Somalia Deep Dive Module 1 Geography, History, Demographics 19 OCT 2011 15 th  MEU S-2 Cpl Moe, Robert B UNCLASSIFIED UNCL...
<ul><li>Somalia Colonization </li></ul><ul><li>1884, Berlin conference caused European powers to scramble for Africa </li>...
<ul><li>Early 20 th  Century </li></ul><ul><li>1925, Mussolini gave orders to seize sultanates and gain control of the cou...
<ul><li>Cold War Era </li></ul><ul><li>1960, Somalia had gained complete independence </li></ul><ul><li>1969, Siad Barre i...
<ul><li>Cold War Era </li></ul><ul><li>1976, Somalia had dissolved the SRC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a one party rule ...
Somaliland Independence 1991 Puntland Independence 1998 Disputed territory <ul><li>Somali Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Jan ...
Somaliland Independence 1991 Puntland Independence 1998 Jubaland Claimed 2010 Abwayn Governate Claimed 2011 Disputed terri...
 
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Somalia History

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History of Somalia from Colonization to present day.

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Somalia History

  1. 1. Somalia Deep Dive Module 1 Geography, History, Demographics 19 OCT 2011 15 th MEU S-2 Cpl Moe, Robert B UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  2. 2. <ul><li>Somalia Colonization </li></ul><ul><li>1884, Berlin conference caused European powers to scramble for Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired the Dervish leader, Muhammad Abdullah Hassan to rally support across the Horn of Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Began the longest colonial resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Received weapons from Ottomans, Sudan and other Islamic/Arabic countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1920, Dervish state collapsed after considerable aerial bombardment by the English </li></ul><ul><li>England, Italy and France seized territory respectively </li></ul>British Somaliland French Somaliland Italian Somaliland UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  3. 3. <ul><li>Early 20 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>1925, Mussolini gave orders to seize sultanates and gain control of the country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan was unsuccessful at first due to native unification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually the Italians seized key cities of Hobyo and Wal-Wal from anti-italian sultanates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1935, England was ready to cut their losses in British Somaliland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dervishes refused to accept any negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English and French Somaliland were so unsuccessful that Italy had dominated HoA by 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>British ousted Italian forces by April 1941 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy had organized a guerilla force with the Somalis to fight the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British let Italian nationals remain and assume public service and advisory roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed Marshall law due to Italian remnants and Dervish opposition </li></ul></ul>British Somaliland Briefly occupied by Italians and quickly forced out French Somaliland Italian Somaliland Wal-Wal Hobyo Italian Seized Territory UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  4. 4. <ul><li>Cold War Era </li></ul><ul><li>1960, Somalia had gained complete independence </li></ul><ul><li>1969, Siad Barre initiated a coup against the current, corrupt government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed the Supreme Revolutionary Council who rounded up the democratic regime, banned political parties, suspended the constitution and abolished the National Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals: end tribalism, nepotism, corruption and misrule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government was headed by military and police officers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1970, Barre declared Somalia a socialist state </li></ul><ul><li>Somalia had been aligned with communist states and was frequently accused of becoming a soviet satellite </li></ul>Internationally Recognized Borders UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cold War Era </li></ul><ul><li>1976, Somalia had dissolved the SRC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created a one party rule under the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1977, Barre launched an attack into the Ogaden Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By September the Ethiopian forces were ousted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moscow realized its goals were different from Somalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transferred military and advisor support to Ethiopia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1978, Ethiopia regained Ogaden region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barre never pressed into Ogaden again </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1982, Ethiopian and Somali rebels invade into central Somalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalyst for US military support to Somalia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1982-1991, Barre maintained his regime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used special guard force (Red Berets) to quell dissenters </li></ul></ul>Ogaden Region UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  6. 6. Somaliland Independence 1991 Puntland Independence 1998 Disputed territory <ul><li>Somali Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 26, 1991, Barre’s government was overthrown by Mohamed Farrah Aidid with the United Somali Congress </li></ul><ul><li>May 1991, Somaliland declared independence </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 3, 1992, UNSCR 794 approved a coalition of UN and US peace keepers to alleviate famine </li></ul><ul><li>March 3, 1995, UN withdrew from Somalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic Courts Union fiercely fought UN peacekeeprs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1998, Puntland declared “temporary” independence with the intent to participate in any Somali reconciliation </li></ul><ul><li>2000, Transitional National Government formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declared Bankruptcy in 2003 </li></ul></ul>UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED
  7. 7. Somaliland Independence 1991 Puntland Independence 1998 Jubaland Claimed 2010 Abwayn Governate Claimed 2011 Disputed territory <ul><li>TFG Somalia </li></ul><ul><li>2004, Transitional Federal Government was started </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2006, it’s influence was waning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US-backed intervention by Ethiopia ousted the Islamic Courts Union </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICU splintered into several different factions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Al-Shabaab was one of these that continued the insurgency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2009, AS ousted Ethiopia and other militias from power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2009, TFG and AMISOM forces launched a counter-offensive to retake Mogadishu </li></ul><ul><li>TFG has since formed alliances with reformed ICU and other organizations for reuniting Somalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also stated it will enact shari’a law as the nations official judicial system </li></ul></ul>UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED

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