadband </li></ul><ul><li>Some 15.2 million UK households (61% of homes) now have an internet connection, </li></ul><ul><li>58% of US households do not have access to broadband </li></ul><ul><li>In the United States, 58% of American homes (representing about 120 million adults) </li></ul>
    62. 62. Top Broadband Nations Source: ITIF (Information Technology and Innovation Foundation), April.2007 3.33 4.8 0.51 United States 12 6.69 6.2 0.54 Belgium 11 6.50 7.6 0.62 Canada 10 4.04 7.4 0.64 Norway 9 4.92 4.6 0.70 Denmark 8 1.64 17.6 0.49 France 7 0.63 18.2 0.49 Sweden 6 4.31 8.8 0.73 Netherlands 5 2.77 21.7 0.57 Finland 4 4.99 6.0 0.83 Iceland 3 0.27 61.0 0.52 Japan 2 0.45 45.6 0.90 Korea 1 Price for 1 Mbps Speed, Mbps Penetration Country Rank
    63. 63. The largest operators in IPTV today <ul><li>nowTV, Broadband TV in Hong Kong, Q4 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Fastweb in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>MaLigne TV operated by France Telecom in France, Q4 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Media on Demand (MOD) in the Republic of China, operated by Chunghwa Telecom </li></ul><ul><li>Kingston Interactive Television, UK October 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Imagenio, operated by Telefonica in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo! BB / Softbank in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>SuperSun in Hong Kong, Q3 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Homechoice in the United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Sasktel Max in Saskatchewan </li></ul><ul><li>Magnet Networks in Dublin, Ireland </li></ul>
    64. 64. Advantages <ul><li>Interactivity between and service provider </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Play </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audio, Data, Video </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Network based Personal Video Recording </li></ul><ul><li>(NPVR) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase revenues (Advertisement..! ) </li></ul><ul><li>Offer new services </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-Commerce, Tele-Education, Tele-Medicine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve customer satisfaction </li></ul>
    65. 65. Contributions <ul><li>Functional configurations of the IPTV among different countries have been studied and a common architecture has been identified, for standardized IPTV controller development </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of the existing IPTV protocols have been identified, especially for the SOC and the VLSI implementations; Need for new protocol is being identified ( IGMP, H.264 Improvement) </li></ul><ul><li>The present research work shows clearly that the HTTP Streaming for the IPTV is more cost effective than the other methods; Needed data compression issues are also clearly identified for the efficiency of transmission of the IPTV with out retransmissions </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming server controller implementation has been carried out and methods identified for further enhancements, especially when standardizations of new protocols are done </li></ul>
    66. 66. Contributions Contd.. <ul><li>High speed Ethernet Connectivity has been performed for web-server with further enhancements </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPC usage in FPGA module background has been clearly identified so the users will have a choice between the Pentium type of processor and Power PC type processor </li></ul><ul><li>System implementation speed over 100 Mhz has been obtained, with appropriate optimization of the HDL coding, and FPGA implementation, with modifications suggested for further improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of Issues in Global Deployment of the IPTV has been done, which will help the standardization process for the IPTV protocol suites </li></ul>
    67. 67. Issues <ul><li>Encoding and Compression </li></ul><ul><li>Jitter </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth Limitation </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Standards (H.264) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Security </li></ul><ul><li>Intruder Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Effectiveness </li></ul>
    68. 68. Discussions <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put laws in place if needed to allow for competition with the cable providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not regulate IPTV as if it were cable television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help make it happen, don’t destroy it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telcos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment – Dare! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t settle for simple services (“Video to the PC”; VoD; etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your customers are waiting… </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Telcos in USA <ul><li>Major telecom operators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AT&T Corporation, BellSouth Corporation, SBC Communications, Sprint Corporation, Qwest Communications, Verizon Communications, and MCI (WorldCom) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile operators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alltel Corporation, Cingular Wireless, Sprint Nextel Corporation, T-Mobile USA, US Cellular Corporation, and Verizon Wireless. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leading broadband ISPs include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comcast, Time Warner, AT&T, SBC Communications, Verizon, BellSouth, and Qwest. </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Telcos in USA Contd.. <ul><li>ATT broke up in 1984 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US had 8 regional telcos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mergers made 4 big telcos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verizon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bellsouth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>One of the signal facts of the communications revolution is that virtually all the new technologies that made it possible were developed outside the phone world. </li></ul><ul><li>Revenue (2006) Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Verizon's ~ $80 billion &quot;research&quot; doesn't even appear in annual report </li></ul><ul><li>AT&T ~ $44 billion $130 million </li></ul><ul><li>Intel $5.1 billion </li></ul>Source: www.budde.com Largest Global Telco research site
    71. 71. IPTV elsewhere.. Sources: http://www.rediff.com/money/2007/oct/29mukesh1.htm http://www.technewsworld.com/rsstory/60148.html
    72. 72. Module Summary <ul><li>IP/TV & Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Video Encoding Formats </li></ul><ul><li>VLSI Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Available Tools for Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>FPGA board: Xilinx – Virtex II Pro </li></ul>
    73. 73. Publications <ul><li>S.V. Wunnava, V. Jayaram, “IPTV Has Become a Global Reality and Has improved Quality of Service”, International Engineering Consortium - Delivering the Promise of IPTV, Apr. 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>V.Jayaram, S.Wunnava, &quot;Functional Microcontroller Design and Implementation&quot;, Fourth LACCET, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, 21-23 June 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>J.Montenegro, V.Jayaram, S.Wunnava, &quot;Modular HDL Designs are Efficient, and Reliable&quot;, Fourth LACCET, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, 21-23 June 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>V.Jayaram, “Student Jumpstart Manual on Mentor Environment Setup”, Mentor Graphics International User Conference, San Jose, California, 14-15 Mar 2007 </li></ul>
    74. 74. Bibliography <ul><li>S.V. Wunnava, V. Jayaram, “IPTV Has Become a Global Reality and Has improved Quality of Service”, International Engineering Consortium - Delivering the Promise of IPTV, Apr. 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>V.Jayaram, S.Wunnava, &quot;Functional Microcontroller Design and Implementation&quot;, Fourth LACCET, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, 21-23 June 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>J.Montenegro, V.Jayaram, S.Wunnava, &quot;Modular HDL Designs are Efficient, and Reliable&quot;, Fourth LACCET, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, 21-23 June 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>V.Jayaram, “Student Jumpstart Manual on Mentor Environment Setup”, Mentor Graphics International User Conference, San Jose, California, 14-15 Mar 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>IPTV: Broadband meets Broadcast: The network television revolution, IPTV Report, www.iptv-report.com August 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>D. Negru, A. Mehaoua, Y. Hadjadj-aoul, C. Berthelot, “Dynamic bandwidth allocation for efficient support of concurrent digital TV and IP multicast services in DVB-T networks”, Computer Communications, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>ETSI: Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); DVB specification for data broadcasting, European Standard EN 301 192 V1.4.1 (2004-06). </li></ul><ul><li>Ramesh Jain, “I want my IPTV”, IEEE Multimedia, Sep. 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Savvas Papagiannidis, Joanna Berry, Feng Li, “Well beyond streaming video: IPv6 and the next generation television”, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, June 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Shu-Fen Tseng; Hsi-Chieh Lee; Te-Ching Kung; Shou-Lien Chou; Jing-Yi Chen, “ Deploying IPv6 ”, Durand, A,, IEEE Internet Computing, Feb. 2001 </li></ul>
    75. 75. Questions and Comments <ul><li>? </li></ul>
    76. 76. <ul><li>Thanks </li></ul><ul><li>for the Attention </li></ul>

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