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Implementation of Rapid Transit Project departing in Tanzania


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Implementation of Rapid Transit Project departing in Tanzania

  1. 1. 1 | P a g e UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA Department of Political & Administration Studies Project implementation departing from socio-economic implications. A case study of Bus Rapid Transit Project in Dar es Salaam Tanzania Project Management and Evaluation Robius Bagoka MPA: Public Policy and Administration 8 April 2015
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e ABSTRACT Transportation is a key to the economy and production; it makes mobility more accessible and enhances the social and economic interactions. Due to the rapid agglomeration of Dar es Salaam a capital city of Tanzania, with rapid population growth reaching 4.4Million people; the increased growth in number of motorization both private and public transport bringing about unsafe congestion, traffic jams, theft cases and accidents. Therefore, the government of Tanzania conceived a need to have clean, faster, modern and time saving transport system by adopting Bus Rapid Transit System. This system will create employment opportunities, reduce congestion and frequent accidents. Though the existing public transport will not be allowed to operate in the City Centre and thus be re-located to other areas were transport means are yet to be developed. Importantly, this paper seeks to explore the implementation of the Bus Rapid Transit Project in Dar es Salaam Tanzania as a case and how it departs from the socio-economic aspects within the respective community considering its identification, appraisal (economic, social and environmental analysis), and its implementation (execution, monitoring and control). The paper draws a lesson from this case that stakeholder engagement, public interests, sustainability of the proposed project proper project appraisal are vital for project implementation. This paper recommends and concludes that there should be an effective institutional coordination, reinforcing of political will and credibility, reliable funding of development project strengthening public-private partnership for effective service delivery. Keywords: Bus Rapid Transit/Dar Rapid Transit, Project Implementation, Case Study and Tanzania. INTRODUCTION Since independence in 1961 the government of Tanzania has been embarking on economic transformation through industrialization and rural development schemes such as Villagezation (Ujamaa villages) in ensuring the role of the state in resources allocation, redistribution and service delivery is enhanced (IFAD, 2014). Significant transformation of the economy has been realized by an increase from 5 percent annual rate of growth in 2009 reaching 6.8percent in 2013, but not far reaching 8 percent target pictured in Tanzania Development Vision (TDV) 2015 (Bertelsmann Stiftuna Transformation Index-BTI, 2014). This reflects a positive development trend and promising macro-economic performance. The key factors explaining
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e Tanzania’s strong and steady economic performance include the rapid growth of a number of economic sectors (communications, financial services, construction, oil and gas, mining, manufacturing and retail), a resilient domestic demand and the economy’s limited dependence on external trade (IFAD, 2014). Such transformation has been increasing in agglomeration of cities such as Mwanza, Mbeya, Arusha, Tanga and its capital city Dar es Salaam. And thus pulling a large number of population into these cities that increases congestion, rapid growth in private motorized cars, and very unsteady public transport systems. Therefore, the Government of Tanzania has set itself an objective to create a quick, clean and cost-effective solution to its capital city’s Dar es Salaam existing transport challenges such as rapid population growth, insufficient infrastructure, expansion and agglomeration of urban areas, emissions from vehicles, congestion and traffic jams, inadequate traffic management, air quality and health related issues (DART Agency, 2014). The idea of designing a modest transport system was conceived in 2009 after a visit by Ministry of Transport, Tanzania National Roads Agency (TANROADS) and Dar es Salaam City Council officials in Singapore, South Africa and India were the Bust Rapid Transit schemes are operating in most of the public transport. Thus, the government showed an interest of adapting a successful public transport systems from these successful countries (visited) were public transport systems are well managed. Significantly, the government came up with a modern, clean and faster public transport scheme designed to international standards as Bus Rapid Transit Project (BRT Project) or Dar Rapid Transit Project (DART Project), with the aim and ambition to provide a better, more modern and efficient public transport service to the residents of Dar es Salaam (Mlambo, 2013a). The Bus Rapid Transit Project (BRT) is part of Big Results Now (BRN) initiative launched by His Excellency President Dr. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete in 2013 to fast-track the delivery of the step-change required to transition the country from a low to middle- income economy using joint capacity of the international and local private sector expertise (DART Agency, 2014). The project commenced in 2012, being implemented in six phases by Tanzania National Roads Agency (TANROADS) through private contractors namely STRABAG and Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation (SMEC) as project consultants (Mlambo, 2013a & DART Agency, 2014).
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e Surprisingly, phase one of the project which covers 20.9km was to be handled over by the contractor by December, 2014. Yet it was not handled to the client (United Republic of Tanzania) through the Ministry of Transport. Notably, over 28 traffic lights have been stolen while some 10 manhole covers have also vandalized. This brings difficulties in implementing the project as per planned schedule. Since project implementation is part of project cycle demonstrated; (i) programming (ii) identification (iii) appraisal (iv) financing (v) implementation and (vi) evaluation (Project Cycle Management Training Handbook, 2002). In project implementation phase, the project management plan (PMP) is executed, monitored and controlled; were the project managers are responsible for monitoring all implementation activities to ensure that the project remains on plan and achieves its desired scope, time, costs and quality objectives (APM, 2006). Likewise, in the public sectors, public administrators has to play the same roles are project managers in maximizing social and economic benefits of the entire community or society. Therefore public administrators or manager must execute, monitor, audit and control developmental projects like the Bus Rapid Transit Project (BRT)/ Dar Transit Project (DART) to ensure that the public monies are spent effectively, efficiently and building a sense of financial accountability and transparency (Botlhale et al, 2010). However, this paper discusses on how the implementation of BRT/DART project departs from the socio-economic implications surrounding the society were the project is being implemented. CASE STUDY A case study is useful in getting an insight or understanding of the research context or a project were different data from multiple sources using multiple methods are gathered, analyzed before project implementation or after its implementation to assess it impacts, contributions and sustainability (Saunders et al, 2012). The implementation of Bus Rapid Transit project is estimated to cost about USD 470 Million. Pressures from the opposition parties especially Tanzania Party for Democracy and Development (CHADEMA) during the parliamentary debates of February 2011 together with the existing challenges of public transport in the city of Dar es Salaam, pressing (demanding) for an effective government especially in managing development projects. And thus adoption of the Bus Rapid Transit project. But yet, the implementation of the project does not seem to accommodate the social and economic preferences of the needy
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e (public). As no information was provided on the execution of the ongoing project rather relocating people to other areas thus affecting their social and economic wellbeing. Therefore, this section will discuss project identification and stakeholder’s engagement, project appraisal, project implementation (execution, monitoring, control and production), expected achievements or benefits from the project and critique arguments with respect to the project implementation. Project Identification During project identification, and within the framework of the country’s development plan, that is Tanzania Development Vision 2015, analysis of relevant project ideas including key stakeholders, likely target groups and beneficiaries (from different socio-economic groups) and analysis of the problems they face and addressing the options to these problems were identified. The government of Tanzania recognized that, despite of the fact that Dar es Salaam City Council being its capital city and a faster growing city in the country estimated to generate almost 70% of the country’s GDP (Dar es Salaam City Council-DCC, 2012), yet its population is growing rapidly reaching 4.4Million people in 2012 (Africa Development Bank, 2013). Administratively, the region is divided into three Municipalities of Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke which are regarded as local government authorities with elected councilors. The region has the coordinating body, the Dar es Salaam City Council (DCC) which is in charge of the all activities within the three municipalities and overall planning in the city (Prime Minister’s Office Regional Administration and Local Government, 2012). The increase and growth of Motorization which is estimated to be more than 100,000 passenger cars in the city is one of the driving forces for the economic growth in the city (DART Agency, 2014). But the number of passenger cars is estimated to grow to about 200,000 to 500,000 in 2020 and 2030 respectively. Despite of the growth and increase in passenger cars in the city, yet there is also a rapid increase of private motorized vehicles which has been leading into rapid worsening congestion and traffic jams and threatening the capability of provision of public transport in the city (Dar Rapid Transit, 2009). The current public transport systems in Dar es Salaam City and other parts of the country as mostly similar involving a number of various transport means commonly used include “Daladala, Railway services, Car Ferries, “Bajaji”, and “Bodabodas”. Daladala (well known as “KOMBI” in Botswana) which are regulated by Surface and Marine Transport Regulatory Authority (SUMATRA) under the Ministry of Transport. On the other hand, there are two trains
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e offering railway services within the city operating in the morning and evening peak hours, carrying a total of about 5,000 passengers per work day (Mfinanga, 2012). Usually the short distance are not covered by daladala, the passengers opt for a three-wheeled “Bajaji” or “Bodaboda” (Motorcycle) that goes further to the interior areas in the city. Surprisingly, the “Bajaji” and “Bodaboda” has been prohibited to operate in the City Centre due to rough driving which has been causing accidents (Kiunsi, 2013). The growth and increase of different transport system, “Daladala “Bajaji”, and “Bodabodas” in the city brings a big threat due to rapidly increasing congestion. There has been increasing in accidents due to congestion and rough driving (and over speeding), delays in working places due to dense traffic jams and frequency theft cases especially on traffic jams (Msigwa, 2013). Thus, government recognized a need to provide an alternative solutions to these problems in the city by introducing the Bus Rapid Transit/Dar Rapid Transit (BRT/DART Project) system with the aim and ambition of providing a cleaner, more modern and more efficient public transport service to the residents of Dar es Salaam which will ultimately become a core public transport provider (Mlambo, 2013a). On the other hand, the introduction of Dar Rapid Transit System will not stop the former public transport systems to operate, but rather the “daladalas”, “bodabodas” and “bajaji” will be re-located and continue operating in the corridors (feeder roads) where the DART/BRT system will expand to in future (DARTAgency & PMO-RALG, 2014). Project Appraisal Project Appraisal is part of project life cycle as next demonstrated; (i) programming (ii) identification (iii) appraisal (iv) financing (v) implementation and (vi) evaluation (Project Cycle Management Training Handbook, 2002). Appraising projects can be conducted at different phases of the respective project (s) either before commencement of the project, when the project is half way and or after the project has been completed (Boardman et al, 2001). Project appraisal affords the organization or the government to make informed investment decisions and, therefore, ensure that scarce resources are used in the most efficient manner, thus rational decision making by public managers is critical in ensuring the project to be executed is appraised (Botlhale et al, 2010). Therefore, with Bus Rapid Transit project, appraisal takes into account the social and economic analysis, and environmental analysis (just to mention a few).
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e Economic and Social Analysis; how far will the project contribute to the development of the transport sector, industrial development, social development, maximizing the growth of employment, etc.? These key aspects were incorporated in appraising the Bus Rapid Transit project while evaluating the economic feasibility of the project (DARTAgency & PMO-RALG, 2014). Arguably, the purpose of economic analysis of the project was to bring about a better allocation of resources, leading to enhanced incomes for investment, consumption which will generate economic growth and development (Ibid). Choices were made within the economy to ensure that the proposed project for investment meets a minimum standard for resource generation. On the other hand, economic analysis of the project was appraised based on the positive effects to be generated throughout the life cycle of the project being providing employment to experienced drivers and conductor, offering a reliable, faster and clean public transport that save time (Mfinanga, 2012). Furthermore, looking at the project effects and judging project acceptability it is important to determine who benefits and who pays costs. Notably, social impacts as an integral part of investment project appraisal have been clearly identified, in examining whether the project is likely to contribute to social development outcome like creation of employment, adequate service delivery (transport) and other social dimensions such as participation, gender equity and social sustainability to improve social development outcomes (Msigwa, 2013). Environmental Analysis; is concerned with the impact of environment on the project. The factors include the water, air, land, sound, geographical location etc. With Bus Rapid Transit Project, as per Environmental Management Act Cap. 191, with the support by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Dar Rapid Transit Agency (DART) organized a one day workshop to launch campaign for cleaner buses and fuels held on 15th, April 2009 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ( (NEMC & UNEP, 2009). The objectives of the workshop were to deliberate on the overall progress made by key stakeholders to address air pollution challenges and officially launch the pilot project on media campaign (DART Agency, 2009). Additionally, National Policies and International Agreements are in hand with environmental protection and transportation sector and with regard to the execution of BRT project (Mlambo, 2013a). Use of lower Sulphur fuels with the BRT project will enable efficient functioning of emission reduction technologies installed in these buses, (Rapid Transit Buses), improve engine life and lower
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e maintenance costs, reduce vehicle emission and greenhouse gases and improve public health (Ibid). Therefore, there is a need to sensitize the public and decision makers on the environmental and health benefits of lower Sulphur levels in diesel for rapid buses (rapid transit) (NEMC & UNEP, 2009). Project Implementation Once a project has been planned and financial support been secured, then implementation can start. The agreed resources are used to achieve the project purpose and to contribute to the wider overall objectives (APM, 2006). This usually involves project execution, monitoring, control and production. The ultimate outcome being a successful project meeting its purpose and contributing to its overall objectives and an evidence that means allocated have been used in an efficient, effective and transparent way (Project Cycle Management Training Handbook, 2002). Usually projects are implemented over several years. With the Bus Rapid Transit project it is implemented into six phases, phase I covering 20.9km, 19.3km for phase II, 26.3km phase III, phase IV covering 16.1km and phase V and VI covering 22.8km and 27.6km respectively, of which phase I commenced in 2013 (DARTAgency & PMO-RALG, 2014). Importantly, Bus Rapid Transit project is implemented following the existing institutional policy frameworks including; The Foreign investment policy, that creates enabling environment for foreign investment; The Public Private Partnerships (PPP) governed by the Public Private Partnership Act 2010; The Public Procurement Act 2011 (Procurement Act) and Public Procurement Regulations 2013 in ensure the application of fair, competitive, transparent, non- discriminatory and value for money procurement standards and practices; The Big Results Now (BRN), launched in 2013 aiming at result based key priority sectors of the economy involving Transport sector; The Employment Act 2004, The Labour Institutions Act 2004 and subsequent related rules govern all employment matters in Tanzania covering both foreign and local employees and employers within Tanzania (DART Agency, 2014). Therefore, this section takes into account execution, monitoring and control with respect to Bust Rapid Transit (BRT) Project in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e Project execution Project execution is far more than just implementing the project management plan (APM, 2006). Once a project moves into the Execution Phase, the project team and the necessary resources to carry out the project should be in place and ready to perform project activities (Project Cycle Management Training Handbook, 2002). Similarly with project team and specifically the Project Manager, the public manager’s focus now shifts from planning the project efforts to participating in, observing, and analyzing the work being done (PMBOK, 2004). Public managers like Project Manager’s responsibilities do not stop once the planning of the project is done. They are responsible to internal and external stakeholders, the project team, executive management, etc. With the Bus Rapid Transit project, attention was paid particular during Project execution in keeping interested parties up to date with project status, dealing with procurement and contract administration issues, helping manage quality control, and monitoring project risk (Mlambo, 2013b & DART Agency, 2014). Accordingly, while it is important that each project team member be responsible for the quality execution of tasks, a team or individual of Quality Management from Ministry of Transport, Tanzania National Roads Agency, e.t.c were included providing technical assistance (TA) as an integral role in the execution of quality throughout the project (DART Agency, 2014). Project monitoring and control Project management has the task of establishing sufficient control over the project to ensure that it stays on track towards the achievement of its objectives (PCM Handbook, 1999). This is done by monitoring (internal), which involves a systematic and a continuous collection, analysis and use of information for management control and decision making (Ibid, and APM, 2006). With the BRT project, implementation is done by Tanzania National Roads Agency (TANROADS) through private contractors namely STRABAG and Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation (SMEC) as project consultants under control of Ministry of Transport (DART Agency, 2014). On the other hand, project monitoring and control involves giving progressive feedback on continuity of the project were different stakeholders including Tanzania National Electric Supply Company (TANESCO), Electricity Water Utility Regulatory Authority (EWURA), Ministry of Works (MoW), Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e (MoFEA), Dar es salaam Commuter Bus Owners Association (DARCOBOA), Dar es Salaam Transport Company (UDA), Surface and Marine Transport Regulatory Authority (SUMATRA), Dar Es Salaam City Council (DCC), are engaged specifically is proving technical assistance with respect to the project (Mlambo, 2013b). After completion of DART/BART project, project operations will be under private sector: 2 bus operators, a fare collector, a bus scheduler and a fund manager. The system will be regulated and overseen by the Government (Kiunsi, 2013). The DART system will utilize High Capacity Buses each with ability to carry not more than 140 passengers, running on dedicated lanes reducing number of vehicles and emission (Ojoro, 2011). Operations will be contracted to the private sector; these are Fare collection system, Station Management and Bus Operations. Existing public transport operators will stop the current service within the City Centre and be integrated into the DART system (Mfinanga, 2012). Though it is still a challenge on how to integrate the current public transport system because most of them are privately owned and lack skills and knowledge on how to run the new system underway. On the other hand, the Dar es Salaam Commuter Bus Owners Association (DARCOBOA) and Dar es Salaam Transport Company (UDA) are expected to participate in this operation in collaboration with the government (Mlambo, 2013a). EXPECTED ACHIEVEMENTS OR BENEFITS FROM DART PROJECT With an area of 1800 square kilometers, Dar es Salaam is known to have the biggest national urban population, thus this project will provide an efficient, safe, environment-friendly, time- saving, and value-for-money transportation (Mfinanga, 2012). Also the project is expected to reduce congestion, traffic jams and theft cases which normally occur on traffic jams (Ibid). The project will help to minimize passengers' perceived waiting times and relieve stress on transit operations for on-time arrival and enhance travel time savings (Mlambo, 2013b). Furthermore, with the DART/BRT system, there will be a significant reduction of local pollutants, such as carbon monoxide from the existing growing and congestion of public and private cars which in most cases pose environmental and public health concern (NEMC & UNEP, 2009). By phasing out less-efficient, older transport vehicles, DART/BRT system can have a positive impact on smog, local pollution and the health of city residents (Ibid).
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e With the introduction of The Bus Rapid Transit system, rates of fatal accidents will be reduced due to its sophisticated infrastructure design elements. Recent studies have shown that Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) corridors can have a positive impact on traffic safety by reducing the frequency of traffic incidents, injuries fatalities, even when controlling for citywide trends in accidents (Mfinanga, 2012). During construction of DART/BRT infrastructure, operation and maintenance of the system there was creation of jobs, and its implementation resulted into increase in the number of employed people or merely a shift of workers from one job or sector to another (Ibid). On the other hand, BRT systems will create more jobs in the formal economy that will replace informal jobs from the existing traditional transport system popularly known as daladala. The best example of this experience is BRT in Johannesburg's Rea Vaya which has helped to move former mini-bus taxi drivers from the informal sector to formal employment as Rea Vaya bus drivers (Mfinanga, 2012). Studies conducted in 2012 on this system show that annual earnings for these drivers increased more than two-fold and they benefited from formal employment arrangements once they were employed in Rea Vaya. With the coming of DART project in Dar es Salaam city, dwellers and visitors to this city will benefit a lot apart from arriving at their respective destinations in a short time (Ibid; Mlambo, 2013b and DART Agency, 2014). CRITIQUE ARGUMENTS Despite of the achievements and benefits expected from DART/BRT project; yet there are number of issues that still constraints or hinder the proper execution and realization of the project benefits and total achievement of the project targets. Firstly, poor road condition; the existing roads which are not integrated into DART/BRT project are still very poor, and not comfortable/ profitable to operate in, resistance to relocation to these routes should therefore be expected especially from the existing public transports (Daladala or Kombi) which will be relocated to operate in those routes (feeder roads). Secondary, loss of Jobs; Daladala owners and their association (DARCOBOA) there is a concern about the gradual phasing out of their operations, on whether new jobs will be created to absorb those who will lose their jobs once Daladala buses are eliminated or phased out or relocated to other routes?, as there are currently over 5,000 commuter buses in Dar es Salaam City, and Phase One will result in replacement of about 3,295 commuter buses (Mfinanga, 2012). Thirdly, lack of skills by drivers and conductors; most
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e affected drivers and conductors lack the necessary skills to allow them to be absorbed in the BRT system and they will need to be trained to attain professional driving qualifications to be eligible for employment into the DART system. The remaining drivers and conductors will need to be deployed elsewhere where they will need to acquire other skills for redeployment, thus this places another challenge to be concerned with. Furthermore, there is fragmented ownership of the business; were Daladala operators are individuals owning mostly one bus, and most of the individual operators are preoccupied with other businesses not related to public transport which negatively impacts on the management and supervision of its operations. Thus, difficult to bring together Daladala operators due to their varied background and categories of ownership thus still a challenges on how will they be integrated in to BRT/DART system. Moreover, there is uncoordinated Institutional setup; as the current public transport institutional setup (Dar es Salaam Transport Company, Dar es Salaam Commuter Bus Owners Association, e.t.c ) is neither clearly defined nor well-coordinated as each institution works independently resulting in gaps/overlap in responsibilities and ineffective management of the city public transport. This situation possible will make the integration of existing public transport system (Daladala) into the BRT system much more challenging. Agreeable, still there is lack of knowledge on formulation of companies and experience in operating public transport systems; Apart from lack of experience and capital, Daladala owners lack the knowledge and understanding on how to form associations, companies and partnerships. It has also been observed that majority of the operators, more than 90% (Mfinanga, 2012) are not organized management wise and non-transport professionals, making it difficult for them to understand the advantages of participating in the DART project. Finally, currently there has been ongoing destruction of new infrastructures under BRT/DART project being carried out by some few unfaithful citizens before even the official handover of the project; for example, over 28 traffic lights have been stolen while some 10 manhole covers have also vandalized, this bring a question on the sustainability of the project infrastructures and lack of ownership among the citizens, and yet Dar es Salaam City Council and the whole project inspection teams are not taking any actions.
  13. 13. 13 | P a g e LESSONS LEARNT FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BRT/DART PROJECT Firstly, stakeholder engagement; in order to maximize the social and institutional benefits of the project and minimize its negative impacts, stakeholder analysis (engagement) that identifies all likely to be affected (either positively or negatively), is crucial. It is also important that project stakeholders take place at an early stage in the identification and appraisal phases of a project. The stakeholder analysis must therefore systematically identify all gender differences, as well as the specific interests, problems and potentials of women and men among the stakeholder groups (i.e. gender mainstreaming in project implementation). Secondly, taking into considerations the public interests (public opinions); it is important to recognize the needs, demands and interests of the public whose the project is targeted to. Welfare of the general public whether investors, shareholders, and business owners of public and private institutions, consumers and suppliers, taxpayers, electorates, and or citizens, with their differing interests being sound corporate governance and performance management in private and public sector organizations, increased efficiency and or minimization of natural resource depletion in the production of goods and services. Thereby enhancing the welfare of society by their greater availability and accessibility to the services and thus brings a very critical and of paramount importance in implementing development projects such as BRT project. Thirdly, sustainability of the proposed project; Assessing the community needs; involvement of community members in the selection of technology and equipment, and train them to operate, maintain, and repair it on their own, providing training, education, and outreach; prepare the community to assume ownership of the project once the project phases out; developing a clear and measurable project objectives, and identify methods for collecting project data while establishing baseline data that can be used to demonstrate significant change are vital elements to while identifying, apprising and implementing developmental projects. Furthermore, a proper project appraisal (economic, social, environmental aspects) is of paramount importance; Project Appraisal is very much important in making an analysis to see whether a project is viable. It is vital to know whether a project is technically feasible and economically liable taking in consideration its environmental outcomes. On the other hand project appraisal should be taken seriously because a lot rests on it. The effects of appraising a project are long reaching and very definite long term effects because of the capital investment that is always required in any project.
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e Moreover, project implementation (execution, monitoring and control); recapping from project implementation definition which simply means carrying out the activities described in your work plan. With BRT project it is important that, executing a project requires the coordination of a wide range of activities, the overseeing of a team, the management of budget, the communication to the public, among other issues. It also involves putting the action plan into operation, achieving tangible change and improvements, ensuring that new infrastructure, new institutions and new resources are sustainable in every aspect, ensuring transparency with regard to finances e.t.c Finally, monitoring and evaluation at every stage of the project is key for ensuring project keeps track. Importantly, Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) serves to drive accountability and transparency, inform decision making about project design and management, and provide lessons learned for future projects. When monitoring and evaluation is done in a participatory manner, monitoring can be a valuable process for building trust across diverse stakeholder groups, incorporating local knowledge and preferences, improving program outcomes, triangulating findings, and institutionalizing local engagement. RECOMMENDATIONS Transportation is a key to the economy and production; it makes mobility more accessible and enhances the social and economic interactions. With introduction of Dar es Salaam Rapid Transit Project (DART Project) it is suggested that, transport stakeholders and planners must coordinate to ensure effective and efficient plans are implemented due to the fact that an effective communication and involvement of key stakeholders in planning and implementation of development projects are the keys to success. Also, there is a need for developing effective current public transport institutional setup for better and desirable service delivery. Traffic management should be strengthened by provision of traffic light at major junction of the cities due to the fact that that the larger volume of the traffics are observed during the peak hours almost in every outstanding road of the cities in Tanzania especially Dar es Salaam. In addition, all roads in Tanzania cities should be provided with road signs whenever there is no sign, this will reduce accident incidences and promote safe and careful driving.
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e Political support (political will and credibility) and strong leadership are key factors for achieving project objectives and targets. Moreover, regular maintenance of roads in feeder roads were the current running public transport “Daladala” will be relocated is crucial to enable them run their businesses and deliver services. The road maintenance agencies like TANROADS, DART Agency, SUMATRA, e.t.c should be well funded to carry out their duties. This also goes hand in hand with provision of off-street parking facilities, as the lack of off-street parking has been resulting in on-street parking narrowing the existing roads and leading to obstruction of traffic flows. Therefore, the off-street parking space should be provided along the road where the concentrations of activities are high. With DART Project, that will result into relocation of public transport routes and integration of current running transport system into DART system which may lead into loss of jobs to some drivers and bus conductors who lack skills on how to run the new (BRT) system, thus the government through Vocational Education Training Agency (VETA) and National Institute of Transport (NIT) should offer chances for training to these drivers and conductors, placing them in a better position to find another formal jobs in other sectors of the economy and or being recruited in DART system after training. The Agglomeration of cities in Tanzania including Mbeya, Mwanza, Arusha and the capital city Dar es Salaam, with creation of more employment opportunities and higher income, has been attracting more people to move from rural areas coming into these cities searching for jobs and other services, thus increasing congestion and overpopulation. Therefore, the government and other sectors (either through PPP) should promote the rural sectors mainly “Agriculture” and ensure equitable service delivery in rural areas which will to retain and engage the rural people in running different income generating activities in their usual areas and transforming growth and development. This will help to reduce congestion and create a distributive population in urban areas matching with available resources and services and ensuring their sustainable use. Moreover, appraisal (economic, social, environmental analysis) and implementation (execution, monitoring and control) of any development project (s), should be done extensively, and operationalized thinking from traditional constraints of time, costs and specifications by incorporating other important project management knowledge areas of scope, quality, human resources, risk management, e.t.c in ensuring the project meeting its targets and objectives.
  16. 16. 16 | P a g e CONCLUSION Despite of the roles played by the transportation sector in enhancing the economy and production, making mobility more accessible, yet, the agglomeration of the cities in Tanzania has been increasing congestion, rapid growth in private motorized cars, and very unsteady public transport systems, emissions from vehicles, and dense traffic jams. The adoption of Bus Rapid Transit system as a solution to the existing transport challenges in its capital city of Dar es Salaam, aims at providing a better, modern and efficient public transport service to the residents of Dar es Salaam. The appraising of the BRT project was basically in ensuring that scarce resources are used in the most efficient manner and to bring about a better allocation of resources, leading to enhanced incomes for investment, consumption which will generate economic growth and development and ultimate outcome being a successful project meeting its purpose and contributing to its overall objectives. Importantly, implementation of the BRT project is expected to reduce congestion, traffic jams and theft cases which normally occur on traffic jams, minimize passengers' perceived waiting times and relieve stress on transit operations for on-time arrival and enhance travel time savings, and reducing fatal accidents due to its sophisticated infrastructure design elements. However, the execution of the project does not seem to benefit the majority of the public as intended, this due to the persisting or still existing poor road condition to were the current public transport are re-located, and leading to loss of jobs which has leading to destruction of new infrastructures and vandalism for the purpose of selling to earn their living. On the other hand, still there are uncoordinated institutional setup to enable the operations and management of the new public transport system. Alternatively, stakeholder engagement, public interests inclusion, roper project appraisal (economic, social, environmental aspects), project implementation (execution, monitoring and control), monitoring and evaluation at every stage of the project are key issues for ensuring effective project implementation in in lining with political will and credibility.
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  18. 18. 18 | P a g e Draft Final Report. Logit and Inter-consult Ltd. for Dar es Salaam City Council and the United Republic of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, May 2006. Mfinanga, D. (2012). Challanges and Opportunities for the Integration of Cummuter Minbus Operations into the Dar es Salaam City BRT System. Conference CODATU XV. The role of urban mobility in (re)shaping cities. 22 to 25 October 2012- Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Mlambo, A. L. (2013). Implementing a Mass Rapid Transit System for Dar es Salaam . The Local Climate Solutions for Africa 2013 Congress, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania - 31th October 2013. Mlambo, A. L. (2013). Implementing Sustainable Public Transport System in Tanzania. EAC Sub-Regional Low Sulphur Workshop: Nairobi – Kenya, 5th - 6th November 2013. Msigwa, R. E. (2013). Challenges Facing Urban Transportation in Tanzania. Mathematical Theory and Modeling. Vol.3, No.5, 2013, School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology.Dalian, P.R. China. National Institute of Transport (NIT). (2010a). Consultancy Service for Developing Mechanisms for Full Consultation and Engagement with Daladala Owners in the DART Project. Final Report for Dar Rapid Transit Agency, April 2010. National Institute of Transport (NIT). (2010b). Participation of Local Bus and Truck Operators in the Dart Project. Final Report for Dar Rapid Transit Agency, March 2010. NEMC, & UNEP. (2009). Climate Change, Disaster Risk and the Urban Poor. Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World. DAR ES SALAAM CASE STUDY . Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Ojoro, M. G. (2011). Dar Es Salam Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). Analysis of the Sustainable Urban Transport in Developing Countries. Dissertation Report, Institute for Transport Studies University Of Leeds, UK. PMBOK. (2004). A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Third Edition. An American National Standard. PMORALG. (2012). PMORALG Strategic Plan 2011/2012-2015/2016. DODOMA, Tanzania.
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  20. 20. 20 | P a g e Annexes i. Previous traffic congestion in Dar Es Salaam City before BRT project Source: Mlambo, (2013) & DART Agency, (2014) ii. Current progress of DART project (sample photos) Source; DART Agency, (2014)