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Addiction and major treatment methods


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Addiction and major treatment methods

  1. 1. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comAddiction and Major Treatment MethodsAbstractAn uncontrollable repetitive carving of anything regardless of its positive or negative outcomesis highly toxic and termed as addiction. It can be only positive if the motive is acceptable underhuman rights actions but can be dreadful negative if it results in a serious obsession or cravingfor drugs, behaviour, withdrawal of physiological tolerance and habits.The research paper scrutinized the major addictions and its effects on its social surrounding,family and friends, work and the person itself. Extreme limits for any action, activity or feelingscan create a misbalance in human personality traits. The research paper also emphasis on thevarious treatments and counselling methods used to cure addicts and their ongoing developmentand after effects for using adverse addictions. (Timothy, 2000.)
  2. 2. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comAddictionAddiction is the most progressive and destructive syndrome which creates an excessivecraving and obsession for certain behaviour, object, sensation or drugs. Habits are very closelyrelated to addiction and it creates dependency and urge for substance abuse, adverse eatingdisorder and weird physiological behaviour at any particular time (DiClemente, C. p5).Addiction can be of anything; drugs, food, habits, chores, work or even a person that hasa strong effect on the personality and mood swings. Denial and dependence is the majorsymptom for addicts. It has destructive and adverse consequences, which have scar a family,charred a relationship and even demolished their former personality.There is no excuse to addiction be it for small things like (shopping, cooking, cleaningetc) as we consider it a daily habit and create dependency on such petty things. The reality is thatwe accept the addiction but denies understanding and restrain us from doing it. .According to a research based on substance abuse, by eighth grade, 52% of adolescentshave consumed alcohol, 41% have smoked tobacco, and 20% have smoked marijuana (Wood, R.2001). An estimated four million Americans over the age of 12 used prescription pain relievers,sedatives, and stimulants for "nonmedical" reasons during one month.According to data from the World Health Organization, there were 1.1 billion smokersworldwide and 10,000 tobacco-related deaths per day. Furthermore, in the United States, 43% ofchildren aged 2-11 years are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, which has been
  3. 3. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comimplicated in sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, asthma, middle eardisease, pneumonia, cough, and upper respiratory infection. (Timothy, K. 2000).Types and Forms of AddictionAddiction varies from abuse of substance, recreational addiction, everyday activities,sensation etc. The most common of them is the drug addiction which has been banned and is stillfound in children, adults and olds irrespective of their gender, habitants or social world. SeveralNon-for profit organizations, charities, councils and ministries of health have collaborated andbanned addictions to restrain the adolescence and children from crucifying their future, familyand social world. The common types of addictions are: Drugs, Alcohol, Caffeine, Tobacco,Cocaine, Inhalants and Solvents, Internet, Gambling, Marijuana, Oxcycontin, Prescription drugabuse, Shopping, Sexual, pornography, Video games, Eating disorders, Sedatives, Work,Nicotine etc.Causes and EffectsAddiction is often confused with dependence. Dependence is the withdrawal symptomsafter stopping substance abuse and is often regarded as tolerance. Tolerance occurs when thebody becomes less responsive to a specific amount of a substance, thereby causing the person toincrease the amount of drug intake to achieve the previous effect. It is said that when toleranceincreases risk of addiction also increases.The causes of withdrawal and continues abuse depends on two main factors, physical andphysiological.
  4. 4. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comIt is a complex brain disorder that instigates a very strong craving for an addict even inthe worst circumstances. During the craving for substance abuse or addiction a person usuallymisses the physiological behaviour pattern such as being high tempered, low mood sings, acutedepression and even haughty laugher and often experiences withdrawal symptoms. The brainresponds to the addictive substance as the same way it responds to the pleasurable experiences.They do not care whether they will die or it is destroying their health, future, family, friends oreven social world.According to report regarding the important factors investigating the causes of addiction(National Centre of Health and Wellnes: n.d ) are:GeneticsA person who has never been in contact with any drugs, alcohol is highly rare to getaddicted. Inherited behaviour pattern or substance abuse in family, friends, social gathering, andexposure to social world are the basis risk factor contributing towards addictions. If a person isgrown up with alcohol addicted or drug addicted parents they are likely to be affected by theenvironment either physiological disorders such as food addicts, work addicts or even in adversecases kills their depression with sedative addictions.EnvironmentThe addict environment has drastic effects on children and even adolescent teenagerswhich either are engaged in other addiction with adverse physiological behaviour patternsranging from rage of anger burst, acute depressions or even solemnization. They are even prone
  5. 5. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comto drug abuse ranging from alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, heroine, opium, inhalant abuses andeven sedatives to relief them from the miseries of their life. The most striking feature in the lastdecade was reported that children from broken families with divorced or single parents evenresults in different kind of substance or drug addictions to eradicate, depressions, anxieties,coping up with grief’s and even the world.Emotional Disorder:The other most common factor or rather an excuse for acute depressions, misery of life,poverty, bi-polar disorders and pressure from work, home and even school pressures. Childrenare more prone to such addictions ranging to teenagers emotional distress for quarrelling parents,broken relationships, poverty, and pressure for good grades. Adults are also prone to this factorwith other serious physiological factor. They want to escape from all the problems and anxietiesand thus the relief is pleasurable and often chose for excessive drug, food, shopping, exercise,alcohol or sleeping abuse.Abuse:According to the study, individuals who are pawned or experienced physical,physiological, emotional abuse are prone become addicts. Children and teenagers are highlylikely to get addicted in such circumstances when their self-esteem has been degraded, emotionaldistress and loss of pride can even stimulate to get addicted to certain substance abuse.Substance:
  6. 6. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comSubstance abuse is the most common and obsessive then other addictions. It createsdependencies and high tolerance due to excessive use of substances like alcohol, cocaine,heroine, methamphetamine, marijuana, oxcycontin, sedatives, drugs etc.According to a psychoanalytic view addicts substance abuse or drug abuse to run awayfrom distress and anxiety and other painful emotions such as hunger, anger, loneliness anddepressions. They avoid responsibility, problem solving initiatives, denial of physiologicaldisorders signaling a threat to overwhelm their ego. (Thombs, D. 2006).Seeking Counseling or Medical Care:Addictions such as drug addiction, alcohol, substance abuse needs sudden and immediatecounseling and medical care. Counseling can be done to such patients or addicts who either canbe a part of support groups, Rehabs (in patient treatments), medical intensive care, hospitals etc.Group sessions, individual sessions, family counseling and psychiatric supervision is required tocope up with the abuse habits.The session ranges from coping with anger skills, expression of desires and feelings andare encourage speaking up in order to heal their addictions.Support groups enable the addicts to participate and socialize to revive their formerpersonality. The after effects of leaving the addiction can be severe and the addict is prone to getback if he did not maintain the tolerance level. Peer pressure groups also contribute along withthe family to cure patients like narcotics, heroine or alcohol addicts.
  7. 7. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comAddiction Treatment MethodsCounseling and seeking a medical care for abuse of substance and addictions are the firststep to eradicate this big menace. Treatment options depend on different factors and also on theextent of addiction of the individual. Treatment can be a combination of inpatient and outpatientprograms, rehabs; psychotherapy, support groups, medication, family and friend support and insever case surgeries too.PsychotherapyIt can be achieved with family or spouse sessions with a specialist or medical practitionerdepending on the extent of addiction, behaviour patterns and health status.They are sessions on individual and combine to cope up with the sudden and excessivecraving of addicts, relapses and other dependencies resulted in adverse behaviour patterns.Medical TreatmentDetoxification can also be needed for sever addiction like alcohol or drug abuses. Acutesymptoms of withdrawal is linked with discontinuation of drugs are alcohol and is very helpfulin long term.Medication like Methadone,buprenorphine (Suboxone), and levo-alpha-acetylmethadol(LAAM) can be prescribed for individuals addicted to heroin Acamprosate (Campral) is anagent to help in maintaining abstinence in people with alcohol dependency.
  8. 8. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comA nicotine replacement product (such as patches or gum) or an oral medication (suchas bupropion) can be an effective component of therapy for people addicted to nicotine. (Nash,C.M.2007).Self help groupsThey help the addicts to cope up with their abuse engaging them in different activities,relishing their behaviour patterns, meeting with people of same problems and motivating themtowards better life and future. They are educationist, therapist and volunteers who educate themand revive them for abuse of alcoholics, narcotic and other drugs.Behavioral therapyThe extreme changes in behaviour pattern are treated by this therapy. It also helps themto deal with the withdrawal symptoms. This is recommended either as an outpatient or inpatientresidential treatment centers which serious addictions such as Alcohol, stimulants, depressants,opioids etc.Motivation and encouragement are the basic theme for the behavioral therapy. Family,friends, co-workers can engage the addict in replacement of addiction activities like playingsome sports, dinning and hanging out etc. They could also resist him for doing or developing theparticular behavioral pattern or urgency for the addiction.It emphasis on improving the problem solving skills, grief coping skills, strengthening thephysical appearance with balanced diet and interacting in constructive and rewarding activities.
  9. 9. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comPrevention of relapse is very important and transforming new behaviour pattern can avoid it inlong term withdrawal too.ConclusionIt’s never too late to quit, extreme hobbits resulting in addiction or obsession can destroylife, family, friends, and social world. Addiction is a very serious mental disorder which needsmedical care, counseling, help and coordination of friends and family to demolish it completely.Avoidance is not a solution because life is too short to live like an addict.www.Virtual-Dissertation.comOutstanding Essays, Thesis/Dissertation and Papers, etc.We provide writing help to develop quality Essays, Term Papers, Coursework, Thesis and Dissertation, etc. for those who are quality oriented.We cover lots of different subjects including (but not to bound only these),Cyber Laws,Cyber Security,
  10. 10. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comEnglish Literature,Anthropology, Social Science,Case Studies,Law,Philosophy,Psychology,IT,Economics,Business,Marketing,Management,Politics,Global Issues and lots of others.........................Just Contact Us for any query and Order........................We are here at: www.Virtual-Dissertation.comReferencesBiotech Week (2004). A New Office-based Treatment for Prescription Drug and HeroinAddiction." Vol. 219.DiClemente, C.C. (2006). Addiction and Change: How Addictions Develop and Addicted PeopleRecover. Maryland, Baltimore County: Guilford Press.
  11. 11. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comHeyman, M.G. (2009). Addiction: a disorder of choice. Harvard, US: Harvard University Press.Kalivas, P. (2001). Drug Addiction: To the Cortex … and Beyond. The American Journal ofPsychiatry 158, no. 3.Leshner, A. (2001). Addiction is a Brain Disease. Issues in Science and Technology 17, no. 3.National Centre of Health and Wellness (n.d ).What Causes Addiction. Retrieve online: Wood Johnson Foundation. (2001). Substance Abuse: The Nations #1 Problem.Princeton, N.J.Scientists May Use Existing Drugs to Stop Addiction (September 21, 2004). Life ScienceWeekly: 1184.Timothy, K. (2000). Addiction: A Booming $800 Billion Industry. The World and I
  12. 12. Running Head: ADDICTION AND MAJOR TREATMENTwww.Virtual-Dissertation.comThombs, D. (2006). Introduction to Addictive Behaviors. New York: Guilford Press