1307517296577 evaluation of training


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1307517296577 evaluation of training

  1. 1. Evaluation of Training B.V.L.Narayana SPTM/RSC BRC
  2. 2. DEFINITION  Training  Provision aimed at creating intentional learning processes To bring about semi permanent change in individuals – Knowledge, attitudes. Skills and habits (KASH)—behaviors With an intention To enhance performance on the job  Evaluation of training  Systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions  Is affected by  Need analysis, participation, other antecedent conditions, design and delivery and transfer of training
  3. 3. Evaluation of training  Antecedent conditions  Are what trainees bring to training  Design and delivery  Structuring and methods of delivering content  Transfer of training  Transfer of training is defined as the degree to which trainees apply the knowledge, skills , and attitudes gained in training to their job ( Ford and weissbein 1997; Tannebaum and Yulk 1992; Wexley and latham 1991)
  4. 4. TRAINING AND TRANSFER Knowledge transfer and utilisation Sharing to learn and use Individual learning and use Facilitation Personality Evaluation criteria Linked rewards and punishments Transfer and use Factors affecting transfer and use Learning and skill development Achieve self results Achieve orgn results
  5. 5. Training and transfer TRAINING ACQUISITION UTILISATION AT JOB Motivation to learn Motivation to transfer Skills Knowledge, concepts Attitudes Habits Ability to do roles Improved performance Transfer of training For individual performance Sharing Present job Future job Organisational strategy, individual strategy Transfer of skills to others
  6. 6. Participation  Factors influencing participation  Organizational  Alignment with organizational strategy  Change, innovative work practices  High performance work systems  In large organizations  Economies of scale, work place recognition, union involvement, specialized skills  Showing greater support for training and development  At job level  Highly skilled jobs  At individual level  More motivated to learn, continuous learning  More committed
  7. 7. Antecedent conditions  Are  What trainees bring to training  High cognitive ability  High motivation to learn-desire to learn  High training and performance goal orientation  Work environment factors-facilitating trainee participation and learning  Enablers of use of training at work place  Rewards, recognition, support, resources  Organizational direction and support  How training is prepared  Content has to be relevant, interesting, appropriate and have opportunities for practice, enable mental conceptualization of material
  8. 8. Motivation to learn  Motivation to learn is defined as the specific desire of a learner to learn the content of training programme (Noe 1986; Noe and Scmitt 1986) –supported by  High training goal orientation  Lack anxiety  High internal locus of control  High achievement motivation  Conscientitious  High self efficacy  Committed  Plan their career  Organizational support, peer and supervisor support
  9. 9. Training design  Is based on how people learn and how organizations learn  Learning cycles (Sanchez 2002)  Learning principles (Kolb 1984)  Recall from memory  Apply principles to task  Symbolic mental rehearsal  Reinforcement  Feed back and response  Self monitoring of learning  Cater to differences in aptitudes
  10. 10. Design of training  Learner control  Enabling trainee to participate in design of programme  Has a very small role, good for procedural and skill based learning  Trainer skills  Use of line managers, peers unskilled trainers reduces efficacy of training  Use expert and skilled trainers  Question of outsourcing  Issues of trust, contextual familiarity, commitment  Types of training  Individual, team, error and e-learning
  11. 11. Delivery  Contexts  Separate  As part of high performance work systems  Influenced by  Trainees learning style  Methodology of delivery  Way training is delivered-Kolb’s experiential learning cycle(1984) – concrete experience, reflective observations, abstract generalization, active experimentation  Specific population and content  Maximum transfer of training occurs when conditions for transfer are included in training, practice scenarios, trainee is allowed to set goals, gets rewards and trainee supervisors are trained
  12. 12. Methodologies  Groups of methods used in training  Information presentation  Modeling- demonstration  Information presentation and learner response— case method  Systematic response generation—contextualizing the training  Simulation  On the job training
  13. 13. High performance work systems  A growing body of research suggests that the use of a set of HR practices, including  comprehensive employee recruitment  selection procedures, compensation  and performance management systems,  information sharing, and  extensive employee involvement and training,  can improve the acquisition, development and retention of a talented and motivated workforce. These HR practices are usually referred to as high involvement, high commitment, or high performance work systems.
  14. 14. Training design  Involves five steps  Specify instructional objectives  Decide sequence of activities  Content based on learning principles  Select training method  Ensure good learning environment  To maintain motivation to learn  Design measures of training effectiveness
  15. 15. Transfer of training  Aims of transfer  Apply to improve performance  Immediate—learn and apply  Long term –maintain and apply, transfer to others  Is impacted by factors  What occurs before training  What occurs during training  What occurs after training  Factors classified as  Individual  organizational
  16. 16. Transfer of training  Individual  Learner characteristics  Cognitive ability  Motivation to learn  Anxiety  Openness to experience  Perceived utility  Career planning  Organizational commitment  High motivation to transfer
  17. 17. Transfer of training  Training environment  Learning goals  Content relevance  Practice and feed back  Behavioral modeling  Error based examples  Work environment  Transfer climate  Supervisor support  Peer support  Opportunity to perform
  18. 18. Evaluation of training  Most commonly based on four stages model  Kirkpatrick (1959,1976,1994,2006)  Four stages of evaluation  Reactions  Learning  Behavioral  Results  Research shows that most used is  Reactions (72%), followed by learning( 32%) behavioral ( 19%) and results (7%)
  19. 19. Evaluation of training Category Definition Methods Time lag Key issues Reactions Affective attitudinal responses Self report measures immediate Not related to trainee learning and transfer- not utility based Learning programme outcomes Paper pencil test 25-30days Necessary for performance Behavioral Actual performanc e on job Supervisor ratings 4-6 months Susceptible to environment variables Results Are monetary benefits Utility analysis 6-8 months Are most distant, difficult to correlate
  20. 20. Evaluation of training  Research  Very few to establish causal sequence of Kirkpatrick's model  New models are being developed  Holton's model  Proof that training helps  Immediate  Long term
  21. 21. Evaluation of training SECONDARY INFLUENCES-- Performance self efficacy, learner readiness MOTIVATIONAL ELEMENTS-- Motivation to transfer, Transfer effort performance expectations, Performance to outcomes expectations ENVIRONMENTAL ELEMENTS-- Feed back, Peer supposrt, Supervisor support, Openness to change LEARNING INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE ORGANISATIONAL RESULTS ABILITY -- Content validity, Transfer design, Personal capacity to transfer, Opportunity to use Personal outcomes positive, Personal outcomes negative and Supervisor sanctions
  22. 22. Evaluation of training Secondary influences Motivation elements Environmental elements Outcomes Ability / enabling elements Personality characteristics Intervention readiness Job attitudes Intervention fulfillment Motivation to Learn Motivation to transfer Expected utility / ROI Reaction Transfer climate External events Learning Individual performance Organisational results Ability Transfer design Linkage to organisational goals
  23. 23. Behaviour Intention Subjective norm Perceived behaviour control Attitude towards the behaviour Theory of planned behavior
  24. 24. Theory of planned behavior  The theory of planned behaviour states that the most important determinant of a persons behaviour  is behaviour intent ( Ajzen 1991; Ajzen and Fishbien 1980; Fishbien and Ajzen 1975) and  that this intent is dependent upon His attitude, the pervailing norms and perceived behaviour controls.  Peoples attitudes towards their behaviour refers to the degree to which they are made favourable or unfavourable evaluations of behaviour in question.  subjective norms are perceived social pressures from significant others to perform or not to perform.  Perceived behavioral controls are the perceived ease or difficulty of performing a beaviour. more favourable the norms and attitudes, more favourable is te perceived beavioural controls and stronger the individual intention to perform the behaviour under consideration
  25. 25. Skills Performance Beliefs Actions THANKS ANY QUESTIONS