Spaarne North - Haarlem (booklet)


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Spaarne North - Haarlem (booklet)

  1. 1. HAARLEM: zip the scattered city together Robin Boelsums, Ruud Hoekstra, Richard de Ruiter, Qiu Ye
  2. 2. HAARLEM: zip the scattered city together A n a l ys i s a n d d e s i gn o f t h e c i t y fo r m Robin Boelsums 1275267, Ruud Hoekstra 1402587, Richard de Ruiter 1342061, Qiu Ye 4125398 Tutor: Steffen Nijhuis Phd-can. TU Delft // 01-11-2010 // R&D Studio AR1U090 Group 5 Masters of Urbanism TU Delft
  3. 3. P R E FA C EBefore you lies the research & design report, which is the result of theMasters of Urbanism Studio AR1U090, “Analysis and Design of the CityForm”, commissioned by the TU Delft.The focus of this course lies on the spatial form of the city. How toanalyse the city by just considering its spatial form? Take a look at thelandscape and its physical influence on the spatial development of thecity over times. How does the open space relate to the urban fabric?When developing a vision, use only spatial aspects, almost ignoringeconomic or social influences. Zooming in to the spacial aspects givesenough guidelines to design a qualitive masterplan.Use these different scales and see what influence they have on eachother. The masterplan can give new input for the vision. With thosesubjects can be learned to deal with one of the most important lessonsin urbanism: working through scales.Special thanks to Steffen Nijhuis PhD-can. for his contribution and in-put he had in the project, tutoring us through the Research and DesignStudio.Robin BoelsumsRuud HoekstraRichard de RuiterQiu YeNovember 1st, 20104 zipping the scattered city
  4. 4. A IB S T R A C T T TELThe first settlements of Haarlem developed in the 13th century on thesandbanks along the river Spaarne. In the following centuries Haarlemdeveloped by the underlying landscape. In the beginning of the 20th the green carpet. Hereby a logical connection to the surrounding bor-century infrastructure became more and more important, by the com- ders/patches is of the railroad and highways. Haarlem grew towards and along this Sight lines make a connection north – south to the surrounding patchesinfrastructure, until 1960. Schalkwijk became part of Haarlem and its and physic connections are created by slow grey structures in the formdevelopment, and also the North and Waarderpolder were detatched of bicycle and pedestrian routes.from both the landscape and the infrastructure. Functional inner courts in the dwelling area with car parking and back- yards result in streets free of car parking. These strengthen the greenBased on this analysis can be concluded that there is a wide variety of carpet as a whole.urban fabrics. This can be a quality but it can also cause fragmenta-tion in a bad sense. To remain and improve this quality of diversity, is Schipholweg - For the Schipholweg is a vision developed, aiming toa structure needed to structurise the city of Haarlem. The open spaces connect the northern part of Schalkwijk with the city-landscape. Thein between of the urban fabrics are the focus points. There is a lot of space between the Schipholweg and the Boerhaavelaan is zipping thepotential to transform these spaces into transition zones from one to city with the landscape by new and improved connections of green-the other urban patch. structure and slow & fast infrastructure.The open spaces -in which the Spaarne, Schipholweg and Amster-damseweg are eleborated - can be the zippers to zip the scattered citytogether.Spaarne South - This zone is reorganised as a “green carpet” of theSpaarne zone which is one of the structures of Haarlem. The goal isto complete the present landscape and improve its relationship withsurroundings. The approach is to permeate the lanscape and createmore view spots in dwelling areas, and maximize the visable angel oflandscape from the neighbourhood.Spaarne North - A vision on this zone was developed, aiming for a goodrelation of both riverbanks with the water. Creating this relation, thewater turns into a transition zone that enables a relation between theEast and West urban patch. In the more detailed zoomed in masterplancan be seen how this relation was created: sight lines to the water, aroad along the water and buildings along the bank for instance.Amsterdamseweg - This zone is based on the vision of pin nailing agreen carpet to its surroundings. By adding a strong tree structure theopen space patches of east and west are connected.By redefining the fast grey infrastructures, making the railway trackunderground and distracting high density traffic around the zone, thebase conditions for a green carpet are created.The borders of the zone determine which program should come into zipping the scattered city 5
  5. 5. INTRODUCTIONHaarlem is one of the most beautiful old cities of the Netherlands, posi-tioned in the provence of North Holland. It consists of 150,000 inhabit-ants and that makes it a medium sized city in this country. Its attractive,monumental centre is famous and with its location close to Amsterdamand the coastline, it attracts both foreign and inland tourists.Are there actually problems in Haarlem? Is there anything that can beimproved by urbanists? Out of the analysis should emerge the improve-ments that can be made by urbanists, by considering its spatial aspects.The analysis contains the growth of Haarlem. Based on the conclusionsindept research on open space can be formed. The research gives suf-ficient input to develop a vision on the entire city. In the vision dif-ferent envelopes can be defined that ask for redevelopment. On fourenvelopes will be zoomed in to formulate its more specified vision andmasterplan.To conclude, the four envelop visions will provide new input to refinethe vision on the city of Haarlem.6 zipping the scattered city
  6. 6. INDEX 4 Preface 5 Abstract 6 Introduction 7 Index 8 Analysis Haarlem 8 Haarlem in the region 9 Soil of Haarlem 10 Growth of Haarlem 18 Strategy 19 Analysis open space 22 Conclusion 23 Vision 24 Envelopes 27 Spaarne South 31 Spaarne North 43 Amsterdamseweg 55 Schipholweg 67 Evaluation 69 Reflection zipping the scattered city 7
  7. 7. A N A LY S I S H A A R L E M I N T H E R E G I O N H H A A U U DH DH R R Train network Motor network Spatial form of surrounded cities Haarlem is situated in the Northwest wing of the Randstad, surrounded by big sized cities: economical (financial hart Amsterdam) or infrastructural (Schiphol) and political (the Hague). In this surrounding Haarlem could take a position as a recreational city (for tourists). It can also take the position of a dwelling area for people who work in Amsterdam. In this way Haarlem takes part in the bigger region and can benefit from that.8 zipping the scattered city
  8. 8. S O IE L O F H A A R L E M TIT LThe elongated shape (7000 by 1800 m) of the city Haarlem is determinedby geographical conditions. The forming of the landscape started 12,000years ago. Due to a relatively short period of increasing temperaturethe ice caps and glaciers, that much of the northern and western partof Europe covered, began to melt.The relatively shallow bowl (tundra plain) between England and theNetherlands began filling with water, now called the North Sea. Around7,000 years before the beginning of our era, came an end to a graduallyrising sea level. Wind and seas supplied large amounts of sand, makingsand barriers. In this elongated, parallel spaced sand banks the windthrew meters high dunes which eventually formed a closed coastline,in some places interrupted by estuaries.The oldest, most eastern shoreline is the sandbank on which Spaarn-woude would arise. When this shoreline was formed a new shorelinestarted to arise. On this second sandbank Schoten, Haarlem and Heem-stede were founded.On the third shoreline Santpoort, Bloemendaal, Hillegom and Lisse werefounded. These so-called ancient dunes should not be confused withthe dozens of meters high dunes between The Hague and Den Helder.These young dunes arise in the eleventh and twelfth century and arenow part of the dune landscape of The Netherlands and function as adefensive wall for the seawater. young dunes 11th, 12th century old dunes 12.000 years ago Haarlem zipping the scattered city 9
  9. 9. A N A LY S I S G R O W T H O F H A A R L E M ? Haarlem - Haarlo-hein - high up situated village. 1245 City laws 1429 Tax laws10 zipping the scattered city
  10. 10. G IR O W T H O F H A A R L E MT TEL 1 3 t h ce n t u r y 1450 First settlement on sandbank Jump across the river zipping the scattered city 11
  11. 11. GROWTH OF HAARLEM ?16th century One of the six biggest cities of the Netherlands 17th century Third city of the Netherlands 55,000 inhabitants. 1559 Establishment of the Bisdom of Haarlem. 1635-1637 Pest-plague: ¼ of inhabitants died 1573 Spanish siege: fall of the fortress Haarlem: the siege of Haar- lem. 1800 Inhabitants back to 20,000 1576 City fire: ¼ of the city destroyed because of the fire. 19th century Fortresses replaced by public gardens. 1577 Spaniards are leaving after the agreement of Veere. 1839 First train between Haarlem and Amsterdam. 1622 40,000 inhabitants. 1843 Railroad between Haalem and Leiden. 1631 Connection with Amsterdam by a boat canal. 1895-1930 Build of Cathedral Sint Bavo, Neo Byzantijns, architect Cuypers 12 zipping the scattered city
  12. 12. G IR O W T H O F H A A R L E MT TEL 1822 1915 Fortress of Haarlem Extension in East and West zipping the scattered city 13
  13. 13. GROWTH OF HAARLEM ? 1927 Municipality Schoten becomes part of Haarlem14 zipping the scattered city
  14. 14. G IR O W T H O F H A A R L E MT TEL 1930 1960 First major extension along infrastructure Second major extension along infrastructure zipping the scattered city 15
  15. 15. GROWTH OF HAARLEM ? 1963 Part of Haarlemmerliede became part of Haarlem: Schalkwijk 21st century Housing assignment by the kingdom16 zipping the scattered city
  16. 16. G IR O W T H O F H A A R L E MT TEL 2010 Development of Waarderpolder, North, and Schalkwijk zipping the scattered city 17
  17. 17. S T R AT E G YConclusion Looking at this historical development we can see that there is Method Now that is clear what direction the research is heading towards, a wide variety of urban patches. This variety can be a quality, the method can be defined. but it can also cause fragmentation in a negative sense. How First step is to take a closer look at the open space. What are can we make certain that this diversity is a quality and that it the potentialities? Based on that we can develop a city vision does not make Haarlem a scattered city? for Haarlem. Goal We need to add structure to the city, that is our goal. In this plan envelopes can be defined, that ask for attention. There is a lot of potential in the open spaces. They seperate We will individualy zoom in on four of the envelopes to make a Tool the urban patches from each other and could be used to add more detailed vision and masterplan. structure to the city. These spaces can then be a transition zone between the diverse urban fabrics. As a metaphor the open spaces can be the zipper that zip the scattered city together. 18 zipping the scattered city
  18. 18. R E S E A R C H O P E N S PA C EOpen space is defined as the space that is unbuilt or relatively lowdensed. The urban patches in between, are the relatively high densedareas. What can be found in these spaces? How do they relate to theedges of the urban patches around?We take a look at the green structue and its functions, and the waterfunctions. Furthermore we investigate the crossings on the infrasctruc-ture, and the building typologies on the edges that are shown in theright figure. zipping the scattered city 19
  19. 19. T I AT E R & G R E E N WTELWa t e r G re e n A M A M North North LEGEND LEGEND General General Sandlandscape A Sandlandscape Greenlandscape Greenlandscape Water Water Railway Railway Buildings Buildings Water Water Banks accesible, plus function Banks accesible, plus function Banks accesible, plus function Banks accesible, plus function Terrace zone Terrace zone M Marina The greenMarina A struc- M Waterways A Waterways Water treatment ture of Haarlem is Water treatment Restore view on Spaarne divided into view on Spaarne Restore four Water storage (search area) Living on the water (search area) types of green: the water (search area) city Water storage (search area) Living on Green green; Green struc- tree City green ture; peat meadowCity green & suburban meadow & suburban area area; Tree structure Tree structure Peat meadow & suburban area Peat Provincial Ecological Mainstructure and a provincial Mainstructure Provincial Ecological Parks, Cemeteries, Intensive recreational area, Urban green features e c o l o g i c aParks,m a i nfeatures recreational l Cemeteries, Intensive area, Urban green Sports Grounds structure. This green Sports Grounds Protect and/or develop as an important Protect and/or develop as an important natural feature structure has several featuresnatural feature Event terrain Event terrain Extinsive living that devides the green area into Extinsive living City camping different fragments. There areCity camping Windmills protected areas and other areas have a recreational or sport function. Windmills New sport and / or educational function New sport and / or educational function This distribution ensures that the green structure is not always easyLooking at the water, a diversity of functions can be seen. Next to regular Protect Bird-area Protect Bird-area A Allotments accessible for people. In order to improve the accessibility, Aso Allotments peoplewater ways, a water treatment plant can be found. Also different search Infrastructure can make best use of the green qualities of the city, new slow infra- Infrastructureareas form water storage are present. Some areas have been protected, Bridge B B Bridge 500 500 m 1 km T Tunnel structure connections are created. This route leads to contact with the 500 m 500 m 1 km T Tunnelurbanists cannot change anything there. Scale 2 km C Crossing 2 km Scalevarious green structures of the city. When the green structure of the C CrossingThe last function that can be found is living on water. A very interest- Direction Direction Haarlem Haarlemfunctions, will the city attract new residents and tourists, because citying one, because it is a transition zone between open and built space. Stampposition Typology Typology of the increasing cultural and tourist value. Stampposition 6 Profile-section 6 Profile-section20 zipping the scattered city
  20. 20. INFR ASTRUC TURE & T YPOLOGY Profile Spaarne - Buitenspaarne 7 15 North 6 8 Profile Spaarne - Spaarne (3) 14 LEGEND 5 General Sandlandscape 4 Greenlandscape 9 Water 3 13 Railway Buildings 2 Water Banks accesible, plus function Profile Spaarne - Spaarndamseweg (5) Banks accesible, plus function Terrace zone M Marina 10 Waterways 1 Water treatment Restore view on Spaarne Water storage (search area) Living on the water (search area)I n f r a s t r u c t u re 12 Green City green Profile Spaarne - Spaarndamseweg2 (6) 11 Tree structureIn the direction the in-frastructure leads to, it Peat meadow & suburban area Provincial Ecological Mainstructure Ty p o l o g ymostly creates a good Parks, Cemeteries, Intensive recreational area, Urban green features The study shows the relation of the building typologies to the openconnec tion. Crossing Sports Grounds space. By research in profiles and typology stamps the following questions Protect and/or develop as an importantt h e s e i n f ra s t r u c t u ra l natural featurelines can be a problem Event terrain Extinsive living can be asked:and can cause fragmen- City camping Is there grey infrastructure (oneProfile Vondelwegways, four ways) in between way, two (7)tation. This depends on how the road is designed: is it a one way, two Windmills and / or educational function and does it cause fragmentation? Is the connection to the open space New sportway, four way or bicycle or pedestrian route? It also depends on how Protect Bird-area hard (cay) or soft (slope, nature)? Is the connection to the open spacethe crossings are designed: bridges, tunnels or flat crossings. A Allotments physical long or short? What are the weaknesses, strengths and op- InfrastructureGathering this information can point out where new transitions have B Bridge portunities to relate the typology to the open space? Looking at theto be made. Where are opportunities to cross and where to create a T Tunnel 500 m 500 m 2 km 1 km pictures above, the answers can be seen. The typologies consists of abetter flow of grey infrastructure? Scale C Crossing lot of different combinations in these mentioned subjects, which cre- ates a diverse urban landscape.Profile Spoor-Jan P.C.straat (13) DirectionWith the relation to open space in mind interventions can be designed Haarlem Typologybased on this analysis. Stampposition 6 Profile-section zipping the scattered city 21
  21. 21. O P E N S PA C EIt can be concluded that not only the urban fabric shows a lot of di-versity, also the open space is really diverse. The diversity of green andwater functions shows that there is a great potential of making relations Afrom the urban fabric towards these functions. Zooming in we can takea closer look on these relations to create the envelop visions.On first sight the crossings over the infrastructure look sufficient. Whenzooming in we can refine this statement.The urban fabric is at this day still very diverse, so this creates opportu-nities to have a good look at the transistion between them. It creates a 7 A Mgood quality of an interesting urban environment. But it can also causesfragmentation on a city scale, if there is not a good structure made. 15 North 6 8 14 LEGEND 5 General A 4 Sandlandscape Greenlandscape 9 Water 3 13 Railway Buildings 2 Water Banks accesible, plus functi Banks accesible, plus functi Terrace zone M Marina A A 10 Waterways 1 Water treatment Restore view on Spaarne Water storage (search area) 12 Living on the water (search Green City green 11 Tree structure Peat meadow & suburban a Provincial Ecological Mains Parks, Cemeteries, Intensive area, Urban green features Sports Grounds Protect and/or develop as a natural feature Event terrain Extinsive living City camping Windmills New sport and / or educati Protect Bird-area A Allotments Infrastructure B Bridge 500 m 500 m 1 km 2 km T Tunnel Scale C Crossing Direction Haarlem Typology22 zipping the scattered city 6 Stampposition Profile-section
  22. 22. VISION HAARLEM Parks, Cemeteries, Intensive recreational area, Urban green features Sports Grounds Protect and/or develop as an important LEGEND natural feature Event terrain Extinsive living General Sandlandscape City camping Greenlandscape Windmills Water New sport and / or educational function Railway Protect Bird-area Buildings A Allotments Water Infrastructure A M Banks accesible, plus function B Bridge Banks accesible, plus function T Tunnel Terrace zone C Crossing Direction M Marina Waterways Typology Water treatment Envelope Stampposition Restore view on Spaarne 6 Profile-section Under construction Water storage (search area) Zoom-in area Living on the water (search area) Envelope Connections Green Connecting Haarlem Under construction North with Open Space City green Zoom-in area Connecting waterbanks Tree structure along Spaarne Connections Peat meadow & suburban area Haarlem Connection waarderpolder Connecting with Open Space North with Open Space Provincial Ecological Mainstructure Connecting Haarlem and Connecting waterbanks Parks, Cemeteries, Intensive recreational Heemstede by Open Space along Spaarne area, Urban green features A Connecting Schalkwijk Connection waarderpolder Sports Grounds with Open Space with Open Space Protect and/or develop as an important and Connecting Open Connecting Haarlem natural feature Space with another Heemstede by Open Space Event terrain Connecting Dunelandscape City entrances Connecting Schalkwijk with Polderlandscape with Open Space Extinsive living Connecting Dunelandscape NS Station Connecting Open City camping with Polderlandscape Space with another Windmills Connecting Dunelandscape City entrances with Polderlandscape New sport and / or educational function 500 m 500 m 1 km Connecting Dunelandscape NS Station Protect Bird-area with Polderlandscape 2 km A Allotments Scale Infrastructure B Bridge 500 m 500 m 1 km Haarlem 2 kmHaarlemTconsists Scale variety of urban patches. These patches are a Tunnel of a a ‘zipper’: a transition zone that connects the patches to a united whole.result ofChistorical development in landscape, infrastructure and de- Crossing Direction Haarlemtatched areas. Next to that, there are a lot of open spaces in between Due to chaining the open spaces a strong structure arises. This structure canwith a Typologyof program. variety consist of different spatial qualities. The challenge is to create a good transitionThe open space can give structure to these patches, it can function as Stampposition zone from one urban patch, to the open space, and to the other urban patch. 6 Profile-section zipping the scattered city 23
  23. 23. ENVELOPES Zone 1 Jan Gijzenkade The areas of the old football stadium of FC Haarlem and other sport functions along the Jan Gijzenkade have the potential for a new devel- opment area for dwelling and reorganisation of the sport facilities. In a green environment, a new living environment develops. Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 2 Green zone North The Northern green zone has a protected and recreational function. The protected area is a breading place for birds. The recreational func- tion is provided with windmills. The connections as the accessibility of both areas can be improved in a way that they are accessible for slow Zone 3 infrastructure, cyclists and pedestrians. Zone 3 Spaarne North Zone 4 The Spaarne North zone consists of two urban patches with a river in between: in the East a light industrial area and in the West a dwelling Zone 5 area. Due to demolishment and fallow land there is a possibility to do interventions which relate the areas to the Spaarne river. Also by in- terventions on a more zoomed in scale -sightlines to the water, a road along the water and buildings faced to the water- the zone can develop as a transition zone and improve the East –West connection. Zone 7 Zone 6 Zone 4 Railway node West The area has the potential to relocate the NS Prorail facility along the Schipholweg. By relocating this function to this area, it provides new development space along the Schipholweg for housing and commercial Zone 8 programme. Zone 9 Zone 5 Amsterdamseweg The Amsterdamseweg zone is the primary entrance of Haarlem. By the relocation of the NS Prorail facility a large space along the Amsterdam- Jan Gijzenkade seweg close to the inner city comes free. Distraction of the existing high Zone 1 Reorganization green functions densed grey structures trough the zone creates circumstances which Green zone North Zone 2 Connect with other greenzones are suitable for dwelling and commercial development. By replacing Spaarne North the railway track underground and distractiing the high densed traffic Zone 3 New development area/Relation with water the area can develop as a transition zone in East – West and in North Railway Knot West Zone 4 Relocated NS Prorail – South direction. Amsterdamseweg Zone 5 Reorganize the Profile/Program/Connections Green zone East Zone 6 Green zone East Zone 6 Connect with other green zones The green zone is the connection between the northern and southern Zone 7 Schipholweg New develop area Program/Connections green zones. By creating a ‘landscape bridge’ in the North to connect Spaarne South both parts together and making new slow infrastructure bridge over the Zone 8 New development area Schipholweg a continuous routing trough the green zones of Haarlem Green zone South Zone 9 Connect with other greenzones is established24 zipping the scattered city
  24. 24. ENVELOPESZone 7 Schipholweg Chosing four envelopesThe Schipholweg zone is the secondary entrance of Haarlem. By design- Due to the fact that each one of the group will elaborate oneing the area the zone can connect the northern part of Schalkwijk with of the envelopes, a decision needs to be made how to choose whichthe city landscape to the north side of the Schipholweg. The designed ones will be elaborated. The zones with the highest priority are thearea between the Schipholweg and the Boerhaavelaan can zip these ones surrounded by urban patches, so zone 3, 5 and 7. These can re-three patches together by new and improved connections of green ally prevent Haarlem from being scattered. The rest of the zones arestructure and slow and fast infrastructure. In this way the Schipholweg positioned on the edges of the city.also becomes an interesting entrance of Haarlem. Furthermore the district Schalkwijk is an important part, because it is built as an isolated part of Haarlem. This gives priority to zone 7, 8 andZone 8 Spaarne South 9, in which 8 is the most important one since it relates to both Schalk-The Spaarne South zone consists of three patches: the Spaarne River, wijk and Heemstede.a green area and a dwelling area. The zone can develop a connectionfor Schalkwijk towards its surroundings and towards the entire chain of With this information we can state that the zones with the highest pri-open spaces. By creating buildings in the border area that face to the ority are: Spaarne South (8), Spaarne North (3), Amsterdamseweg (5)Spaarne the zone can develop as a green garden for this neighbour- and Schipholweg (7).hood. Also sightlines can help to establish the connection towards the Moreover these envelopes are the most complex ones. They consist ofSpaarne. wide waterways, a large green area, and the most important infrastruc- tures. If these four zones are developed, the hardest task is finished andZone 9 Green zone South the rest of the zones can follow from these designs.The southern green zone has a protected and water storage function.The protected area is a breading place for birds. The water storage areais reserved for extreme water conditions. The connections as the acces-sibility of both areas can be improved in a way that they are accessiblefor slow infrastructure: cyclists and pedestrians. With all the new con-nections and entrance to the green zone it makes that the green zone isbecoming one whole. A M A zipping the scattered city 25
  25. 25. 26 zipping the scattered city
  26. 26. INDIVIDUAL PROJEC T E N V E L O P E S PA A R N E S O U T H Q i u Ye zipping the scattered city 27
  27. 27. T I TaEaLr n e S o u t h SpMASTERPLAN SPORTS The Site DWELLING PARK TRANSFORM INTRODUCTION My site is an “green finger” in Schalkwijk, which is the only green left along the spaarne river. As the main structure of the city, i think it should be kept as green as it can, which not only completes the lanscape structure but also could be quanlity of the neighbourhood. CONCEPT From the filed trip I find out that this ares is seperated by three functions, which are sports area, dwelling area and park. Each area is very closed to itself and hard to access. My goal is to reorgnaize this area by mix up these functions and create more see through angels for other parts of Schalkwijk. By doing these, people lives in schalkwijk can better enjoy the Spaarne river. Meanwhile, the relationship between lanscape and other city fabrics will be improved.28 zipping the scattered city
  28. 28. Spaarne SouthSPACIAL ANALYSIS GREEN TYPOLOGY Schalkwijk has a long history of being a fame land of Haarlemmermeer. The Site Its development of dwelling starts in 1980s, after it becomes part of Haar- Original lem. The building in this area is mainly joint-house, however, there are Spaarne some independent houses along the river, which creates variety relation- ships between landscape and building. There are three type of green relationships, which I think could be prob- lems: Along the river Fall back and leave Space for green NO ACCESS XENOPHOBIC TOO WILD There several joint-houses Th e j o i nt- h o u s e i s t h e It is said that Netherlands seperate the buildings social value near the sports yard, but identit y of Schalk wijk , enjoy nature landscape, create more visiable angles economic value the entrances of this side most of them have their but do they really? One are blocked. There is only own public space. The interesting discovery is one main entrance of those problem is those spaces that there were more peo- sports yard, but people are 100% public but very ple sitting along the road, who live nearby have to xenophobic. People will enjoy their coffee than who Make a use of differen hights travel around to the other feel uncomfortable of being sitting in a beautiful but for near-shot and long-shot views side to get in. Same thing there if they are not living very nature park. Perhaps also happened with the in the neighborhood. the park is a little bit too houses along the river, nature/wild to people to the river bank becomes enjoy. And, those shadows part of their back yard, of big trees and the lacking Permeate the landscape maxismize the view spots which blocks the view to of artificial facilities make the Spaarne. the park unfriendly. zipping the scattered city 29
  29. 29. T I TaEaLr n e S o u t h SpDESIGN APPROACHThe approach is to use part structure of inner city, than 1 1collage the sight view analysis from the surroundings,grow low plants like grass and small pushes which willnot block the views, the last step is to create artificialfacilities to make the park more easy to enjoy. SLOPE PARK Slope park is an interesting park. The plants composed by grass, low pushes and small trees. The goal is to create visiable angels to Spaarne river as many as possible. At the same time it can be a quanlity green area to the community. The Slope makes the place more fun and enable the low land be- comes a water pool if the wate level rises. In Winter, when the water froze, it can be used as a skating rink. So the park is a mutiple function open space. sight inner artificail green SECTION 1-1 structure facilities slope30 zipping the scattered city
  30. 30. INDIVIDUAL PROJEC T E N V E L O P E S PA A R N E N O R T H Robin Boelsums zipping the scattered city 31
  31. 31. I NT E L D U C T I O N TI TROThe river Spaarne cuts through Haarlem from North to South. In theprevious analysis of the city, the question was raised whether thesekinds of open areas in between the urban patches cause problems.In this section there will be zoomed in to the North of the Spaarne.The analysis will show that the diversity of urban patches is also A M A Mpresent on this lower scale. On the West a residential area, and onthe East an industrial area. Next, a method is shown on how to dealwith this diversity. How can the water function as a transition zonebetween the different patches on the East and West bank? This willbe shown, on the base of six principles, in an envelope vision ofSpaarne North.What do these principles look like spatially? Zooming in to a moredetailed masterplan will answer this question.Finally, an evaluation can be found, reconsidering the working methodand final products. A A The river Spaarne cuts through Haarlem The envelope Spaarne North32 zipping the scattered city
  32. 32. S T R AT E G Y The goal is to add structure to Haarlem, by developing the open Method First an analysis is shown to proove that not only on the cityGoal spaces. On this lower scale it means that we need to improve scale there is a wide variety of urban fabrics, but also on this the relation of East and West by connecting both riversides to lower scale that is the case. the water. Then, the method to reach the goal is translated into six prin-Tool The Spaarne as transition zone between the urban patches is ciples. This will be shown in a vision. the tool to reach the goal. How will the Spaarne be used? That After that, we can see how this works spatially in a masterplan will be formulated in six principles that are on the base of the when zooming in more. The spatial qualities will also be shown envelope vision. in graphical impressions. Zipping the East and West bank together: using the Spaarne as a transition zone in between zipping the scattered city 33
  33. 33. A N A LY S I S E A S T A N D W E S T A S D I V E R S E PAT C H E S O p e n s p a c e fo r m Ty p o l o g yWest: the open space directly at the East: the open space at the riverside West: the buildings shape the open East: the buildings are placed in theriverside is clearly defined by a con- is not clear defined. The form of the space, there is a low OSR. open space, there is a high OSR.sistent row of buildings. buildings is inconsistent. 34 zipping the scattered city
  34. 34. E A S T A N D W E S T A S D I V E R S E PAT C H E SRoad pattern R o a d s t r u c t u reWest: refined road structure, no dead East: unrefined road structure, many West: the road is at the riverside and East: the road is inland and branchesend roads dead end roads branches out away from the river. out towards the river. zipping the scattered city 35
  35. 35. V I T EO N : 6 P R I N C I P L E S T SI LOut of this previous analysis clearly the conclusion can be drawn that Existing situationthe East and West consist of two diverse patches. These are seperated bythe Spaarne, so to connect them the relation with the Spaarne should be Building oimproved. The water can then function as a transition zone in between.To relate to the water six principles are established.In the current situation the principles are already there on some spots.Most changes are made on the East side. On the next page the princi-ples will be explained one by one. Building al Sight line t Public spa Pedestrian Car road al Follow sha36 zipping the scattered city
  36. 36. 6 PRINCIPLES Building on water Building along water Sight line towards water Fu t u re s i t u a t i o n In the form of house- Public space attracts Building o boats and bridges people to stay at there can be built on the waterside. This the water. In order to ensures a relation. be able to create a Spatially it creates Building along water Building on water road along the eastern cambers along the Sight line towards water Building al riverbank (principle 5), Public space along water linear Pedestrian and cycle path space of the Follow shape of waterbank two bridges need to be established in the Spaarne. The open along water middle and south part. Buildingon the water Living on water space is pulledalong the urban patch.Sightopen water water Building into water Car The line towards road along will be in the two branches on the East. space is as well part of the open space as part By building on the water, the urban fabric is of the urban fabric. mixed with the open space. Sight line t The urban fabric is an Th e ro a d s a re active space where a part of the open Public space along waterhappens. Bringingand cycle path lot Pedestrian Follow shape of p a c e a s w e l l s waterbank along water this urbanised space as of the urban Car road along water close to the water cre- fabric. Therefore ates a spatial relation Public space along water Pedestrian and cycle path it creates a tran- of waterbank Follow shape Building along water between the two. towards water Sight line sition between along water Public spa This in contrast with for example an unused Car road along water the t wo. This industrial area, that denies any relation with bankside road is the water. already present at the West, but will be estab- lished in the East, for pedestrians and cyclists. Building on water Building along water Sight line towards water Pedestrian It goes without Car road al saying that sight Fo l l ow i n g t h e g water Pedestrian and cycle path lines towards shape of waterbank Follow the shape of the along water water create spa- waterbank is Car road along water tial connections. copying the form A traditional of the space to way of building the urban fab- is applied in the ric. Using this Follow shawater Sight line towards water d e s i g n , w h i c h shape not only Public space along water Pedestrian and cycle path Follow shape of waterbank ensures that the sightalong water building lines cut the at the riverside, blocks into pieces. Car road along water but also further inland can create a new relation. zipping the scattered city 37
  37. 37. C IRTU C I A L D E TA I L T EL Lo c a t i o n i n H a a r l e m M a s te r p l a nTo be able to show the spatial qualities of this approach, it is useful First, the plan will be explained as if it is a masterplan that stands onto work on a lower scale. The area for the masterplan was chosen on its own. Second it will be explained on the base of the six principles.a spot with new buildings on both the East and the West. But on eachother spot of the Spaarne North envelope, the approach to come to a This area is approximately 500 by 500 meters, 25 hectares. Industry indetailed masterplan would have been the same. the city is generally slowly shifting out of the city. For this approach in Haarlem this shifting is encouraged. But Haarlem has almost no places where this industry can shift to, so the use of the groundspace should be intensified. The Waarderpolder will be shifted to an area with a mixed function of dwellings and offices. How can dwellings be combined with offices and industry? The light industry will therefore be converted from wide, low buildings, to small, high buildings with parking lots underground. The industry should be surrounded by offices, since in most cases it is not allowed to build dwellings next to it. Next to the offices can be a mixture of offices and dwellings. All of this will be established within the frame of the six principles. Transformation of industrial buildings: intensify use of space38 zipping the scattered city
  38. 38. C IRTU C I A L D E TA I LT ELMasterplan The new residential areas are developed with green surroundings. In Haarlem there is a lack of public green therefore it is good to always keep this in mind when designing public space. Some building blocks have an inner gar- den, but all blocks have an outer garden or private zone. This makes the transition zone between public and private. This ensures that the transition from the open space of the river to the public space around it to the actual dwellings is as sufficient as possible. zipping the scattered city 39
  39. 39. C IRTU C I A L D E TA I L T EL Fu n c t i o n m a pIn the map of the functions can be seen how business iscombined with dwellings. When mixing these functions itis important to keep in mind the social control that thereis, after closing hours. Ideal the two functions would beorganised in a chess pattern, so that there is always a formof social control on the streets.There are 510 dwellings and approximately 50,000m2 ofoffices.In this area already exist some dwellings. There are a lot ofhouseboats, but also some detatched houses that seem lostbetween the industry. In this plan it becomes attatched tothe environment.40 zipping the scattered city
  40. 40. C IRTU C I A L D E TA I L T ELBuilding in green & view on water Looking out of the officePublic square & roads along the water Green lane zipping the scattered city 41