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Global Value Chains and Innovation Systems: Lessons from the Wind Energy Industry in the Basque Country.

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Global Value Chains and Innovation Systems: Lessons from the Wind Energy Industry in the Basque Country.

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Global Value Chains and Innovation Systems: Lessons from the Wind Energy Industry in the Basque Country.

  1. 1. Global Value Chain and Innovation Systems: Lessons from the Wind Energy Industry in the Basque Country Aitziber Elola, M. Davide Parrilli (ORKESTRA – Basque Institute of Competitiveness) & Roberta Rabellotti (Università di Pavia) El Colegio de México - Mexico City - March 14 -15 2012
  2. 2. Motivation •Wind powerisan increasinglyimportantsource of energy: in 2010 the total installed capacity was twice that of 2007; •Europe is the traditional leader in the wind power industry but demand and supply are rapidly moving to emerging markets, with China becoming a global player; •Spainisthe fourthcountry in the world (afterChina, USA and Germany) in termsof installedcapacity; •Two global players in the wind energy industry are Gamesa(a turbine manufacturer) and Iberdrola(a utility firms in deployment). They are both located in the Basque Country, a dynamic manufacturing region with a strong presence of specialized clusters supported by a very active industrial policy. El Colegio de México -Mexico City -March 14 -15 2012
  3. 3. Aimof the study •To investigate the windenergyvaluechainsof the twoBasqueleadglobal companies with a focus on theirlocallinkages; •To investigate their innovative links with a focus on the localinnovation system; •ResearchQuestions: –How embedded are these two global leaders in the Basque local economic system? –How is the globalization of the industry affecting the spatialorganizationof their value chains? El Colegio de México -Mexico City -March 14 -15 2012
  4. 4. The changingglobal context •On the demandside, the market isshiftingfrom Europe to Asia, mainlyto China(in 2010 accountingfor halfof the global market); •On the supplyside, European(Danish, Germanand Spanish) firmsare stilldominatingthe global market buttheyare steadilylosingtheirposition asChineseand Indiancompanies are enteringthe industry: in 2010 thereare 4 Chineseand 1 Indiancompanies amongthe top tenturbine manufacturers. El Colegio de México -Mexico City -March 14 -15 2012
  5. 5. El Colegio de México -Mexico City -March 14 -15 2012
  6. 6. WhyGVC analysisisa usefulconceptualframeworkin thisstudy? •Unpacking the value chain and considering how the role played by the different stakeholders changes, it allows to investigate how power relationships are evolvingbecause of: –chain-internalreasons: supplierscan gain capabilities; –chain-externalreasons: the geographyof global market can changeover time. El Colegio de México -Mexico City -March 14 -15 2012
  7. 7. Thereare twovaluechains El Colegio de México -Mexico City -March 14 -15 2012
  8. 8. Maindeterminantsof GVC organization •Immobilityof the production of some partsof windturbinessuchasnacelles, bladesand towersand of windpark organization; •Onshorewindfarms: the technologyisratherstandardizedand competitionismainlyon costsin emergingmarketand on productivityand reliability in the Europeanmarket; •Offshore windfarms: the technologyisstillin itsinfancyand technologicalcollaborationswith suppliersare a keycompetitive driver in thissegmentof market. El Colegio de México -Mexico City -March 14 -15 2012
  9. 9. Iberdrola valuechain
  10. 10. •Iberdrolais the world top park operator in terms of installed capacity; •It is highly globalized with a presence in more 20 countries in Europe, in the US and in Latin America; •It undertakes in-house the pre-deployment and deployment stages of the chain and the sales, which are high value added activities; •It outsources the turbine manufacturing and the O&M to external suppliers such as Gamesa(70% of turbines); •With suppliers, Iberdrolamainly maintains modularrelationships when operating in onshorewind farms; •When it operates in offshorewind farms it mainly has relational linkages with suppliers because services such as transportation and O&M are key and complementary knowledge and skills are needed in this new area. Iberdrola Value Chain
  11. 11. GamesaValueChain
  12. 12. •High degree of vertical integrationwith many components produced in-house to control productivity and reliability; •Relational linkages with a small number of first-tier suppliers (many of them from the Basque country) due to customization of components for each individual project in onshore wind farms and complexity of technology in offshore wind farms ; •With the globalization of the company (e.g. 6 plants in China): –Less vertical integrated; –Modularrelations with component suppliers (cost-driven and mature technology); –Some of the European (and Basque) suppliers have followed Gamesa; –Host country component producers are increasingly involved in the chain; •In the Basque Country, there are also a large number of second and third tier suppliers, which are suffering from the shift of the market outside Spain and Europe. Gamesa Value Chain
  13. 13. •In Europe, the technological leadership is in Denmark and Germany where the main R&D research centers as well as test centers, certification organizations and other related KIBS are located ; •In theBasqueCountry thereare non specialisedtechnologicalcenters (e.g. Tecnalia, IK4) involvedinwindrelatedR&D projectstogetherwiththelead companiesand somesuppliers; •Iberdrolamaintain strong domestic (and local) innovation linkages with various partners (suppliers, universities, technological centers and busineesassociations); •Gamesahas a very global R&D strategy with technology centers in Germany and Denmark to be close where the standards are set and to gain access to these specialized innovations system; •As a whole, the lead companies and some of their local suppliers have strong in-house technological capabilities at the firm level but the local (and national) innovation system is rather weak if compared with the European competitors. TheInnovationNetworks
  14. 14. Lessonsfor LAC •In the next future, thanks to the increasing presence of China, wind energy is likely to become less expensive and more competitive with traditional sources, opening up opportunities of investments in LAC; •For developing a market, public support programs are key and the incentive structure influences how the value chain is organized (Europe vs. China); •There is space for collaboration with European lead companies that may be interested in trading technology for market access in LAC (e.g. Gamesain Brazil). This strategy is already undertaken by China (joint design and R&D collaboration, overseas R&D units); •There are important parts of the chain which are rather immobile and this means that there is space for creating domestic capacity and employment bound to the local areas of investments; •There is a key role for policy to establishfavorable framework conditions (e.g. standard settings; R&D investments, favourableinvestment framework).
  15. 15. Thank you roberta.rabellotti@unipv.it http://sites.google.com/site/robertarabellotti/home http://www.orkestra.deusto.es El Colegio de México - Mexico City - March 14 -15 2012

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