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Destinations, The Industry, and Peer to Peer

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Destinations, The Industry, and Peer to Peer as one of my 2018-2019 lectures at the University of Bergamo. It's stimulus material, posted to improve communication with current students. It's not interesting for the academia.

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Destinations, The Industry, and Peer to Peer

  1. 1. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Destinations, the Industry, and Peer-To-Peer Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  2. 2. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Today 01.Tuesday,Oct2 Some 25Years ofeTourism page2Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 02.Thursday,Oct4 Networks &SocialNetworks. WebPresence 04. Thursday, Oct11 Mobile,Smartphones, Wi-Fi,andApps 03.Tuesday, Oct9 Destinations, theIndustry, andPeer-To-Peer 06.Thursday, Oct18 WebReputation: Likes,Engagement &Sentiment 05.Tuesday, Oct16 Analytics,Insights, Cookies,andthe Disappearing Privacy 07. Tuesday, Oct23 Design:Content, Copyright &CreativeCommons
  3. 3. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 What Are We Talking About Today? Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 page3 1. Managing Globality 2. Destinations 3. The Industry 4. OTAs & Metasearch Engines 5. Travel Communities 6. Publishers & Blogs 7. Peer-To-Peer
  4. 4. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Managing Globality Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 page4 Adefinitionoftourismby Jean-PierreLozato-Giotart, tourismengineer. “Tourismisthemanagement ofglobality.” Aparadoxycaldefinition,yet astimulatingone. Itmakesusperceivehow broadoursightshouldbe.
  5. 5. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Destination? What Is This? Themainkeywordin tourismisdestination. Butwhatis adestination? Aterritory? Anoffer? Anetwork? page5Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  6. 6. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Destinations As Territories “Aphysicalspaceinwhichavisitorspendsatleastoneovernight. Itincludestourismproductssuchassupportservicesandattractions,and tourismresourceswithinoneday’sreturntraveltime. Ithasphysicalandadministrativeboundariesdefiningitsmanagement, imagesandperceptionsdefiningitsmarketcompetitiveness. Localtourismdestinations incorporatevariousstakeholdersoftenincludinga hostcommunity,andcannestandnetworktoformlargerdestinations.” TheWorldTourismOrganization (WTO),1999,2007 page6Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  7. 7. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Destinations As Offers “Abundleofactivitiesandfactorsof attractivenesssituatedinaspecificplace (site,locality,destination)[which]can provideawell-constructedandintegrated tourismoffer,that representsa distinctive systemoftourismhospitalityenhancinglocal resourcesandculture.” MaurizioRispoli,MicheleTamma,economists, Ca’FoscariUniversity,Venice,1995 page7Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  8. 8. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Destinations As Networks “Thedestinationisaplace‘created’anddefined bythevisitor, towhichthevisitorisattractedandinwhich hemovesfreely in/withthemass.” Nothinglessandnothingmorethan anetwork. PietroBeritelli,InstituteforSystemic Management andPublicGovernance, University ofSt.Gallen,Destinations’Consultant,2014 page8Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  9. 9. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 The Destination’s Network page9Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 Visitors Locals Managers imagecredittoid-vacation.blogspot.com The Place
  10. 10. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Destination Management Organizations DoesMstandforManagement? OrforMarketing? WhatshouldaDMOcarefor? CanaDMOrulealocaltourismnetwork? CanaDMOrunaterritory? CanaDMOleadacommunity? Orhasitbasicallytosellanarea’stourismproducts?Period. page10Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 imagecreditto European Travel Commission
  11. 11. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 We’re All Stakeholders Stakeholder noun [countable] Someone whohas invested money intosomething, or whohassome important connectionwithit,and therefore isaffectedbyits successorfailure. Stakeholderin... –Citizensshould be stakeholdersinthesociety theylivein. page11 imagecredittoinfinityimmigration.com,BC,Canada definition fromLongmanDictionary of Contemporary English Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  12. 12. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Destinations Are Made By Their Stakeholders page12Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  13. 13. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Back To The Basics Whenyoucomeacrossawebsitesomehowdealing withtourism,canyousay ifitisadestination website? Canyouspellits •category? •model? •maintask? page13Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  14. 14. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Which Is The Real Thing? Whatare theother twofor? Tobegin answering, let’strya taxonomy oftourism websites. page14Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 Whichof these websites istheone that Kraków delivers toits guests?
  15. 15. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Who’s Who? Ifyou’reinseriousdoubtaboutawebsite’swho’swho,findingoutwhoowns thesecond-leveldomainnamemaybeworthwhile. Todoso,youcanconsultthewhoisformonwebsiteslikewho.is,where ownersofthe“international”domainnames,thefirstlevelofwhichis.com, .net,.org,.biz,.info,.tv,.is,.travelorthelike,areusuallyfound. Nationaldomainsinstead,thefirstlevelofwhichcoincidewith national states’acronyms–like.plforPoland,.itforItaly,or.ukfortheUnitedKingdom –mayalsobesearchedforthroughindividualnational registrationauthorities. page15Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  16. 16. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 GeneralCategory ofTourismWebsites Model MainTask DMOs[Destination ManagementorMarketing Organizations] (orLTBs,Local Tourist Boards,orRTBs,Regional TouristBoards) Eitherpublic orprivate/public funding Attractingvisitorstothe destination;marketingthe destinationandlocalactors; informing andassisting visitorsbefore, duringand aftertheirvisit Destination Management Organizations CategoriesofTourismWebsites(1)–ThePublic,orPublic/PrivateConsortia page16Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  17. 17. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 DMSs, Destination Management Systems Intermsofdigitalmanagement oftourismdestinations,there’smoretobe considered. Let’sintroducetheDestinationManagementSystems,orDMSs. DMSsarebasedondigitalplatforms.They’rebasedoncontentmanagement systemswhichareintendedtodrivelocaltourismoperatorstocooperatewith oneanother. Thisininstrumentaltomanagealocaltourismsystem –or,ifyou prefer,adestinationasanetwork. Infact,DMSsare basedonanetworkapproachasfarastourismoperators (localauthorities,hotels,restaurants,museums,artgalleries...) areconcerned ...or,rather,DMSaresupposedtobebasedonanetworkapproach. ThestoryofTiscoverprovidesexamples. page17Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  18. 18. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 The Industry Inshort,thetourismindustryincludes •TravelSuppliers(deliveringtourism productsandservicestothefinalusers) •TravelAgents(intermediating tourism productsandservicesonamassscale) •Peer-To-Peertravelservices(offering one-to-onecontacts amongsuppliers andfinalusers) ...and,well,people. page18Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 imagecredit©2015PeanutsWorldwideLLC
  19. 19. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 GeneralCategory ofTourismWebsites Model MainTask TravelSuppliers (AirFrance,DeutscheBahn, Trenitalia,RyanAir, Accor, HolidayInn,Hertzetc.) Onlinesaleof tourism services (flights,hotels,car rentalsetc.)mostly producedbythesuppliers themselves Sellingservicesdirectly (noagents) Travel Suppliers CategoriesofTourismWebsites(2)–BigPrivate,orPublic page19 ...and we’renotdealingherewithB2BGDSslikeAmadeusorSabre. Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  20. 20. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 “Amadeus”? What Is That? AmadeusITGroupSA /æməˈdeɪʊs aɪ tiː ɡrʊp/ isamultinational ITproviderfortheglobaltravelandtourismindustry. Amadeuswasoriginallycreated asaneutral globaldistributionsystem(GDS) byAirFrance,Iberia,LufthansaandSASin1987inorder toconnectproviders' contentwithtravelagenciesandconsumersinrealtime. ThecreationofAmadeuswasintendedtooffera Europeanalternative toSabre, theAmericanGDS. page20 Source: Wikipedia, accessed 20180727 Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  21. 21. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 An Amadeus Report Asuggestionfromthe44141links. page21Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  22. 22. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 GeneralCategory ofTourismWebsites Model MainTask Pre-DigitalAgents (biglike TUIandAmex, orsmalllike SmallWorld andlocaltravelshops) Intermediationoftourism servicesmostlynot producedbythem Sellingtravelpackages Travel Agents CategoriesofTourismWebsites(3) –BigorSmallPrivate page22Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  23. 23. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 GeneralCategory ofTourismWebsites Model MainTask OnlineTravelAgents (OTAorOLTA,like Travelocity, Expedia,Booking.com, Priceline,Venere, HostelWorld,eDreamsetc.) Onlineintermediationand sale oftourismservices (flights,accommodation, car rentals,packaged toursetc.) mostlynotproducedby agents Cashingbrokeragerates (underdifferentspecific models:Expedia’sdiffers from Booking.com’s) Online Travel Agents (OTA, OLTA) CategoriesofTourismWebsites(4)–BigPrivate page23Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  24. 24. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 GeneralCategory ofTourismWebsites Model MainTask TravelMetasearchEngines (orfareaggregators,like Trivago,Kayak, Mobissimo etc.) Onlinecomparison of tourismservices andtheir fares(flights, accommodation, carrentals, packaged toursetc.)mostly offered byOnlineTravel Agents Cashingintermediation, mostlyfromOnlineTravel Agents Travel Metasearch Engines CategoriesofTourismWebsites(5)–BigPrivate page24Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  25. 25. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Digital? What Can Destinations Do? Arelevantquestion.Whichpolicycanadestinationadopt,whenitdealswith sellingitstourismservicestothegeneralpublic? Herearethefouravailableoptions,thatcancombinewithoneanother. page25 1. DoingNothing.ADMOcanchoosenotto mentionhotelaccommodationatall. Severalnational touristboardsadoptthispolicy, asmanyDMOsarestatutorilynotallowedto adviseaboutaccommodation,nor tosell. Butanessentialserviceismissing. Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 imagecreditto Shutterstock
  26. 26. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 More Choices For The DMOs 2.LinkingToTheHotels’Websites.ADMOcanlistthelocalhotels,andaddlinks tothehotels’websites.Inpractice,thisisoftentheonlyviablechoice. Aserviceisformallyprovided,butvisitorswon'tuseitverymuch:it’seasier, forthem,referring toanOTAwebsite. page26 3.BuildingItsOwnPlatform.ADMOcanbuildits ownhotelreservationsystem,asapublic component ofitsDMS.Thisisanexpensive option,however,andvisitorswouldprobablyuse theirfavouriteOTAsjustthesame. Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 imagecreditto Shutterstock
  27. 27. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Coming To Terms With The Enemy? 4. DealingWithAnOTA. Finally,aDMOcanfindanagreement withanOTAora TravelMetasearch Engine. Anhotelreservationserviceissomehow provided,andtheDMOcangetsome profitsthroughanaffiliationagreement. page27 Althoughthisisthecheapestandquickest option,criticsmightobservethat,bydoingso, theDMOloosescontrolonaccommodation policies,andabandonsalltheaccommodation businessesinitsownarea –whichaDMOshould takecareof,andpromote–totheOTAs’will. Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 imagecreditto Shutterstock
  28. 28. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Affiliation? What Is This? Wementioned affiliationasapotentialresource foraDMOwebsitethatfindsanagreementwith anOTAorametasearchengine. Butwhatisanaffiliationindigitalterms? Anaffiliationisanagreementbetweenalesser websiteanda hub–likeanOTAorametasearch engine(orAmazon, likeinthepicture). page28Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 Whenacustomerreachesahubfromalesserwebsite,andendsupbuyinga productfromthehub,themanagersofthelesserwebsitegetapercentage. imagecreditto amazon.fr
  29. 29. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Hoteliers And E-Commerce DependanceonOTAsisaproblemthat mustbeaddressed notonlybyDMOs butbyhoteliers,too. Worse.Destinationscanchooseto avoidOTAs,buthotelsactuallycan’t. Peopleareincreasinglyaccustomed tobookthroughtheirfavouriteOTA, andhotelswhicharenotlistedon OTAsruntheriskofbecominginvisible. page29Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 imagecreditto travolution
  30. 30. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Management Of Tourism Businesses OTAschargeapercentageonreservationsplacedthrough them–whicherodesthehoteliers’ income. Althoughdealingwithaccommodationenterprisesis beyondthescopeoftheselectures,thisissuehasatleast tobementionedhere. Somematerialsonmanagementoftourismbusinesses, relatingtoworkshopsdesignedbyyourlecturer,are availablefromtheITforTourismManagerswebpageat http://www00.unibg.it/struttura/en_struttura.asp?corso=44111 page30Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  31. 31. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 GeneralCategory ofTourismWebsites Model MainTask TravelCommunities(firstof all,Tripadvisor) Onlinecomparison of tourismservices (often accommodation, foodand pointsofinterest)through user-generatedcontent: tipically,customerreviews Cashingadvertisings (thoughTripAdvisorhas become somethingveryvery close toanOTAinrecent years) Travel Communities CategoriesofTourismWebsites(6)–BigPrivate page31Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 Question. IsTripAdvisor simplyatravel communitystill?
  32. 32. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 GeneralCategory ofTourismWebsites Model MainTask TravelPublishers (Frommer’s,LonelyPlanet, TouringClubItaliano, Michelinetc.) Saleofguidebooks,travel books ordigitalcontent, mostlyproducedbythe publishersthemselves Sellingbooks ordigital contentdirectly(no intermediation). Also selling massive digital contenttodestinationsor companies. Travel Publishers CategoriesofTourismWebsites(7)–Private page32Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  33. 33. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 GeneralCategory ofTourismWebsites Model MainTask TravelBlogs(ortravelogue, like PeterGreenberg, NomadicMatt,DigitalNomad, etc.) None –thoughsome travel bloggers increasinglyactas professional travelwriters orjournalists.Affiliation is also possible Informingonpersonal travels,possiblymaking profitsthroughagreements withDMOsorpublishers, and/ormarginalprofits throughaffiliations Travel Blogs CategoriesofTourismWebsites(8) –SmallPrivate page33Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  34. 34. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 GeneralCategory ofTourismWebsites Model MainTask SmallBusinesses orAmateurs(like CiaoMilano) Sponsorshipand/or advertisementsonthe website;possiblysale of digitalcontent;affiliation Informingonatouristarea, andpossiblymaking marginalprofitsthrough affiliations Unofficial“Destinations” CategoriesofTourismWebsites(9)–SmallPrivate page34Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  35. 35. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 GeneralCategory ofTourismWebsites Model MainTask AccommodationSuppliers (Family-runprivatehotel, Bed&Breakfast, Farmhouse, like frances.it) Onlinesaleof tourism services (hospitality) producedby thesuppliers themselves Sellingservicesdirectly (nointermediation) or selling throughOnlineTravel Agentsand/orDMOs Small Service Suppliers CategoriesofTourismWebsites(10)–SmallPrivate page35Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  36. 36. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 GeneralCategory ofTourismWebsites Model MainTask AccommodationBrokers (likeAirB&B,Wimdu, Couchsurfing,etc.) Onlineintermediationof accommodation either providedbysmallbusiness ormadeavailable by citizens Cashingbrokeragerates,if any. (...itmaybe interestingto notethatCouchSurfingdoes notcashintermediation.) Accommodation Brokers CategoriesofTourismWebsites(11)–Private page36Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 Suchbrokersarecalledpeer-to-peer(P2P)travelservices.
  37. 37. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 The Rise Of Peer-To-Peer Travel Services page37 Source:WorldTravel &TourismCouncil, “OnlineTravelin 2016:MobileChannel and Peer-to-Peer TravelServices DriversofGrowth”, Medium,January 27, 2016 Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  38. 38. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Predictions On P2P Travel Services “Consumersareexpected toincreasinglyturnto peer-to-peertravel services,whichrepresent todaythebestanswerto someoftheirneeds,while largetravelcompaniesare likelytograduallyembrace thepeer-to-peertrend.” page38Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 imagecreditto businessinsider.com Source:WorldTravel &TourismCouncil, “OnlineTravelin 2016:MobileChannel and Peer-to-Peer TravelServices DriversofGrowth”, Medium,January 27, 2016
  39. 39. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Is Uber, too, A P2P Company? UberTechnologiesInc.isanAmerican multinationalonlinetransportation networkcompanyheadquarteredinSan Francisco,California. Itdevelops,marketsandoperatesthe Ubermobileapp,whichallows consumerswithsmartphonestosubmit atriprequestwhichisthenroutedto Uberdriverswhousetheirowncars. page39Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 imagecreditto East Coast Radio
  40. 40. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Peer-To-Peer, Digitally Speaking Peer-to-peer(P2P)computingor networkingisadistributedapplication architecturethatpartitionstasksor workloadsbetweenpeers. Peersareequallyprivileged, equipotentparticipantsinthe application. Theyaresaidtoformapeer-to-peer networkofnodes. page40Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 imagecreditto Quora
  41. 41. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Peer-To-Peer, Historically Speaking MassdiffusionofP2Pservicesalreadyhappenedatleast twice. ThefirsttimewaswithNapster,amusicsharingservice,in1999. ThesecondtimewaswithSkypein2003. TheoriginalreleaseofSkypeputusersinconnectionthrougha traditionalclient-serverplatform.Oncetheconnectionbetween theuserswasestablished,however,theplatformwentout,and lettheusersgoonthroughaP2Pconnection. SkypewasboughtbyMicrosoftin2011,andrepeatedly redesigned sincethen.ItisnotaP2Pserviceanylonger. page41Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  42. 42. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Peer-To-Peer? Indigitalterms,neitherUbernorAirbnbuse P2Pconnections. Whenaguestcontacts ahost,she/hedoes notcontacther/himdirectly.BothinAirbnb andinUber,atraditional server-based platformisalwaysinbetween. Thesupposedpeer-to-peerdigital connectionisapparentonly.Apeer-to-peer personalconnection, ifany,happenslater. page42Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 imagecreditto Quora
  43. 43. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 “Sharing Economy” page43Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 P2Ptravelservicesare usuallyconsidered to bepartoftheso-called “sharingeconomy”. Butwhatisthe“sharing economy”?Isitreally aboutsharingassuch?
  44. 44. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Crowd-Based Capitalism? “Givingsomeonearide,havingaguestinyourspareroom, runningerrandsforsomeone, participatinginasupper club—thesearenotrevolutionaryconcepts”,saythe releasenotesofthisbook.“Whatisnew,inthe‘sharing economy,’isthatyouarenothelpingafriendforfree;you areprovidingtheseservicestoastrangerfor money. ArunSundararajanexplainsthetransitiontowhathe describesas“crowd-basedcapitalism”—anewwayof organizing economicactivitythatmaysupplantthe traditionalcorporate-centered model. page44Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  45. 45. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 “Sharing Economy” and Accommodation page45Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  46. 46. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 “Airification”? Source: UniSiena AmapofAirbnbfamily accommodationin FlorenceItaly,2016. Itshowstherisksthat Italiandestinations aretakingintermsof sustainability. It’sovertourism. page46Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  47. 47. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Accommodation + Information Airbnbasksitshoststobehelpfulwithguests,byprovidingthemwith informationonthebestplacestovisit,restaurantstogo,and experiencesto live.Airbnbhosts areevenencouragedtoorganize eventsfortheirguests. Something similarisdonebytheGoogleMyBusinessserviceand Google LocalGuides,thelatteraGoogleMapsservice. page47Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  48. 48. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Airbnb Hosts’ Guidebooks page48Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  49. 49. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Google Local Guides page49Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  50. 50. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Contributing? page50Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 Isfamily accommodation asustainability problem? Arecontributions totheinformation servicesdelivered byAirbnborGoogle anything more thanpresents tocorporations?
  51. 51. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Web 3.0? Sundararajan’s ideaofatransitionfromacorporate-centered modeltoa“crowd-basedcapitalism”mustbeconsidered. A“newwayoforganizing economic activity,boundtosupplant thetraditional corporate-centeredmodel”maywellbegoingon. Berner’sLeeforesights theWeb3.0asasemanticWeb,thatisa Webwheremuchofthemeaningismachine-readableand “our page51Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 liveswillbehandledbymachinestalkingtomachines.” Sundararajan andothersforesighttheWeb3.0asa environmentwherethe economyisdrivenbysharedconsensus–likeinablockchain,whereshared dataaresecureandreliableinasmuchastheyaremodification-resistant.
  52. 52. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Web 3.0 as Decentralisation BothBerner’sLee’sandSundararajan’s approachestotheWeb3.0 thinkofmovingawayfromcentralisedservices–likesocialmedia ore-commerce–thatdependonsingleorganizationstofunction. Money itself,whichwecommonlyperceiveassomethingthatonly centralbankscancreate,isinvolvedalready. Thankstoblockchainanditsdecentralizedconsensuspolicy, newcurrencies–informallyknownas“cryptocurrencies”because theirdataareencryptedandmodification-resistant –cannowbe created,whosefunctionsaremanaged bysharedconsensus. Newcoinscanbe launched,throughInitialCoinOfferings(ICOs). page52Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018
  53. 53. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Blockchain P2P Decentralisazion page53Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 Source: DHL
  54. 54. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Blockchain Accommodation Services? Apossiblefuturemightcomefrom blockchainaccommodationservices,where  hotelandfamilyaccommodation reservationsaremanagedthrough P2P connectionsand modification-resistant;  OTAsandbrokerslikeBooking.comor Airbnbarenolongerneeded;  potentialsustainabilityissuesmightbe addressed throughtheblockchain. page54Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 imagecredittoUsetheBitcoin
  55. 55. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Karl Marx page55Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 ThomasLocher, 2007. Georg KarglGallery, Vienna
  56. 56. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Today’s Key Points page56 imagecredittoid-vacation.blogspot.com Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 1. “Tourism is the management of globality” 2. Destinations Are The Places Where Tourists Go 3. Destinations Are Networks; Therefore Change In Time 4. There Are Many Different Sorts of Tourist Websites 5. Different Sorts of Tourist Websites Perform Different Tasks 6. Peer-To-Peer Travel Services Are Rising 7. The “Sharing Economy” May Be A Crowd-Based Capitalism
  57. 57. ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019ITforTourismServices,UniBg2018-2019 Thanks For Your Attention page57Destinations,Industry,P2P.Lecture03,October9,2018 Picturefrom the2017-2018Workshop

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