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  • Dear colleagues, Let me introduce to your attention presentation about engineering DTV industry, its interests and challenges.
  • One of the leading companies in this DTV industry is EchoStar which was founded in 1980. Nowadays EchoStar is high technological company which has R&D offices in USA, UK, Netherlands, Ukraine. The company works in such areas as satellite tv, IPTV, cable tv, terrestrial tv and consumer electronics. EchoStar participating in creating different standards (MHEG). A number of leading tv providers around the world are using EchoStar services. EchoStar owns 6 satellites and has already produced 64 million STBs.
  • The main challenges of DTV industry are represented on this slide. The main directions of development based on standardizing markets, testing of products and security problems. One of the main areas of the development DTV industry is embedded systems which produced in accordance to standards. Applicability of a standard ( i.e. DVB, ATSC – for broadcasting ) for a number of markets allows to develop a product only once and then sell it on all markets supporting that standard. Testing of embedded systems as well is one of the main challenges in DTV industry. Pay-TV service providers have millions of users. Each call of a user to call centre of a provider costs some money. So price of bug is huge. Security of a content is generic issue for all Pay-TV providers.
  • STB is high-technological device that passed through a long pass of developing. At the beginning stage it has quite simple functions. Now it is a complicated device with increased number of technologies based on HW/SW. STB may be integrated through different interfaces (ZigBee, WiFi, Bluetooth) with other home devices - TV, stereo system, keyboard, modem. Slingbox™ device that allows consumers: to access their STB content at any time, from any location using a variety of different displays including laptops and desktop PCs and Macs, PDAs and smartphones.
  • Technologies DTV is based on are listed on this slide. First of all it is broadcasting content and using related standards (DVB, ATSC). DVB, ATSC are standard of data broadcasting by means of terrestrial and satellite equipment. The following technologies on which home TV and idea of digital house are based the next: HomePlug, HDMI CEC, WiFi, ZigBee, USB, Ethernet, Sling, Bluetooth, WebServices. For instance watching monitor via WiFi interface. Development of SW/HW is significant technology of digital television too. Using proprietary S W parts (MHP, OCAP) require more complex testing automated systems Participating in writing standards (EchoStar participating IMPALA, which created MHEG standard) <what MHEG about …> – Integrating an internet browser to a receiver As the bandwidth is limited and quality of AV content (HD) is growing as more efficient technologies of content compression are required. So MPEG4 standard is used. ViP, Sling technologies - accessing DVR, EPG, Live video remotely from any location in the world through the internet connection.
  • Essential part of functionality of modern STB is implemented by embedded SW. So SW development is very important in DTV industry. There are a few kinds of SW - SW that implements functionality of STB, - Formal test/analysis tools, - SW for testing SW, HD, different components of STB (for instance Integration of the SW unit tests, HW tests; Embedded Systems Integration Test (SW/HW)). Embedded Systems Integration Test (SW/HW) – testing during integration of different parts of software and hardware SW integration test - testing SW after integration of different modules of SW in united system. Support for the multiple HW platforms – It’s cost effective approach to develop single SW for different HW platforms. And operational costs on SW maintaining are reduced as well. Integration of the SW unit tests, HW tests – Integration of SW unit test, HW tests for STB in a united automated testing system. Formal test/analysis tools – Tools for a static code analysis of a source code – before SW execution.
  • Everybody knows that SW development requires certain stages of testing. The following stages of testing can be marked out in STB developing. The first stage of testing is occurred during writing SW - Unit tests Unit test - (software verification and validation method in which individual units of source code are tested. Unit may be an individual program, function, procedure, etc., ) The next stage of testing is occurred during integration with SW/HW parts/ Networks/ CA systems. On this stage automated testing system for STB SW/HW is used. Developing automated testing systems covering a number of different STB platforms allow to reduce operational costs on SW/HW testing. Regression testing – regressions( bugs) are usually caused by bug fixes included in software releases . To avoid this problem regression testing is used. Automated testing and t est cases are used to detect such bugs before releasing new software version . One of the technologies that can be used for UI elements testing is OCR engines. Elements of UI are recognized by OCR engine and received data is processed. Then conclusion about correctness of UI element location on the screen is done. Using different STB testing methodologies (Black Box, Grey Box) 3. Formal code analyzing – is method of a static code analysis of a source code without its execution. Nowadays a set of tools for static code analysis exist. Tools for threads analysing, which observe source code as it is executed and identifies race conditions, deadlocks, as well as unnecessary synchronization 4. One of the main stages of testing is testing during manufacturing. The main challenge on this stage is decreasing time of the Factory Test. The exact stages in manufacturing process is a technological secret of each company. The different stages in the factory process are illustrated on picture below: Flash image creation; In Circuit Test (ICT); Functional Circuit Test (FCT); Soak / DST; Functional Unit Test (FUT); RF / Calibration Test In-circuit test (ICT) is testing where an electrical probe tests a populated printed circuit board (PCB), checking for shorts, opens, resistance, capacitance, and other basic quantities which will show whether the assembly was correctly fabricated. FCT are performed to ensure that the device under test (DUT) fulfills its functional specifications . Integration testing takes as its input modules that have been unit tested , groups them in larger aggregates, tests them as defined in an integration test plan . Soak testing involves testing a system with a significant load extended over a significant period of time, to discover how the system behaves under sustained use.
  • In this presentation interests and challenges in DTV engineering area were outlined.
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    1. 2. Challenges of bringing TV to every home and business <ul><li>Oleksandr Gorobets </li></ul><ul><li>SW Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>EWDTS, </li></ul><ul><li>Moscow September 2009 </li></ul>
    2. 3. About EchoStar <ul><li>EchoStar is a digital media equipment company o perating from 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>R&D offices in USA, UK, Netherlands, Ukraine </li></ul><ul><li>1600 employees </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing markets worldwide in: </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul><ul><li>IPTV </li></ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Produced over 64 million STBs; launched and owns 6 satellites; </li></ul><ul><li>Participates in DTV standards developing (EchoStar participating IMPALA committee- , which created MHEG standard) </li></ul>
    3. 4. Challenges in Digital TV area <ul><li>Development/ Standardising markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing of Embedded Systems in as short time as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardising markets is developing of standards addressing markets’ needs. The goal is to reduce operational costs on developing embedded systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay-TV service providers have millions of users. Each call of a user to call centre of a provider costs some money. So price of bug is huge. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This issue is common for whole industry. Pay-TV providers are using conditional access systems to avoid breaching of copyright of their content. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. What is STB? <ul><li>STB 8 years ago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zapping through the channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic program guide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STB Now </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HD (3d) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVR (Time shifting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sling (Place shifting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 TVs support (4 video/audio streams management in RealTime) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Remotes support (ZigBee, IR, UHF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless/integration with Home devices (TV, StereoSystem, Modem) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet access, Applications on STB, Games. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iTV (smart EPG) </li></ul></ul>Remote Portal Access PocketDISH ViP622 DVR™
    5. 6. Technologies <ul><li>Broadcasting content (DVB, ATCS, Euro/DOCSIS) </li></ul><ul><li>TV integration in home (HomePlug, HDMI CEC, WiFi, ZigBee, USB, Ethernet, Sling, Bluetooth, WebServices) </li></ul><ul><li>STB HW/SW development (MHP, OCAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet browser </li></ul><ul><li>Video compression (HW/SW) – HD content (MPEG4) </li></ul><ul><li>IPTV (ViP, Sling) </li></ul><ul><li>Time-shifting (DVR) </li></ul>
    6. 7. SW Development <ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded Systems Integration Test (SW/HW) </li></ul><ul><li>SW integration test </li></ul><ul><li>Support for the multiple HW platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of the SW unit tests, HW tests </li></ul>Applications Middleware Drivers OS Hardware SW/HW layers of STB CAS
    7. 8. Test <ul><li>During SW development </li></ul><ul><li>During integration with SW/HW parts( Networks/ CA systems/ etc) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing automated testing systems for STB SW/HW testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing Test Cases for verifying different components of STB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regression testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using OCR for UI elements recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal code analyzing </li></ul><ul><li>During manufacturing (fast test) </li></ul>In-circuit test, FCT PCB assembled Box assembled Soak testing Functional unit test Pack and ship
    8. 9. Conclusion <ul><li>Outlined area of interest of the DTV engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Happy fruitful conference for the organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Wishing the best to the other participants with their presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Industry – to get closer to universities and research communities </li></ul><ul><li>Research communities and university – to get closer to industry </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone - Enjoy Moscow </li></ul>