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Mobile, Smartphones, Wi-Fi, and Apps

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Mobile, Smartphones, Wi-Fi, and Apps as one of my 2018-2019 lectures at the University of Bergamo. It's stimulus material, posted to improve communication with current students. It's not interesting for the academia.

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Mobile, Smartphones, Wi-Fi, and Apps

  1. 1. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Mobile, Smartphones, Wi-Fi, and Apps Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018
  2. 2. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Today 01.Tuesday,Oct2 Some 25Years ofeTourism 02.Thursday,Oct4 Networks &SocialNetworks. WebPresence 04. Thursday, Oct11 Mobile,Smartphones, Wi-Fi,andApps 03.Tuesday, Oct9 Destinations, theIndustry, andPeer-To-Peer 06.Thursday, Oct18 WebReputation: Likes,Engagement &Sentiment 05.Tuesday, Oct16 Analytics,Insights, Cookies,andthe Disappearing Privacy 07. Tuesday, Oct23 Design:Content, Copyright &CreativeCommons page2Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018
  3. 3. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 What Are We Talking About Today? 1. Mobile 2. Different Needs 3. Mobile-Friendliness 4. Geolocation & Georeference 5. Location-Based Services 6. Wi-Fi 7. Apps vs. Websites Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page3 ,KasperskyLabimagecreditstozurb.com
  4. 4. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Mobile Is Constantly Increasing Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Source: TheTelegraph November11,2016 Source: ComScore 2014 page4
  5. 5. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Mobile Is Still Increasing Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page5
  6. 6. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 They’re Around… imagecredittooneindia.com Cell phone Bag Shoes Destination page6Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018
  7. 7. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Different Needs Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Talkingabouttourismandmobility,let’sseenowwhether tourists’needs areexpressedand addressedviaadesktopcomputer,athomeorinaoffice, orthroughamobiledevice,i.e.on-the-move. page7
  8. 8. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Information Search Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 ondestinations onaccommodation ontoursorroutes onairlines,railways,carrental onpackagedtours page8 From Home, Or Office, Before Leaving
  9. 9. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Fore-Seeing Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 throughpictures throughvideos throughpresentations throughvirtualreality page9 From Home, Or Office, Before Leaving imagecredittoBusinessinVancouver
  10. 10. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Customization Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 segmentation downtothesingletourist privacy–aswewillsee–isdisappearing page10 From Home, Or Office, Before Leaving imagecreditto‫פורטוגלי‬ ‫דרכון‬ imagecredittoPushMonkeyBlog
  11. 11. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Information Comparison Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 UserGeneratedContent Photosharing Videosharing page11 From Home, Or Office, Before Leaving
  12. 12. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Purchase Of Products Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 ore-commerce fromTravelProviders throughOnLineTravelAgents(OTA) directlyfromdestinations fromspecializedpublishers page12 From Home, Or Office, Before Leaving
  13. 13. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Purchase Of Personal Services Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 localguides guidedtours localcourses (cuisine,arts&craftsetc.) page13 From Home, Or Office, Before Leaving imagecredittoPress ReleaseJet imagecredittoQuébecOriginal imagecredittoperfectcookery.in
  14. 14. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 On-The-Move Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Now,let'stakeintoconsideration whichtouristneeds areexpressed bymobileusers. page14 On-The-Move, While Travelling imagecredittooneindia.com
  15. 15. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Local Information Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 “WhatcanIdo?” “Willthatvenuestillbeopen?” “Whatisthisbuilding?” …throughaugmentedreality,too page15 On-The-Move, While Travelling imagecreditstobrettfish.co.za,giphy
  16. 16. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Advice Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 “Anygoodplacetohaveameal?” “Anyfreetoiletsinthearea?” “Anyaffordableactivities?” page16 On-The-Move, While Travelling imagecreditstomapiconscollection
  17. 17. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Geographical Positioning Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 “WhereamI?” “Whichwaytothemainsquare?” “WhichwaytomyB&B?” page17 On-The-Move, While Travelling imagecredittoEduVision
  18. 18. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Information on Public Transport Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page18 “WhichtramwaylineshallItake?Andwherefrom?” “ShallIpurchaseticketsinadvance?” “It'slate...Willthetramwaystillberunning?” On-The-Move, While Travelling
  19. 19. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Reassurance Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page19 “Isitgoingtorain?” “WillIfindaparkingplaceformycar?Where? Andhowmuchwilltheychargeme?” “Isthisadangerousarea?” On-The-Move, While Travelling imagecredittoZeroGrid
  20. 20. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Communication Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 “Ineedtoplaceaphonecall!” “Ineed tosendashortmessage!” “IwishIcouldvisitthatwebpage...” page20 On-The-Move, While Travelling imagecreditstoproprofs.com
  21. 21. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Mobile-Friendliness Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Acrucialusabilityproblemfor smartphonesisthewebsites’ abilitytobefullyreadableon verysmallmonitors. Touchscreen,andfingers’size, isthedefaultonsmartphones... There’saGoogleToolwhich testsmobilecompliance,aka mobile-friendliness. page21
  22. 22. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Mobile-FriendlinessChecked Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 TheGoogleMobile-Friendlytool testsmobilecomplianceby referring tothesourcecodeof therelevantwebpage. Atleasttwoapproachesare availabletosolvethemobile- friendlinessproblem. Mobile-friendlywebsitesmay beeitherresponsiveor adaptive. page22
  23. 23. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Responsive Websites Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Currently,themostpopularsolutionistheresponsiveapproach. Specificprogramminglanguages,likeCSSandJavascript,areusedinthesource. ThesameHTMLsourceisusedbyalldevices–fromdesktopthroughtabletsto page23 smartphones –foritsabilityto adjusttomonitorsofanysize. imagecredittozurb.com Bytheway,CSS(Cascading StyleSheets) providesgraphicstyleinstructions,while Javascriptisahigh-levelprogramming language. AlongsideCSS and HTML,JavaScriptisnow acoretechnology oftheWorldWideWeb.
  24. 24. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Adaptive Websites Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Anotherapproachtosolvethemobile-friendlinessproblem–anapproach calledadaptive–deliversdifferent webpagesto different devices. page24 imagecredittozurb.com Theadaptiveapproach allowstodiversify content and navigationaccording totheusers’needs. Thewebserver isinstructed torecognizethebrowser used,andthemonitor’ssize.
  25. 25. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 An Adaptive Websites For A Destination Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page25
  26. 26. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 A Responsive Website For A Destination Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page26
  27. 27. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 An Unfriendly Website For A Destination Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page27  Texttoosmalltoread  Content widerthanscreen  Clickableelements too closetogether
  28. 28. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 MobileConfigurationsAccordingToGoogle Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page28 Source: Google Responsive Adaptive Separate: choosing isupto theuser cv
  29. 29. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Georeference Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Severalfunctionsinmobility dependongeographical positioning,whichisbased ongeoreference. AccordingtoWikipedia, “togeoreferencesomething meanstodefineits existenceinphysicalspace.” page29 imagecredittoLeapfrog
  30. 30. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Longitude and Latitude Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Ageographic coordinatesystem isneeded,todoso. Ageographic coordinatesystem enablesevery locationonthe Earthtobespecified byasetofnumbers orletters. page30
  31. 31. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Anyplacecanbedefinedbyitslongitudeandlatitude. A Longitude and a Latitude Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page31 imagecredittojersey.com
  32. 32. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 The Global Positioning System Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 TheGlobalPositioningSystem(GPS)isaspace-basedGlobalNavigation SatelliteSystem(GNSS)thatprovideslocationandtimeinformationinall weather,anywhereonorneartheEarth,wherethereisanunobstructedlineof sighttofourormoreGPSsatellites. Itismaintained bytheUnitedStatesgovernment andis freelyaccessibleby anyonewithaGPSreceiver. CurrentGPS-baseddevicesincludeincarnavigationsystems(likeTomTom) and–increasingly –smartphoneslikeiPhonesorAndroid-based mobile phones. TherearemorethanoneGNSS.Europe,e.g., isdevelopingthe GalileoGNSS. page32
  33. 33. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Or GPS Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page33 Satellitesinageostationaryorbit, whichmakeuptheSpaceSegment, appeartogroundobserversatafixed positioninthesky. AControlSegmentoptimizesthe processfromtheEarth’ssurface. Anantennaplacedinthedevice,or UserSegment,measuresits distancesfromasetofgeostationary satellites–sometwentyeachtime.
  34. 34. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Points of Interest Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Places,whichmaybeinterestingfortourists,havetheirgeoreferenced positions.Justgeographiccoordinates:longitudeandlatitude. Georeferenced placesstoredindatasystemsarecalled PointsofInterest(POIs). page34 imagecredit togocanvas
  35. 35. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Georeferenced POIs Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Georeferenced PointsofInterest(POIs)storedindata systems–likeGoogleMapsorHere–canbe“read”by users’deviceslikesmartphones. page35 Ifadevice“knows”its geographicalposition, itcan“read”and list whichPOIscanbe foundinthearea, and showdirectionsto reachthosePOIs. imagecredits togocanvas,Dday.it
  36. 36. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Google Maps Vs. OpenStreetMap Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Currently,themostdiffusedproprietarywebmappingsystemisGoogleMaps. GoogleMapsreliesondifferentprovidersofGeographicInformationSystems (GIS)accordingtodifferent countries,andissomehow opposedto OpenStreetMap,anopensourcemapsystem. page36 OpenStreetMap isafreeservice. GoogleMaps,instead, isafreemium service.Thismeans thatit’sfreefor those whowanttoembedGoogleMaps intheirwebsites,butwithlimitations. IftheGoogleMapsembedded ina websitearevisitedalot,Googlecharges.
  37. 37. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Google Maps Coordinates #1 Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page37
  38. 38. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Google Maps Coordinates #2 Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page38
  39. 39. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Google Maps Coordinates #3 Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page39
  40. 40. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Google Maps Coordinates #4 Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page40
  41. 41. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Google Maps Coordinates #5 Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page41 Becareful,justincase. Coordinates onGoogleMapsmay differfromGPScoordinates. AndGoogleitselfdisplaysboth DMS(Degrees, Minutes, Seconds) andDM(DecimalDegrees).
  42. 42. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Content Is Often Georeferenced Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 WebserviceslikeGoogleMapsand OpenStreetMap,orViaMichelin,are geographicperse,builtforthepurpose. Yet,severalotherwebservices make useofgeographicdata. Forinstance,atleastthreeofthe communitiesorsocialnetworking platformswepreviouslyconsidered makeuseofgeographicdataroutinely. page42
  43. 43. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Location-Based Services Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Thereareseamlessconnectionsamonglocations–tourismlocations,too–, theirgeographicalrepresentationontheWeb(onGoogleMaps,oron Foursquare)andyourcustomers’smartphones. Thisisveryinterestingfromatourismpointofview. 1. YourwebsitecanuseGoogleMapstoprovideyourcustomerswith directionstoyourdestination oryourbusiness. 2. Yourdestination oryourbusinesscanprovidelocation-basedinformation abouttouristservices,heritage,andwhat-to-do. 3. Yourdestination oryourbusinesscanprovidesuchlocation-based informationthroughmobiledeviceslikesmartphones. page43
  44. 44. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Foursquare Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Therewasapioneerinthisfield. TheFoursquareservicewas createdinlate2008andlaunched in2009.Itstillworks. Foursquareisalocalsearch-and-discoveryservicemobileappwhichprovides search-resultsforitsusers.Itisdeliveredondesktopcomputers,too. BytakingintoaccounttheplacesthataFoursquareuserhasvisited, thethings thatshe/helikedbefore,andwhatother usersadvised,Foursquareprovides recommendationsaboutplacesinthevicinityofher/hiscurrentlocation. page44
  45. 45. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 A Social Recommendation System Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Whenmentioning DynamicPackaging,weintroduceditasatechnologythat allowscustomerstobuildtheirowntravelitinerariesbyconsulting recommendationsfromprevioustouristsandassemblingservicesaccordingly. WealsoobservedthatDynamicPackagingisoftenconnected with RecommendationSystems. page45 Well,FoursquarewasthefirstRecommendation Systemtobebothsocialandgeoreferenced. ItsLBS,orLocation-BasedServices,arebasedon socialsharing. imagecredittobug-software.com
  46. 46. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Check-Ins Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 WhenFacebookintroduced itsCheck-Infunction–to markone’s presenceina POI–itsimplycopiedthat functionfromFoursquare. IntheFoursquareplatform, check-insarecurrently performedthrough Swarm, Foursquare’ssisterapp. page46
  47. 47. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Foursquare Sample #1, Mobile Near Me Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page47
  48. 48. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Foursquare Sample #2, Mobile Search Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page48
  49. 49. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Foursquare Sample #3, Desktop Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page49
  50. 50. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Destinations vs. Wi-Fi Coverage Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 Connections costsareaproblem,which Wi-Ficoveragemayhelptosolve. “Infrastructure,especiallythosethatsupportdigitalconnectivity, arestrategic forenablingandsupportingsmartcitytouristservices. Ofcourse,differentlevelsofcomplexityandcostinfrastructureconnectto different governancelevels. Fiber backbonesand 5G networksinvolve nationaland regional government and high-level decision makerswhereas freeWi-Fidirectlyinvolveslocal government, municipalityandcitizens.” Lorenzi,Mancin,Cagol (2014) page50
  51. 51. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Wi-Fi Coverage May Be Insufficient… Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page51 imagecredittoveneziaunica.it imagecredittoKasperskyLab
  52. 52. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Apps, Apple, and Closed Worlds Themobilephonetechnologyhaschanged people’shabits.Smartphonesarenow morepopularthanwristwatches. ApplehasimposedtheiPhonemodel,a closedworld whereyouenter onlyby acceptingApple'soperatingsystemiOS, andgraduallyadding specificapplications. Thisisthemodelwehavetorefer to,when wetalkofapps. Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page52
  53. 53. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Apps vs. Websites Verysimilarly,Googlehasimposeditsown Androidoperatingsystemworldwide. PeopleofteninstalliOSorAndroid “horizontal”apps,asforsocialnetworks, transportormaps. Lessoftendotheydownload “vertical” appsforasingletownoraresort... Individualtowns,resorts orcultural institutionsareingrowingneedofmobile- friendlywebsites. Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page53
  54. 54. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Today’s Key Points Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018 page54 1. When Out Of Home, People Have Different Needs 2. For Websites, Mobile-Friendliness Is A Must 3. Any Place Can Be Defined By Its Longitude and Latitude 4. Location-Based Services Are Services Based On Locations 5. Wi-Fi Coverage Is Increasingly Crucial 6. The Web Is An Open World, While Apps Are Closed Worlds 7. Tourist Apps Are Worthwhile If They Are “Horizontal”
  55. 55. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Thanks For Your Attention page55 PicturebyNhat Vuong fromthe2014 Workshop Mobile,Wi-Fi,Apps.Lecture04,October11,2018

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