100% Cotton         MADE IN CHINAPresented By:
100% Cotton               MADE IN CHINA•   Cotton Comes to China•   The Long Race to the Bottom•   Sisters in Time•   The ...
100% Cotton                    MADE IN CHINA• Businesses owned by the  state• China values ‘proper  relationship’• Advocac...
100% Cotton                 MADE IN CHINA• Provincial and Local  governments are  powerful and the  Central government  ha...
100% Cotton                MADE IN CHINA• Originated in 1955• Agricultural/Rural or  Non-agricultural/Urban  classificatio...
100% Cotton                MADE IN CHINA• Free Compulsory  Education• Urban Employment• Public/Subsidized  Housing• Free M...
100% Cotton                MADE IN CHINA• Virtually Impossible to  change status• No Free Education• No Health Care• No Pr...
Desired Characteristics for Chinese            Workers
How Do They See their Working       Environment?
How Does their Work Environment          Compare?
100% Cotton                               MADE IN CHINADevelopment of an increasingly integrated global       economy mark...
100% Cotton                          MADE IN CHINA• Leaving the farm for better life   – Similar reasons   – Different loc...
100% Cotton               MADE IN CHINA• Corporate Social Responsibility is  the continuing commitment by  business to beh...
100% Cotton                MADE IN CHINA• Rose Rosenfield• Nike’s “Corporate Social  Responsibility” Activities• Workers R...
100% Cotton              MADE IN CHINA                              ?No clear cut “rights” and “wrongs”
100% Cotton                                     MADE IN CHINA•   Anonymous. (Summer 2004). “The Condition of the Working C...
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China vs

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This is a chapter summary from the book, "The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy." It is a great presentation to download for the t-shirt template alone. I also have animation which pulls the picture up and out of the t-shirt's pocket.

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  • Goes from lubbock to shanghai: her introduction and experiencesThe human plight and government in china, politicsSisters: experiences for factory workers hasn’t changed over timeConspiracy: if it so bad how does one change it without there being concessions around the world about cost of goods
  • Wu, Jiyun & Davidson, Kirk. (2011) “The business-government-society relationship: a comparison between China and the US.” The Journal of Management Development 30.1. pg. 112-125.In the US we start from the assumption that businesses operate independently in the free market system, and that gov. must or should have some compelling rationale for intervening in that system. Historically in China, since Mao and the Communists after the end of WWII took over the opposite has been the dominant rationale. Businesses were owned and controlled by the state, and the role of the business sector is to serve the greater society.Individualism for the US, whereas China the influence of Confucian teaching over 2000 year has emphasized the proper relationship within the family, the community, and by extension the greater society. Therefore, profit is not a motive for individuals.Watchdog/Advocacy groups in the US keep businesses accountable to society. In China they are under the authoritative regime of the Communist Party with zero tolerance for organized criticism or protest of any sort. Advocacy groups are missing. Media in America is a critical component of our civil society and our relationship with the business sector. Western societies assume and assortment of free and independent media organizations, able to probe into and hold up for public scrutiny the decisions and activites of business organizations.China is dramatically different. There are plenty of newspapers and television channels, but almost all are either owned or controlled by the government. NO FREE PRESS. Only exception is the role of the internet. The internet has been too massive for Peoples Republic of China to control. However, since July1,2009 all computers sold in China must include software that will allow the government to block whatever web sites it chooses. The search engines are also controlled by the business sector…have more interest in revenue than information.
  • The provincial and sometimes even local, governments are often quiet powerful and independent in their actions. (read conflicting and full of self interest) The central government in Beijing has limitless power and authority to establish policies. But China is so huge geographically and has such a huge population that the implementation of those policies poses an enormous problem. As a result, provincial and local officials often determine which policies will be enforced and or how they will be enforce. Local officials have quite different priorities and are likely to do whatever will enhance the operations, and consequently the resulting tax revenues of the businesses within their jurisdictions.
  • Wu, Xiaogang & Treiman, Donald. (May 2004). “The Household Registration System and Social Stratifcation in China: 1955-1996.” Demography 41.2. pg. 363-84  Fearing social unrest fomented by uncontrolled urban population growth and the unraveling of their economic plans, China's State Council and the Ministries of Internal Affairs and Labor began to issue directives to halt "blind" rural migration to the cities in 1953.In 1957 the government established detention centers to return peasants to the countryside. But all of these plans failed to stem the migration tide. Finally, in 1958 the CCP issued a law that impeded migration and has distorted China's socio-economic fabric to this day: The Household Registration Regulations of the PRC. Initially it seemed this policy too would not succeed, since the contemporaneous—and economically disastrous—Great Leap Forward witnessed the ballooning of the urban population from 99 million in 1957 to 130 million four years later.However, after this aberrant period of economic chaos passed, China's migration levels collapsed and remained low until the late 1970s .
  •  Government policies that allocated "free compulsory education, urban employment, public housing, free medical services, and retirement benefits" to holders of urban hukou registration broadened the system's urban/rural divide. The urban residents receives all the social benefits from their employees. Without a work unit it is difficult to survive in a city. The quotas in all. urban work units were tightly controlled by the governements labor administration . This was before the reform era. Economic reform in the last 20 years relaxed this admin control. First they rid themselves of the commune system and made individual housholdsrespnsible for particular plots and allowed producers to sell any surplus grain on the open market, which improved efficiency. Peasants were thus freed from the land to seek jobs in the industrial and service sectors. Furthermore, the growing market sector demanded more cheap labor and state-owned work units preferred to hire rural peasants because they had no commitment to peasant-workers housing and other social benefits or because the jobs were unattractive to the urban workers. Hence, the push and pull. Although geographic mobility and change of employment have become easier the social concomitant of hukous status are still classified as “peasant worker and thereby are not entitled to the many labor rights and benefits enjoyed by employees with urban hukou.
  • The commune system enabled local governments to bind peasants to the land. All adults in communes had to participate in agricultural production to receive food rations for their households and migration was generally prohibited. The urban residents receives all the social benefits from their employees. Without a work unit it is difficult to survive in a city. The quotas in all. urban work units were tightly controlled by the governements labor administration . This was before the reform era. Economic reform in the last 20 years relaxed this admin control. First they rid themselves of the commune system and made individual housholdsrespnsible for particular plots and allowed producers to sell any surplus grain on the open market, which improved efficiency. Peasants were thus freed from the land to seek jobs in the industrial and service sectors. Furthermore, the growing market sector demanded more cheap labor and state-owned work units preferred to hire rural peasants because they had no commitment to peasant-workers housing and other social benefits or because the jobs were unattractive to the urban workers. Hence, the push and pull. Although geographic mobility and change of employment have become easier the social concomitant of hukous status are still classified as “peasant worker and thereby are not entitled to the many labor rights and benefits enjoyed by employees with urban hukou.Anonymous. (Summer 2004). “The Condition of the Working Class in China.” Dissent 51.3. pg. 11-21.Still, millions of chinese citizens travel from impoverished inland villages to take an industrial job in the export factory. Young and mostly female they are sent by their parents in search of supplementation to their families’ income. They are subjugated to all sorts of Human Rights violations, which Beth will speak about, but basically it is a nightmare imposed by the government and the internal passport controls/Household registration system. They can do little to relieve their misery. Movement is controlled by the Public Security forces who ruthlessly enforce the pass system. They are not permitted to seek the better paying jobs reserved for the urban hukou. If they assert their rights they are sent back to the countryside or worse (such as death, torture). Attempts to organize unions or to strike are met with summary detention, long term imprisonment, and torture. Enmeshed in bonded labor they frequently cannot even leave their factory jobs, no matter how abusive. They have minimal access to china's legal system, which in any event is corrupted by the local party officials, who extract personal wealth from factory revenue. Their impotence is reflected in their desperate acts of violence and their shocking rate of suicides intended to draw attention to their plight.China reduces labor costs by a system of government-engineered labor exploitation on a scale that is unmatched in the present global economy.
  • What the Chinese desire in their workers (from Travels of a T-Shirt) -Docile, desperate, migrant workers from rural areas-Because they “can bear more hardship”, “more manageable” -Preferably married women with hungry children to feed -Rural women and children are temperamentally well-suited to the mind-numbing drudgery of early textile work. -Men are more difficult -Those with headstrong personalities and education need not apply -Were your parents garbage pickers, prostitutes, or unemployed? This is what your parents want for you!
  • -As migrant workers flood the cities for jobs, those coming from an agricultural society view their new lives and work environment as “a step up the economic ladder and an escape from the physical and mental drudgery of the farm, but also a first taste of autonomy and self-determination, and a set of choices made possible by a paycheck, however small”, not uncommon with the mindset of those who used to work in the cotton mills in the 1800’s. -From sociologist Ching Kwan Lee’s research in the early 90’s, Lee discovered they perceive this job as an escape from not only “agricultural work but” as an opportunity “to write their own destiny and to escape their parents’ plan for their lives”. -These women, in particular, are drawn to the ability to shape their own futures
  • -Though factory work may be a step in a positive direction for migrant workers, how much farther does China actually need to go in order to take care of their people? -Low wages, long hours, poor working conditions, cramped living quarters, limited rights, boring work, loud noises, poor air quality! (book) -Per the CIA Factbook on China, 21.5 million rural population live below the official "absolute poverty" line (approximately $90 per year); an additional 35.5 million rural population live above that level but below the official "low income" line (approximately $125 per year) -China has recently increased migrant workers’ protections under Custody and Repatriation (C&R) rules; however, many of these protections are only theoretical because often only those who surrender their protections are hired. (book) -After researching on Amnesty International’s website, a leading human rights foundation, we discovered that they actually have no presence in China. In their annual report, though, Amnesty International has reported in their 2011 annual report that “on the international stage, China grew more confident and more aggressive in punishing countries whose leaders spoke publicly about its human rights record.”
  • Contemporary social theorists endorse the view that globalization refers to fundamental changes in the spatial and temporal contours of social existence, according to which the significance of space or territory undergoes shifts in the face of a no less dramatic acceleration in the temporal structure of crucial forms of human activity. Geographical distance is typically measured in time (Scheuerman, 2010)Meanwhile, if China is stealing U.S. manufacturing jobs, why are there 12 million fewer factory jobs in China today than there were in 1996, the peak year for such jobs, even as manufacturing output has tripled? The reason is that reforms boosted efficiency, thereby making cheaper goods available (Katz, 2010).
  • The pro-globalization lobby argues that globalization brings about much increased opportunities for almost everyone, and increased competition is a good thing since it makes agents of production more efficient. The two most prominent pro-globalization organizations are the World Trade Organization and the World Economic Forum. The World TradeOrganization is a pan-governmental entity (which currently has 144 members) that was set up to formulate a set of rules to govern globaltrade and capital flows through the process of member consensus, and to supervise their member countries to ensure that the rules are being followed. The World Economic Forum, a privatefoundation, does not have decision-making power but enjoys a great deal of importance since it has been effective as a powerful networking forum for many of the world's business, government and not-profit leaders.The anti-globalization group argues that certain groups of people who are deprived in terms of resources are not currently capable of functioning within the increased competitive pressure that will be brought about by allowing their economies to be more connected to the rest of the world. Important anti-globalization organizations include environmental groups like Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace; international aid organizations like Oxfam; third worldgovernment organizations like the G-77; business organizations and trade unions whose competitiveness is threatened by globalization like the U.S. textiles and European farm lobby, as well as the Australian and U.S. trade unionmovements. (Investorwords.com, 2012).Read more: http://www.investorwords.com/2182/globalization.html#ixzz1oMvlpHxQ
  • China vs

    1. 1. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINAPresented By:
    2. 2. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINA• Cotton Comes to China• The Long Race to the Bottom• Sisters in Time• The Unwitting Conspiracy
    3. 3. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINA• Businesses owned by the state• China values ‘proper relationship’• Advocacy groups do not exist in China• The Media is owned/controlled by the People’s Republic of China – Computers have government controls installed
    4. 4. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINA• Provincial and Local governments are powerful and the Central government has limitless power
    5. 5. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINA• Originated in 1955• Agricultural/Rural or Non-agricultural/Urban classification• Restricting and controlling migrants• Determined by Mother and at the age of 14
    6. 6. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINA• Free Compulsory Education• Urban Employment• Public/Subsidized Housing• Free Medical Services• Pension Benefits
    7. 7. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINA• Virtually Impossible to change status• No Free Education• No Health Care• No Protection from ruthless employers• No Subsidized Housing• Second-class Citizen
    8. 8. Desired Characteristics for Chinese Workers
    9. 9. How Do They See their Working Environment?
    10. 10. How Does their Work Environment Compare?
    11. 11. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINADevelopment of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by 1. free trade 2. free flow of capital 3. the tapping of cheaper foreign labor markets (Merriam-Webster, 2012)
    12. 12. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINA• Leaving the farm for better life – Similar reasons – Different locations – Behind the times• Bertha Black• Ching Kwan Lee• He Yuan Zhi Globalization gave these women opportunities they would not have had on the farm.
    13. 13. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINA• Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large (Holme and Watts, 2000).
    14. 14. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINA• Rose Rosenfield• Nike’s “Corporate Social Responsibility” Activities• Workers Rights Consortium• Georgetown’s Licensing Oversight Committee• More Ergonomics for Factory Workers• Enviromental Concerns
    15. 15. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINA ?No clear cut “rights” and “wrongs”
    16. 16. 100% Cotton MADE IN CHINA• Anonymous. (Summer 2004). “The Condition of the Working Class in China.” Dissent 51.3. pg. 11-21.• Holme, L., & Watts, R. (2000, January). Making Good Business Sense. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development .• Investorwords.com. (2012). Globalization definition. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from www.investorwords.com: http://www.investorwords.com/2182/globalization.html• Katz, R. (2012, March 2). TROUBLE ON THE HOME FRONT. Retrieved March 5, 2012, from YaleGlobal Online: http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/manufacturing-globalization• Merrium-Webster. (2012). Dictionary. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from m- w.com: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/globalization• Rivoli, P. (2009). The travels of a t-shirt in the global economy: An economist examines the markets, power, and politics of world trade (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.• Scheuerman, W. (2010). Globalization. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://plato.stanford.edu/cgi- bin/encyclopedia/archinfo.cgi?entry=globalization• Wu, Jiyun & Davidson, Kirk. (2011) “The business-government-society relationship: a comparison between China and the US.” The Journal of Management Development 30.1. pg.• Wu, Xiaogang & Treiman, Donald. (May 2004). “The Household Registration System and Social Stratifcation in China: 1955-1996.” Demography 41.2. pg. 363-84

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