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Bergamo 2013-2014 Lectures. 2. Tourism is our field. A website taxonomy

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2013-2014 Lectures at the Università degli studi di Bergamo. Tourism is our field. A website taxonomy

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Bergamo 2013-2014 Lectures. 2. Tourism is our field. A website taxonomy

  1. 1. Università degli Studi di Bergamo Area didattica di Lingue e Letterature straniere Progettazione e gestione dei sistemi turistici / Planning and Management of Tourism Systems Centro Studi per il Turismo e l'Interpretazione del Territorio (CeSTIT) Our field is tourism. A tourism websites taxonomy: OTAs (Expedia, Booking.com), communities (TripAdvisor), metasearch engines (Trivago, Kayak), DMOs, DMSs Roberto Peretta UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers Lecture #2. Tuesday, November 26, 2013
  2. 2. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Digital has changed tourism Have digital technologies changed the world of tourism? Very much so in terms of volume of transactions so, and different sorts of intermediation… ( p (especially in the field of tourism services); y ); less so in the world of tourism destinations. But can we identify “tourism websites”? Can we try to categorize them? Which different business models do different tourism websites rely on? y UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 2
  3. 3. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Online Travel Agents Categories of Tourism Websites Taxonomy (1) – Big private General Category of Tourism Websites Business Model Main Task Online Travel Agent (OTA or OLTA, like Travelocity, Expedia, Booking.com, B ki Priceline, Venere, HostelWorld, eDreams etc.) Online intermediation and sale of tourism services (flights, accommodation, car d ti rentals, packaged tours etc.) mostly not produced by agents Cashing brokerage rates (under different specific models: Expedia, f instance, E di for i t tends to charge the customer in advance, while Booking.com gets a percentage from hotels after the customer has paid on the spot) UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 3
  4. 4. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Travel metasearch engines Categories of Tourism Websites Taxonomy (2) – Private General Category of Tourism Websites Business Model Main Task Travel metasearch engine (or fare aggregator, like Trivago, K Ti Kayak, k Mobissimo etc.) Online comparison of tourism services and their fares (flights, d ti accommodation, car rentals, packaged tours etc.) mostly offered by Online Travel Agents Cashing intermediation, mostly from Online Travel Agents T lA t UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 4
  5. 5. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Online Travel Agents Categories of Tourism Websites Taxonomy (3) – Private General Category of Tourism Websites Business Model Main Task Accommodation broker (like Wimdu, Couchsurfing, etc.) Online intermediation of accommodation either provided by small b i ll business or made available by citizens Cashing brokerage rates, if any UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 5
  6. 6. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Travel communities Categories of Tourism Websites Taxonomy (4) – Private General Category of Tourism Websites Business Model Main Task Travel community (like Tripadvisor etc.) Online comparison of tourism services (most frequently accommodation, f d d ti food and points of interest) through usergenerated content: tipically, tipically customer reviews Cashing advertisings UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 6
  7. 7. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Publishers Categories of Tourism Websites Taxonomy (5) – Private General Category of Tourism Websites Business Model Main Task Travel Publisher (Frommer’s, Lonely Planet, Michelin etc.) Sale of guidebooks, travel books or digital content, mostly produced b th d d by the publishers themselves Selling books or digital content directly (no intermediation). Also lli Al selling massive i digital content to destinations or companies. UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 7
  8. 8. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Travel Suppliers Categories of Tourism Websites Taxonomy (6) – Big private (or public…) General Category of Tourism Websites Business Model Main Task Travel supplier (Air France, Deutsche Bahn, Trenitalia, RyanAir, A R Ai Accor, Holiday Inn, Hertz etc.) Online sale of tourism services (flights, hotels, car rentals t ) tl d d etc.) mostly produced by the suppliers themselves Selling services directly (no intermediation) UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 8
  9. 9. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Destination Management Organizations Categories of Tourism Websites Taxonomy (7) – The public General Category of Tourism Websites Business Model Main Task DMO [Destination Management Organization or Destination M k ti D ti ti Marketing Organization] (or LTB, Local Tourist Board, or RTB, Regional Tourist Board) Either public or private/public funding Attracting visitors to the destination; marketing the destination and l d ti ti d local l actors; informing and assisting visitors before, during and after their visit This is the category of tourism websites we have to evaluate evaluate. UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 9
  10. 10. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Small service suppliers Categories of Tourism Websites Taxonomy (8) – Small private General Category of Tourism Websites Business Model Main Task Accommodation supplier (Family-run private hotel, Bed h t l B d& Breakfast, Farmhouse, like frances.it) Online sale of tourism services (hospitality) produced by the suppliers th li themselves l Selling services directly (no intermediation) or o selling through Online Travel Agents and/or DMOs UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 10
  11. 11. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Unofficial “destinations”, and affiliation Categories of Tourism Websites Taxonomy (9) – Small private General Category of Tourism Websites Business Model Main Task Small business or amateur (like CiaoMilano) Sponsorship and/or advertisements on the website; possibly sale of di it l content; f digital t t affiliation Informing on a tourist area, and possibly making marginal fit through h profits th affiliations UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 11
  12. 12. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Travel bloggers Categories of Tourism Websites Taxonomy (10) – Small private General Category of Tourism Websites Business Model Main Task Travel blog (or travelogue, like PeterGreenberg, NomadicMatt, N di M tt DigitalNomad, etc.) None – though some travel bloggers increasingly act as f i lt l professional travel writers or journalists. Affiliation is also possible Informing on personal travels, possibly making profits through agreements th h t with DMOs or publishers, and/or marginal profits through affiliations UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 12
  13. 13. Our fi ld i tourism field is i DMSs, or Destination Management Systems In terms of digital management of tourism destinations, there’s more to be considered. A Destination Management System or DMS is a System, DMS, special sort of CMS. DMSs are digital p g platforms. They are content y management systems intended to drive local tourism operators to cooperate with one another, helping to manage a local tourism system system. In other words, DMSs are based on a network approach as far as tourism operators are concerned pp p ... or, rather, they are supposed to be based on a network approach. The story of Tiscover provides examples. examples UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 13
  14. 14. Our fi ld i tourism field is i Destinations, hoteliers, and e-commerce Finally, a very practical question in terms of e-commerce and business models for a destination. How should a destination manage hotel and service reservations in its own area? Destinations vs. hoteliers vs. OTAs... UniBg 44111 2013-2014 .:. IT for Tourism Managers .:. Roberto Peretta .:. #2 14

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